Tabernanthe iboga

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Iboga
Tabernanthe iboga MS 4098.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Tabernanthe
Species:
T. iboga
Binomial name
Tabernanthe iboga

Tabernanthe iboga (iboga) is a perennial rainforest shrub native to Central Africa. An evergreen bush indigenous to Gabon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Republic of Congo, it is cultivated across Central Africa.

In African traditional medicine and rituals, the yellowish root or bark is used to produce hallucinations and near-death outcomes, with some fatalities occurring.[3][4] Preliminary research indicates that ibogaine, an alkaloid constituent of iboga roots and bark, has potential for treating addiction to opioids and other substances of abuse.[4] In high doses, ibogaine is considered to be toxic, and has caused serious comorbidities when used with opioids or prescription drugs.[3][5] The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) lists ibogaine as a controlled substance of the Controlled Substances Act.[3]

Description[edit]

Iboga is native to tropical forests, preferring moist soil in partial shade.[3] It bears dark green, narrow leaves and clusters of white tubular flowers on an erect and branching stem, with yellow-orange fruits resembling an olive.[3]

Normally growing to a height of 2 m, T. iboga may eventually grow into a small tree up to 10 m tall, given the right conditions. The flowers are yellowish-white or pink and followed by a fruit, orange at maturity, that may be either globose or fusiform. Its yellow-fleshed roots contain a number of indole alkaloids, most notably ibogaine, which is found in the highest concentration in the root-bark. The root material, bitter in taste, causes a degree of anaesthesia in the mouth as well as systemic numbness of the skin.[6]

Taxonomy[edit]

Henri Ernest Baillon, publisher of the name Tabernanthe iboga.

Publication of binomial[edit]

Tabernanthe iboga was described by Henri Ernest Baillon and published in Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Paris 1: 783 in the year 1889.

Etymology[edit]

The genus name Tabernanthe is a compound of the Latin taberna, "tavern"/"hut"/"(market) stall" and Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" – giving a literal meaning of "tavern flower". On the other hand, it may equally well have been intended (by way of a type of botanical shorthand) to mean "having a flower resembling that of plants belonging to the genus Tabernaemontana " (q.v.). If the first conjecture is the correct one, the name could also have been intended to suggest that the plant is cultivated near huts, sold at market stalls or even that – like the beverages sold at a tavern – the plant is intoxicating, all of which alternatives would constitute apt descriptions of an oft-cultivated and popular psychoactive plant. The specific name iboga is simply one of a number of similar names given to the plant in its native Gabon.[7]

History[edit]

The first (probable...and confused) reference to Iboga is that of Bowdich in chapter 13 of his "Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee..." of 1819

The Eroga, a favourite but violent medicine,is no doubt a fungus, for they describe it as growing on a tree called the Ocamboo, when decaying ; they burn it first, and take as much as would lay on a shilling.

If this is indeed a reference to the drug derived from Tabernanthe iboga (Eroga appears to be a variant form of the names iboga and eboka) it is, of course, grossly in error in its assumption that iboga is not a plant but a fungus. Notable however is the observation of the potency of the drug – effective in small quantities. The description of the plant as growing on a tree is puzzling: Tabernanthe iboga does not usually grow as an epiphyte – if at all.[8][9]

The ritual use of iboga in Africa was first reported by French and Belgian explorers in the 19th century, beginning with the work of French naval surgeon and explorer of Gabon Griffon du Bellay,[10] who identified it correctly as a shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae – as recorded in a short essay by Charles Eugène Aubry-Lecomte on the plant poisons of West Africa, published in the year 1864.

Parmi les plantes rares ou nouvelles rapportées par le docteur Griffon du Bellay, la famille des apocynées contient encore deux poisons; l'un, nommé iboga, n'est toxique qu'à hautes doses et a l'état frais. Pris en petit quantité, il est aphrodisiaque et stimulante du systeme nerveux; les guerriers et chasseurs en font grand usage pour se tenir éveillés dans les affûts de nuit; de même que pour le M'boundou, le principe actif réside dans la racine qu'on mâche comme la coca.

[ Translation: Among the rare or new plants brought back by Dr. Griffon du Bellay, the plant family Apocynaceae contains two further poisons; the first of these, called Iboga, is only toxic in high doses and in the fresh state. Taken in small quantities, it is an aphrodisiac and stimulant of the (central) nervous system; warriors and hunters make considerable use of it in order to stay awake during their night vigils; as with the (plant) M'boundou, the active principle (of Iboga) resides in the root which is chewed like coca (leaf) ].[11]

Chemistry[edit]

Indole alkaloids, which make up about 6% of the root chemical composition of iboga,[3] include:

Traditional use[edit]

Bark of Tabernanthe iboga. According to users in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, only 3 grams of shredded bark are required for a single dosage, or cup.

The Iboga tree is central to the Bwiti spiritual practices in West-Central Africa, mainly Gabon, Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo, where the alkaloid-containing roots or bark are used in various ceremonies to create a near-death experience.[3] Iboga is taken in massive doses by initiates of this spiritual practice, and on a more regular basis is eaten in smaller doses in connection with rituals and tribal dances performed at night. Bwitists have been subject to persecution by Catholic missionaries.[3] Léon M'ba, before becoming the first President of Gabon in 1960, defended the Bwiti religion and the use of iboga in French colonial courts. In 2000, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Gabon declared Tabernanthe iboga to be a national treasure.[12]

In lower doses, iboga has a stimulant effect and is used to maintain alertness while hunting.[13][14]

Addiction treatment[edit]

Anecdotal reports of self-treated opioid addicts indicated a reduced desire to sustain opiate abuse following iboga ingestion.[3] Since 1970, iboga has been legally prohibited in the United States following several fatalities.[3][4] Preliminary research for the potential use of ibogaine in the treatment of opioid dependence is ongoing in the 21st century, with several clinics using ibogaine in Western countries, Panama, and Caribbean islands.[3] Iboga extracts, as well as the purified alkaloid ibogaine, have attracted attention because of their purported ability to reverse addiction to drugs such as alcohol and opiates.[3] Ibogaine is a k-opioid agonist which may be the mechanism for how it affects opiate withdrawal symptoms.[4]

Ibogaine is classified as a schedule 1 controlled substance in the United States, and is not approved there for addiction treatment (or any other therapeutic use) because of its hallucinogenic and cardiovascular side effects, as well as the absence of safety and efficacy data in human subjects.[3][5] In most other countries, it remains unregulated and unlicensed.[15]

Independent ibogaine treatment clinics have emerged in Mexico, Canada, the Netherlands, South Africa, and New Zealand, all operating in what has been described as a "legal gray area".[15][16] Covert, illegal neighborhood clinics are also known to exist in the United States, despite active DEA surveillance.[14] Addiction specialists warn that the treatment of drug dependence with ibogaine in non-medical settings, without expert supervision and unaccompanied by appropriate psychosocial care, can be dangerous – and, in approximately one case in 300, potentially fatal.[3][16]

Legal status[edit]

Iboga is outlawed or restricted in Belgium, Poland, Denmark, Croatia, France,[17] Sweden, and Switzerland. In the United States, ibogaine is classified by the Controlled Substances Act on the list of schedule I drugs,[3] although the plant itself remains unscheduled.

Non-profit organization Föreningen för hollistisk missbruksvård is trying to convince the Swedish government to start up clinical investigations of its anti-addictive properties, loosen up the prohibition law against ibogaine, and allow the creation of treatment facilities in Sweden.[18]

Exportation of iboga from Gabon is illegal since the passage of a 1994 cultural protection law.[19]

Shredded bark of Tabernanthe iboga for consumption. Contains ibogaine.

Conservation status[edit]

While little data is available on the exploitation and existing habitat of the iboga plant, the destructive effects of harvesting and slow growth could have already severely damaged the wild iboga population.[20]

Documentary films about iboga[edit]

Iboga, les hommes du bois sacré (2002)
In this French-language film, Gilbert Kelner documents modern Bwiti practices and Babongo perspectives on iboga.[21] Odisea broadcast a Spanish-dubbed version titled Los hombres de la madera ("The Men of the Wood").[22]
Ibogaine: Rite of Passage (2004)
Directed by Ben Deloenen.[23] A 34-year-old heroin addict undergoes ibogaine treatment with Dr Martin Polanco at the Ibogaine Association, a clinic in Rosarito Mexico. Deloenen interviews people formerly addicted to heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine, who share their perspectives about ibogaine treatment. In Gabon, a Babongo woman receives iboga root for her depressive malaise. Deloenen visually contrasts this Western, clinical use of ibogaine with the Bwiti use of iboga root bark, but emphasizes the Western context.[24]
"Babongo" (2005)
In this episode (series 1, episode 4) of the English documentary series Tribe, presenter Bruce Parry ingests iboga during his time with the Babongo. BBC 2 aired the episode on January 25, 2005.[25]
"Dosed" (2019)
This documentary depicte the battle of an opioid addict against her addiction through psychedelic and iboga treatments.
"Synthetic Ibogaine – Natural Tramadol" (2021)
In this episode (series 3, episode 4) of the American documentary series Hamilton's Pharmacopeia, presenter Hamilton Morris joins an Iboga ceremony in Gabon and later interviews Chris Jenks who shows a method to produce Ibogoine from Voacanga africana.[26]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tabernanthe iboga Baill". Plants of the World Online. The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. n.d. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  2. ^ "Tabernanthe iboga Baill". World Flora Online. The World Flora Online Consortium. n.d. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Iboga". Drugs.com. January 23, 2019. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Koenig, Xaver; Hilber, Karlheinz (January 29, 2015). "The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation". Molecules. 20 (2): 2208–2228. doi:10.3390/molecules20022208. ISSN 1420-3049. PMC 4382526. PMID 26807959.
  5. ^ a b c "Ibogaine". ToxNet, National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. September 4, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  6. ^ Schultes, Richard Evans; Hofmann, Albert (1979). The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens (2nd ed.). Springfield Illinois: Charles C. Thomas.
  7. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2012). CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Vol. V, T-Z. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group. p. 493.
  8. ^ Bowdich, Thomas Edward, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, with a statistical account of that kingdom, and geographical notices of other parts of the interior of Africa Chap. XIII. — "Sketch of Gaboon, and its Interior", page 422.
  9. ^ Furst, Peter T. (ed.) Flesh of the Gods: The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens, pub. George Allen & Unwin 1972 Copyright 1972 by Praeger Publishers , Inc. (Chapters 6 and 7 copyright 1972 by R. Gordon Wasson), ISBN 0 04 573009 1, Chapter 9, "Tabernanthe iboga: Narcotic Ecstasis and the Work of the Ancestors" by James W. Fernandez, Page 237.
  10. ^ http://ecole.nav.traditions.free.fr/officiers_griffon_theophile.htm Retrieved at 12.26 on 8/1/21
  11. ^ Aubry-Lecomte, Charles Eugène, "Note sur quelque poisons de la côte occidentale d'Afrique", Revue Maritime et Coloniale, vol. XII, 1864.
  12. ^ "Iboga Culture, Tradition & Modern Therapeutic Uses | Psychedelic Times". June 2, 2020. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  13. ^ McGown, Jay (2006). "Out of Africa: Mysteries of Access and Benefit Sharing" (PDF). Edmonds Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 24, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  14. ^ a b Hunter, Aina (December 13, 2005). "Busted for Iboga". Village Voice. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  15. ^ a b Hegarty, S. (April 13, 2012). Can a hallucinogen from Africa cure addiction? BBC News archive. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Ibogaine therapy for drug addiction". Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. 2019. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  17. ^ "Arrêté du 12 mars 2007 modifiant l'arrêté du 22 février 1990 fixant la liste des substances classées comme stupéfiants" [Decree of 12 March 2007 amending the Decree of 22 February 1990 establishing the list of substances classified as narcotics]. admi.net (in French). 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  18. ^ "ibogain.se – Föreningen för Holistisk missbruksvård" (in Swedish). Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  19. ^ "Loi n°2/94 du 23 décembre 1994 portant sur la protection des biens culturels" [Law No. 2/94 of 23 December 1994 on the protection of cultural property]. African Archaeology (in French). 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  20. ^ Tonye, Mahop Marcelin; et al. (March 2000). "State of Knowledge Study on Tabernanthe Iboga Baillon: A Report For The Central African Regional Program For The Environment" (PDF). Limbe Botanic Garden. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  21. ^ L' Iboga, Les Hommes du Bois Sacré, retrieved June 2, 2020
  22. ^ "Iboga, los Hombres de la Madera Sagrada [Documental]". Vimeo. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  23. ^ Ibogaine: Rite of Passage (2004) at IMDb
  24. ^ IBOGAINE – Rite of Passage (Full Documentary), retrieved June 2, 2020
  25. ^ Tribe series 1, episode 4: "Babongo" (2005) at IMDb
  26. ^ [https://www.imdb.com/title/tt14099132/ Hamilton's Pharmacopeia series 3, episode 4: "Synethetic Ibogaine-Natural Tramadol " (2021)] at IMDb

External links[edit]