Tabal

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Tabal

Sura?
Unknown–713 BC
Tabal among the Neo-Hittite states
Tabal among the Neo-Hittite states
Common languagesHieroglyphic Luwian
Religion
Luwian religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraIron Age
• Established
Unknown
• Disestablished
713 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Hittite empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Today part of Turkey

Tabal (c.f. biblical Tubal) was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom (and/or collection of kingdoms) of South Central Anatolia during the Iron Age. According to archaeologist Kurt Bittel, references to Tabal first appeared after the collapse of the Hittite Empire.[1] Tabal was likely an exonym applied by the Assyrians to Cappadocia.[2] While its native name is uncertain, it is possible that it was called Sura, as mentioned in the records of Yariri, ruler of Carchemish.[3]

Originally, Tabal was likely the name of a region or collection of kingdoms. However, Tabal may have later consolidated into a single kingdom, perhaps annexing, or being annexed by, the neighboring kingdom of Melid.[4]

According to Lorenzo D'alfonso, the Tabalians may have, at least partially, descended form the Nairi tribe Tuali.[5]

The Assyrian king Shalmaneser III records that he received gifts from their 24 kings in 837 BC and the following year. A century later, their king Burutash is mentioned in an inscription of king Tiglath-Pileser III. The kings of Tabal have left a number of inscriptions from the 9th-8th centuries BC in hieroglyphic-Luwian in the Turkish villages of Çalapverdi and Alişar.

During the Sargon II, Tabal entered in an alliance with the Mushki and Carchemish to counter Assyria.[6]

Toward the end of the 8th century BC, Tabal was at least partially conquered by Assyria.[7]

In 640 BC, inspired by the Cimmerians, the Tabalian king Mugallu rebelled against Ashurbanipal. However, Mugallu was defeated.[8]

Tabal and its people are often linked to the tribe of the Tibareni (Tibarenoi in Greek, Thobeles in Josephus) who lived near the Black Sea. They are mentioned in the works of Hecataeus of Miletus, Herodotus, Xenophon and Strabo. Apollonius of Rhodes, writing in the 3rd century BC, stated that the Tibarenoi were Scythians.[9] Whether there is really any connection between the Tibareni of the Black Sea coast and the Tabal kingdom of Southern Anatolia is uncertain, ancient authors may have already confused the two.

The known rulers of Tabal are:

  • Tuwati I (Assyrian Tuatti), c. 837 BC[10]
  • Kikki, son of Tuwati I, c. 837 BC[11]
  • Tuwati II, mid 8th century BC[11]
  • Wasusarmas (Assyrian Wassurme), son of Tuwati II, c. 740 - 730 BC[11]
  • Hulli, 730 - 726 BC[12]
  • Ambaris, son of Hulli, c. 721 - 713 BC[12]
  • Hidi c. 690 BC[13]
  • Iškallu c. 679 BC[14]
  • Mugallu/Mukalli c. 670,[13] 663, 651 BC[15]
  • x-ussi, son of Mugallu[15] (ca. 650[16]/640[15] BC)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kurt Bittel, Hattusha: The Kingdom of the Hittites, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970. p.133
  2. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 173. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE?fbclid=IwAR1KjKwvu_uOr5q1vbRxgs5AGPQgYEGoqhnZSzzJfOHbc1jsU0Em4jygysI
  3. ^ Zsolt Simon. "Where is the Land of Sura of the Hieroglyphic Luwian inscription KARKAMIŠ A4b and Why Were Cappadocians Called Syrians by Greeks?" Altoriental. Forsch., Akademie Verlag 39. 2012. https://www.academia.edu/1404033/Where_is_the_Land_of_Sura_of_the_Hieroglyphic_Luwian_inscription_KARKAMIŠ_A4b_and_Why_Were_Cappadocians_Called_Syrians_by_Greeks?fbclid=IwAR0AnjLKL1d5BN0XqBwtYh1sVawZAVc1RLkKuLspt9kDZ_mRALkQfBHaCHk
  4. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. pp. 183, 186. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE?fbclid=IwAR1KjKwvu_uOr5q1vbRxgs5AGPQgYEGoqhnZSzzJfOHbc1jsU0Em4jygysI
  5. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 177. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE?fbclid=IwAR1KjKwvu_uOr5q1vbRxgs5AGPQgYEGoqhnZSzzJfOHbc1jsU0Em4jygysI
  6. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 186. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE?fbclid=IwAR1KjKwvu_uOr5q1vbRxgs5AGPQgYEGoqhnZSzzJfOHbc1jsU0Em4jygysI
  7. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. pp. 182-183. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE?fbclid=IwAR1KjKwvu_uOr5q1vbRxgs5AGPQgYEGoqhnZSzzJfOHbc1jsU0Em4jygysI
  8. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 183. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE?fbclid=IwAR1KjKwvu_uOr5q1vbRxgs5AGPQgYEGoqhnZSzzJfOHbc1jsU0Em4jygysI
  9. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 185. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE?fbclid=IwAR1KjKwvu_uOr5q1vbRxgs5AGPQgYEGoqhnZSzzJfOHbc1jsU0Em4jygysI
  10. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 141-145, p. 306f.
  11. ^ a b c Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 141-145, p. 306.
  12. ^ a b Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms; A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 141-145, p. 307.
  13. ^ a b Tübinger Bibelatlas / Tübingen Bible Atlas. Siegfried Mittmann, Götz Schmitt (eds.), Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001, Map B IV 13.
  14. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms; A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 293.
  15. ^ a b c Christian Marek, Peter Frei: Geschichte Kleinasiens in der Antike. Munich 2010, p. 802.
  16. ^ Ebeling, Erich; Meissner, Bruno (1990). Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archãologie. Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Co. p. 187. ISBN 9783110104370. Retrieved 26 October 2012. Apart from this, the text recounts that x-ussi, the successor of Mugallu, king of Tabal... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

See also[edit]