Tabal

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Tabal
Sura?
Unknown–713 BC
Tabal among the Neo-Hittite states
Tabal among the Neo-Hittite states
Common languagesHieroglyphic Luwian
Religion
Luwian religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraIron Age
• Established
Unknown
• Disestablished
713 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Hittite empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Today part ofTurkey

Tabal (c.f. biblical Tubal; Assyrian: 𒋫𒁄) was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom (and/or collection of kingdoms) of South Central Anatolia during the Iron Age. According to archaeologist Kurt Bittel, references to Tabal first appeared after the collapse of the Hittite Empire.[1] Tabal was likely an exonym applied by the Assyrians to Cappadocia.[2] While its native name is uncertain, it is possible that it was called Sura, as mentioned in the records of Yariri, ruler of Carchemish.[3]

Originally, Tabal was likely the name of a region or collection of kingdoms. However, Tabal may have later consolidated into a single kingdom, perhaps annexing, or being annexed by, the neighboring kingdom of Melid.[4]

According to Lorenzo D'alfonso, the Tabalians may have, at least partially, descended from the Nairi tribe Tuali.[5]

The Assyrian king Shalmaneser III records that he received gifts from their 24 kings in 837 BC and the following year. A century later, their king Burutash is mentioned in an inscription of king Tiglath-Pileser III. The kings of Tabal have left a number of inscriptions from the 9th-8th centuries BC in hieroglyphic-Luwian in the Turkish villages of Çalapverdi and Alişar.

During the reign of Sargon II, Tabal entered in an alliance with the Mushki and Carchemish to counter Assyria.[6]

Toward the end of the 8th century BC, Tabal was at least partially conquered by Assyria.[7]

In 640 BC, inspired by the Cimmerians, the Tabalian king Mugallu rebelled against Ashurbanipal. However, Mugallu was defeated.[8]

Some have attempted to link Tabal to the tribe of the Tibareni (Tibarenoi in Greek, Thobeles in Josephus) who lived near the Black Sea.[9][10][11] According to Toumanoff, the Tabal(Tubal, Tibal, Tibar) were proto-Georgians(Kartvelians) who later migrated with the Mushki north to the Pontic region, which contributed to the formation of the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Iberia and the ancient Greeks also referred to them as the Tibareni and Moschi.[12]The Tibareni are mentioned in the works of Hecataeus of Miletus, Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo, and Apollonius of Rhodes, who stated they were Scythians.[13] On this ground, the Georgian historian Ivane Javakhishvili (1950) considered Tabal, Tubal, Jabal and Jubal to be an early Kartvelian tribal designation.

The known rulers of Tabal are:

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ivane Javakhishvili. Historical-Ethnological problems of Georgia, the Caucasus and the Near East. Tbilisi, 1950, pp. 130–135 (in Georgian)
  • Simon Janashia. Works, vol. III. Tbilisi, 1959, pp. 2–74 (in Georgian)
  • Nana Khazaradze. The Ethnopolitical entities of Eastern Asia Minor in the first half of the 1st millennium BC. Tbilisi, 1978, pp. 3–139 (in Georgian, Russian and English)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kurt Bittel, Hattusha: The Kingdom of the Hittites, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970. p.133
  2. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 173. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE
  3. ^ Zsolt Simon (2012), Where is the Land of Sura of the Hieroglyphic Luwian inscription KARKAMIŠ A4b and Why Were Cappadocians Called Syrians by Greeks? Altoriental. Forsch., Akademie Verlag 39
  4. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. pp. 183, 186. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE
  5. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 177. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE
  6. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 186. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE
  7. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. pp. 182-183. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE
  8. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 183. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE
  9. ^ WAINWRIGHT , G. A. , Tabal , Tibareni , Tabareni ( OLZ 39 , 1936)
  10. ^ Stephen H. Rapp, Paul Crego (2018)Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Georgian The Worlds of Eastern Christianity, 300-1500 Routledge,(ISBN 1351923269, 9781351923262) 432 pages
  11. ^ Flavius Josephus (AD 93) The Antiquities of the Jews
  12. ^ Toumanoff, Cyril (1963). Studies in Christian Caucasian History. Georgetown University Press. p. 56.
  13. ^ Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 185. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE
  14. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 141-145, p. 306f.
  15. ^ a b c Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 141-145, p. 306.
  16. ^ a b Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms; A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 141-145, p. 307.
  17. ^ a b Tübinger Bibelatlas / Tübingen Bible Atlas. Siegfried Mittmann, Götz Schmitt (eds.), Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001, Map B IV 13.
  18. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms; A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 293.
  19. ^ a b c Christian Marek, Peter Frei: Geschichte Kleinasiens in der Antike. Munich 2010, p. 802.
  20. ^ Ebeling, Erich; Meissner, Bruno (1990). Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archãologie. Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Co. p. 187. ISBN 9783110104370. Retrieved 26 October 2012. Apart from this, the text recounts that x-ussi, the successor of Mugallu, king of Tabal...

See also[edit]