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Protein TXNRD1 PDB 1h6v.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases TXNRD1, GRIM-12, TR, TR1, TRXR1, TXNR, thioredoxin reductase 1
External IDs MGI: 1354175 HomoloGene: 55733 GeneCards: TXNRD1
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)


RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC) Chr 12: 104.22 – 104.35 Mb Chr 10: 82.86 – 82.9 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TXNRD1 gene.[3]

This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein reduces thioredoxins as well as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. The functional enzyme is thought to be a homodimer which uses FAD as a cofactor. Each subunit contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is required for catalytic activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenocysteine-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding the same or different isoforms.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Gasdaska PY, Gasdaska JR, Cochran S, Powis G (Nov 1995). "Cloning and sequencing of a human thioredoxin reductase". FEBS Lett. 373 (1): 5–9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)01003-W. PMID 7589432. 
  4. ^ "Entrez Gene: TXNRD1 thioredoxin reductase 1". 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.