T cell deficiency

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T cell deficiency
Healthy Human T Cell.jpg
Human T Cell
Classification and external resources
Specialty Immunology
ICD-10 D84.8,
ICD-9-CM 279.3

T cell deficiency is a deficiency of T cells, caused by decreased function of individual T cells, it causes an immunodeficiency of cell-mediated immunity.[1] T cells normal function is to help with the human body's immunity, they are one of the two primary types of lymphocytes(the other being B cells).[medical citation needed]

Symptoms and signs[edit]

Presentations differ among causes, but T cell insufficiency generally manifests as unusually severe common viral infections (respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus), diarrhea, and eczematous or erythrodermatous rashes.[1] Failure to thrive and cachexia are later signs of a T-cell deficiency.[1]

Mechanism[edit]

In terms of the normal mechanism of T cell we find that it is a type of white blood cell that has an important role in immunity, and is made from thymocytes [2] One sees in the partial disorder of T cells that happen due to cell signaling defects, are usually caused by hypomorphic gene defects[3] Generally, (micro)deletion of 22Q11.2 is the most often seen.[4]

Pathogens of concern[edit]

The main pathogens of concern in T cell deficiencies are intracellular pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium and Listeria.[5] Also, intracellular fungal infections are also more common and severe in T cell deficiencies.[5] Other intracellular pathogens of major concern in T cell deficiency are:

Diagnosis[edit]

The diagnosis of T cell deficiency can be ascertained in those individuals with this condition via the following:[1][7][8]

  • Delayed hypersensitivity skin test
  • T cell count
  • Detection via culture(infection)

Types[edit]

Complete or partial deficiency

Primary or secondary

Lymphoma
  • Secondary causes are more common than primary ones.[6] Secondary (or acquired) causes are mainly:[6]

Treatment[edit]

Transfused bone marrow in preparation for transplant

In terms of the management of T cell deficiency for those individuals with this condition the following can be applied:[9][1]

Epidemiology[edit]

In the U.S. this defect occurs in about 1 in 70,000, with the majority of cases presenting in early life.[1] Furthermore, SCID has an incidence of approximately 1 in 66,ooo in California[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Medscape > T-cell Disorders. Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD. Updated: May 16, 2011
  2. ^ Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts k, Walter P (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Science: New York, NY pg 1367
  3. ^ Cole, Theresa S.; Cant, Andrew J. (2010). "Clinical experience in T cell deficient patients". Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology. 6: 9. ISSN 1710-1492. PMC 2877019Freely accessible. PMID 20465788. doi:10.1186/1710-1492-6-9. 
  4. ^ Prasad, Paritosh (2013). Pocket Pediatrics: The Massachusetts General Hospital for Children Handbook of Pediatrics. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. Google books gives no page. ISBN 9781469830094. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Page 435 in: Jones, Jane; Bannister, Barbara A.; Gillespie, Stephen H. (2006). Infection: Microbiology and Management. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-2665-5. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Page 432, Chapter 22, Table 22.1 in: Jones, Jane; Bannister, Barbara A.; Gillespie, Stephen H. (2006). Infection: Microbiology and Management. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-2665-5. 
  7. ^ "T-cell count: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
  8. ^ Fried, Ari J.; Bonilla, Francisco A. (2017-05-19). "Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Primary Antibody Deficiencies and Infections". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 22 (3): 396–414. ISSN 0893-8512. PMC 2708392Freely accessible. PMID 19597006. doi:10.1128/CMR.00001-09. 
  9. ^ "Immunodeficiency (Primary and Secondary). Information.". patient.info. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
  10. ^ http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/885493-overview#a5

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]