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Table of keyboard shortcuts

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In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a sequence or combination of keystrokes on a computer keyboard which invokes commands in software.

Most keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously (indicated in the tables below by the + sign). Keyboard shortcuts may depend on the keyboard layout.

Comparison of keyboard shortcuts[edit]

Keyboard shortcuts are a common aspect of most modern operating systems and associated software applications. Their use is pervasive enough that some users consider them an important element of their routine interactions with a computer. Whether used as a matter of personal preference or for adaptive technology, the pervasiveness of common conventions means that a meaningful comparison of keyboard shortcuts can be made across various widely used operating systems.

General shortcuts[edit]

Many shortcuts (such as Ctrl+Z, Alt+E, etc.) are just common conventions and are not handled by the operating system. Whether such commands are implemented (or not) depends on how an actual application program (such as an editor) is written and the frameworks used. Not all applications/frameworks follow (all of) these conventions, so if it doesn't work, it isn't compatible.

Some of the combinations are not true for localized versions of operating systems. For example, in a non-English version of Windows, the Edit menu is not always bound to the E shortcut.

Some software (such as KDE) allow their shortcuts to be changed, and the below list contains the defaults.

Action Windows macOS[notes 1] Linux Emacs Vim ChromeOS
File menu Alt+F, or F10 then F Ctrl+F2, then F[notes 2] Alt+F Meta+`, then f Alt+f (gvim)

or Ctrl+e (vim + NERDTree)

Edit menu Alt+E Ctrl+F2, then E[notes 2] Alt+E Meta+`, then e Alt+e (gvim)
View menu Alt+V Ctrl+F2, then V[notes 2] Alt+V
Undo the last operation Ctrl+Z, or
Alt+← Backspace
⌘ Cmd+Z Ctrl+Z Ctrl+x, then u or

Ctrl+/ or
Ctrl+_ or

u Ctrl+Z
Redo the last operation Ctrl+Y, or Alt+Shift+Backspace ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Z Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Z, or Ctrl+Y
Same as undo, when undo is exhausted, it redoes. Move the cursor after one or more undos, and further undos will be redos.

Since version 28, also Ctrl+?

or Ctrl+Alt+_.
Ctrl+r Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Z
Cut the selection and store it in the clipboard Ctrl+X, or ⇧ Shift+Del ⌘ Cmd+X Ctrl+X Ctrl+w x

or "ax to cut in register "a" or "+x to cut in system clipboard

Copy the selection into the clipboard Ctrl+C, or Ctrl+Ins ⌘ Cmd+C Ctrl+C Meta+w, or Ctrl+Ins y

or "ay or "+y

Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Ctrl+V,or ⇧ Shift+Ins ⌘ Cmd+V Ctrl+V Ctrl+y, or ⇧ Shift+Ins p

or "ap to paste the content of the "a" register or "+p to paste the content of the system clipboard

Paste special ⊞ Win+V Shift+Opt+Cmd+V Ctrl+⇧ Shift+V Meta+y Ctrl+⇧ Shift+V Search+V
Select all in focused control or window Ctrl+A ⌘ Cmd+A Ctrl+A Ctrl+x, then h ggVG, unlikely ever needed as most commands take an optional range parameter. % means "all in focused windows" here so e.g. to copy all the text, use :%y Ctrl+A
Cycle through installed keyboard languages / input methods Alt+⇧ Shift, Ctrl+⇧ Shift, ⊞ Win+Space, ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+Space

Alt+⇧ Shift changes between languages while Ctrl+⇧ Shift changes between keyboard layouts of the same language. The latter two display a menu with the currently selected input method highlighted, and debuted in Windows 8. ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+Space goes through the list backwards. For the first two shortcuts going backwards is done by using the right ⇧ Shift key instead of the left.

⌘ Cmd+Space

(not MBR)

Configure desired keypress in Keyboard and Mouse Preferences, Keyboard Shortcuts, Select the next source in Input menu.[1]

Ctrl+Alt+K via KDE Keyboard

Alt+⇧ Shift in GNOME

Ctrl+\ Ctrl+Space
Print Ctrl+P ⌘ Cmd+P Ctrl+P Ctrl+P
Open Help Menu F1 in GNOME Ctrl+Alt+/
Windows Mobility Center Windows 7: ⊞ Win+x

Windows 10:
⊞ Win+x then b

PowerUser (WinX) Menu Windows 10: ⊞ Win+x
Restart Video Driver Windows 10: Ctrl+⇧ Shift+⊞ Win+B[2][3]

System navigation[edit]

Action Windows macOS[notes 1] Linux ChromeOS
Lock desktop ⊞ Win+L[4] Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+Q[5] (macOS High Sierra and greater)
or Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Eject or MBR Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Pwr

(If "Require password after sleep or screen saver" is enabled in "System Preferences — Security & Privacy")

Super+L (GNOME)[6] or Ctrl+Alt+L Search+L
Log out user ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Q Ctrl+Alt+Delete Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Q (Twice)
Switch active user ⊞ Win+L[notes 3]
Applications menu ⊞ Win or
Ctrl+F2, then "n"[notes 2] Super or
Run application ⊞ Win, enter executable name or

⊞ Win+R, enter executable name

⌘ Cmd+Space, enter executable name or ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+F2, enter executable name
Search ⊞ Win, enter executable name or
⊞ Win+S or F3
⌘ Cmd+Space Search
Show desktop ⊞ Win+D F11 Ctrl+Alt+D
Access SysTray ⊞ Win+B ⇧ Shift+Alt+S
Switch window (next/previous) Alt+Tab ↹ /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Tab ↹

⌘ Cmd+Tab ↹ /

⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹
(While in app switching window, ⌘ Cmd+` can be used to select backward, ⌘ Cmd+1 can be used to view selected app's windows)

Alt+Tab ↹ /

Alt+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹

Hold Alt, then quickly press Tab ↹
Switch window without dialog (next/previous) Alt+Esc /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Esc

Only works within single Applications

⌘ Cmd+` / ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+`

Task manager Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Esc,
Ctrl+Alt+Delete[notes 4]
⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+Esc
(summons "Force Quit Applications" window)
File manager ⊞ Win+E Super+F ⇧ Shift+Alt+M
New folder Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+N Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N Ctrl+E
Rename object F2 ↵ Enter[notes 5] or F2 F2 Ctrl+↵ Enter
Show hidden files Alt+V, then H, then H again, while in File Explorer, will toggle setting ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+., while in Finder, will toggle setting Ctrl+H, Alt+. in KDE Ctrl+.

Power management[edit]

Action Windows macOS Linux ChromeOS
Place computer into sleep/standby mode Windows 10: ⊞ Win+xus

Windows 7: ⊞ Win+++↵ Enter

Sleep (available on some keyboards)

⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+Eject Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel ➢ Power Options ➢ Advanced tab dialog box)
Shut down computer Windows 10: ⊞ Win+xuu Ctrl+⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+Eject

(no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+PageDown

(KDE; no confirmation, shutdown is immediate) (GNOME; there is no default shortcut)[6]

Power (Hold for 10 seconds)
Restart computer Windows 10: ⊞ Win+xur
Windows 7: ⊞ Win++++↵ Enter
Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+Eject[7] or Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+Power

(no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+PageUp

(KDE; no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Place display in sleep mode Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Eject where is lined
Bring up power/sleep dialog box Ctrl+Eject
Force shutdown Power (Hold for several seconds) ⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+Eject refresh+power


Action Windows macOS Linux ChromeOS
Save screenshot of entire screen as file ⊞ Win+Print Screen ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+3[8] Print Screen[9] Ctrl+Show Windows
Copy screenshot of entire screen to clipboard ⊞ Win+Print Screen or Print Screen Ctrl+⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+3 Ctrl+Print Screen Ctrl+Show Windows
Copy screenshot of active window to clipboard Alt+Print Screen Ctrl+Alt+Print Screen
Save screenshot of window as file ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+4 then Space then move mouse and click Alt+Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME[9] Ctrl+Alt+Show Windows then move mouse and click
Copy screenshot of window to clipboard Ctrl+⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+4 then Space then move mouse and click Alt+Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME[9] Ctrl+Alt+Show Windows then move mouse and click
Save screenshot of arbitrary area as file ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+4 then click+drag mouse over required area ⇧ Shift+Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME[9] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Show Windows then click+drag mouse over required area
Copy screenshot of arbitrary area to clipboard (Snip) Windows 10: ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+S Ctrl+⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+4 then click+drag mouse over required area ⇧ Shift+Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME[9] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Show Windows then click+drag mouse over required area
Screencasting Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+R[10][11] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Show Windows then select the Screen Record button on the toolbar
Screenshot Utility ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+5[12] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Show Windows

Text editing[edit]

Many of these commands may be combined with ⇧ Shift to select a region of text.[13][14][notes 6]

In macOS, holding ⌘ Command while dragging mouse can be used to invert selection, and holding ⌥ Option can be used to select by rectangular area in some apps. (These two functionalities may be combined).

In macOS, the default text editing keyboard shortcuts in Cocoa text views can be overridden and new custom shortcuts can be created, by creating and editing related configuration files.[15][notes 7]

Action Windows macOS[notes 1] Linux Emacs Vim ChromeOS
Delete char to the right of cursor Del or

Fn+← Backspace

Del or

Fn+← Backspace or

Del Ctrl+d x Alt+← Backspace or Search+← Backspace or Del
Delete word to the right of cursor Ctrl+Del ⌥ Opt+Del or

⌥ Opt+Fn+← Backspace

Ctrl+Del Meta+d dw
(delete space too)or

de (keep space)

Ctrl+Search+← Backspace
Delete word to the left of cursor Ctrl+← Backspace ⌥ Opt+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace or

Meta+← Backspace

(delete space too)or

db (keep space)

Ctrl+← Backspace
Go to start of line Home or


⌘ Cmd+
(go to start of line)

(go to start of paragraph)

Home Ctrl+a or


(go to first non-space) or
(go to column 0)
Go to end of line End or


⌘ Cmd+
(go to end of line)

(go to end of paragraph)

End Ctrl+e


$ Search+
Go to start of document Ctrl+Home ⌘ Cmd+ Ctrl+Home Meta+< or


gg Ctrl+Search+
Go to end of document Ctrl+End ⌘ Cmd+ Ctrl+End Meta+> or


G Ctrl+Search+
Go to previous word Ctrl+ or


⌥ Opt+ or

Ctrl+⌥ Opt+B

Ctrl+ Meta+b or

Ctrl+ or

b or
Go to next word Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ or

Ctrl+⌥ Opt+F

Ctrl+ Meta+f or

Ctrl+ or

w or e Ctrl+
Go to previous line or
Ctrl+p or k or
Go to next line or
Ctrl+n or j or
Go to previous line break (paragraph) Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+
(kword or GNOME)
Meta+( or Control+ ( Ctrl+
Go to next line break Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+
(kword or GNOME)
Meta+} or
) Ctrl+
Move the cursor down the length of the viewport Page Down ⌥ Opt+PageDn or

⌥ Opt+Fn+ or

Page Down Ctrl+v or

Page Down

Ctrl+f or

Page Down

Move the cursor up the length of the viewport Page Up ⌥ Opt+PageUp or

⌥ Opt+Fn+

Page Up Meta+v or

Page Up

Ctrl+b or

Page Up

Find Ctrl+F ⌘ Cmd+F

⌘ Cmd+E
(search with current selection)


Ctrl+K (GNOME; interactive search)

Ctrl+s / Ctrl+F
Go to next search result F3 ⌘ Cmd+G Ctrl+G (GNOME) or

F3 (KDE)[16]

Ctrl+s n Ctrl+G or ↵ Enter
Go to previous search result ⇧ Shift+F3 ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+G Ctrl+⇧ Shift+G (GNOME) or

⇧ Shift+F3 (KDE)[16]

Ctrl+r N Ctrl+⇧ Shift+G or ⇧ Shift+↵ Enter
Search and replace Ctrl+H ⌘ Cmd+F Ctrl+H (GNOME) or

Ctrl+R (KDE)

Meta+% %s/fosh/fish/gc[notes 8] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+H
Search with a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+s All searches use regular expressions.
Search and replace with a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+%
Emoji Picker ⊞ Win+. or
⊞ Win+;
Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+Space Search+⇧ Shift+Space

Text formatting[edit]

Action Windows WordPad macOS[notes 1] Linux[17] Emacs Vim
Bold Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+B Ctrl+B Meta+o, then b
Underline Ctrl+U ⌘ Cmd+U Ctrl+U Meta+o, then u
Italic Ctrl+I ⌘ Cmd+I Ctrl+I Meta+o, then i
Uppercase / Lowercase Ctrl+⇧ Shift+A ⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+C ⇧ Shift+F3 Meta+u for upper,

Meta+l for lower, Meta+c for capitalized.

gU for upper, gu for lower, ~ to toggle.
Superscript Ctrl+⇧ Shift+= Ctrl+⌘ Cmd++ (some applications only) Ctrl+⇧ Shift+P[18]
Subscript Ctrl+= Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+- (some applications only) Ctrl+⇧ Shift+B[18]
Selected text larger/smaller Ctrl+>, Ctrl+<

Ctrl+[, Ctrl/core+]

⌘ Cmd++
⌘ Cmd+-
Selected text Bullets or Numbered Items Ctrl+⇧ Shift+L
Insert Linebreak/Newline Ctrl+↵ Enter ⇧ Shift+↵ Enter[notes 5]

Ctrl+↵ Enter
⌥ Opt+↵ Enter[notes 5]
(may be able to skip some editor defined input processing)

Ctrl+↵ Enter
Insert Unicode Alt+X + character codepoint ⌥ Opt + character codepoint
("Unicode Hex Input" must be added and active as current input source)
Ctrl+⇧ Shift+U + character codepoint Ctrl+v+u + character codepoint Ctrl+X+8 + character codepoint

Browsers / Go menu[edit]

Action Windows macOS Linux ChromeOS
Go to Address Bar Ctrl+L / F6 / Alt+D, Alt+C or Alt+E
depending on language
⌘ Cmd+L or ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+G Ctrl+L or Alt+D or F6 Ctrl+L or Alt+D
Go to the previous location in history[19] Alt+ or ← Backspace ⌘ Cmd+[ or ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+ Alt+
Go to the next location in history Alt+ or ⇧ Shift+← Backspace (web browser only) ⌘ Cmd+] or ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+ Alt+
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchy Alt+ (Vista, 7, 8 or 10 only) or ← Backspace (Windows Explorer) ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the starting page defined by the user or application Alt+Home ⌘ Cmd+Home Ctrl+Home (KDE) /

Alt+Home (GNOME)


Web browsers[edit]

Action Windows macOS Linux Emacs-w3m Vimperator ChromeOS
Bookmarks menu Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+B


Alt+B v :bmarks Ctrl+⇧ Shift+B
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .com) Ctrl+↵ Enter ⌘ Cmd+↵ Enter[notes 5] (Firefox) or

Ctrl+↵ Enter[notes 5] (Chrome)

Ctrl+↵ Enter Ctrl+↵ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .org) ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+↵ Enter[notes 5] (Firefox) Ctrl+⇧ Shift+↵ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .net) ⇧ Shift+↵ Enter[notes 5] (Firefox) ⇧ Shift+↵ Enter
Add bookmark for current page Ctrl+D ⌘ Cmd+D Ctrl+B /


a :bmark Ctrl+D
Add bookmark for current link Meta+a
Manage bookmarks Ctrl+⇧ Shift+O (Microsoft Edge)
Ctrl+B (Internet Explorer)
⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+B (Chrome/Safari) or

⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+B (Firefox)

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R /


Ctrl+⇧ Shift+O
Focus and select Web search bar Ctrl+E ⌘ Cmd+E (Opera) or

⌘ Cmd+K (Firefox) or
⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+F (Safari/Chrome)

Ctrl+k t (open in a new tab) or
T (open in current tab)
Ctrl+E or Ctrl+K
Focus and select address bar Ctrl+L or

F6 or

⌘ Cmd+L Ctrl+L or

Alt+D or

g O to alter URL,
use y to copy it.
Ctrl+L or Alt+D
Refresh a webpage Fn+F5 or


⌘ Cmd+R F5 or


R r or Ctrl+R
Refresh a webpage ignoring cache Ctrl+F5 or

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R

⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+E then ⌘ Cmd+R Ctrl+⇧ Shift+F5 or Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R R Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R
Open a new window Ctrl+N ⌘ Cmd+N
(Chrome, hold shift to open new window in Incognito)
Ctrl+N :winopen Ctrl+N
Zoom Options
(zoom in /
zoom out /
zoom 100%)
Ctrl++ /

Ctrl+- /

⌘ Cmd++ /

⌘ Cmd+- /
⌘ Cmd+0

Ctrl++ /

Ctrl+- /

zi / zo / zz (text only)

or zI / zO / zZ (text and images)

Ctrl++ /

Ctrl+- /

Tab management[edit]

Action Windows macOS Linux Emacs-w3m Vimperator ChromeOS
New tab Ctrl+T ⌘ Cmd+T Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N or

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T or

Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+t t Ctrl+T
Close tab Ctrl+W ⌘ Cmd+W Ctrl+W Firefox[20] & Opera[21] & Chrome[22] & GNOME Web[23] & Midori

Ctrl+F4 Firefox[20] & Opera[21] & Chrome[22]

d Ctrl+W
Close all tabs but the current one ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+T (Safari) Ctrl+c, then Meta+w
Go to next tab Ctrl+Tab ↹ Ctrl+Tab ↹ or

⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+ (Safari)

Ctrl+PageDown or

Ctrl+Tab ↹ or

Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+n gt Ctrl+Tab ↹
Go to previous tab Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ or

⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+ (Safari)

Ctrl+PageUp or

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹

Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+p gT Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹
Go to tab-n[notes 9] Ctrl+n[notes 9]
(Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer)
⌘ Cmd+n[notes 9] (Chrome) Alt+n[notes 9] (Chrome, Firefox) or

Ctrl+n[notes 9] (Chrome)

First tab: g0

Last tab: g$

Go to last tab Ctrl+9
(Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer)
⌘ Cmd+9 (Chrome) Alt+9 (Chrome, Firefox) or

Ctrl+9 (Chrome)

Move a tab to the left[notes 9] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Page Up
(Chrome, Firefox)
Move a tab to the right[notes 9] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Page Down
(Chrome, Firefox)
Open a previously closed tab Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+T
(Firefox, Opera, Chrome)
Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T

(Firefox, Opera, Chrome)[22][20][21]

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T (Firefox)[20] u Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T
Open a previously closed window Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N (Firefox)[20] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T
Close the current internet tab Ctrl+W ⌘ Cmd+F11 Ctrl+W

Window management[edit]

Action Windows macOS[notes 1] KDE GNOME Emacs ChromeOS
Force window mode (Application requires functionality for set action) 0+↵ Enter ⌥ Opt+Alt+↵ Enter[notes 5] or ⌥ Option+Alt+F or ⌘ Cmd+F or ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Option+F
Pop up window menu Alt+Space Alt+F3 Alt+Space Meta+`, then b
Close the focused window Alt+F4 or Alt+Space then C[notes 10] ⌘ Cmd+W Alt+F4 Alt+F4 Ctrl+x, then k Ctrl+W
Close all windows of current application ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+W Ctrl+⇧ Shift+W
Restore the focused window to its previous size Alt+Space then R[notes 10] Alt+F3 then X Alt+F5 Ctrl+x, then r, then j, then letter of the window state register.
Move the focused window Alt+Space then M[notes 10] then Arrow Keys and ↵ Enter (to save new location) Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F3 then M then Arrow Keys

Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F7 then Arrow Keys

Resize the focused window Alt+Space then S[notes 10] then Arrow Keys and ↵ Enter (to save new size) Alt+F3 then S then Arrow Keys Alt+F8 then Arrow Keys / Alt+Right Mouse Button[notes 11] Ctrl+x, then ^ vertically Alt+] (snap window to right half of screen), Alt+[ (snap window to left half of screen)
Keep window always on top Ctrl+Alt+Esc (toggles on/off)
Hide the focused window ⌘ Cmd+H Meta+x, then bury-buffer, then ↵ Enter
Hide all except the focused window ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Option+H
Put the focused window furthest back (in tab order and Z axis) Alt+Esc
Minimize the focused window Alt+Space then N[notes 10] or ⊞ Win+ (Windows Vista Home Premium, Windows 7+) ⌘ Cmd+M Alt+F3 then N Alt+F9 Meta+x, then bury-buffer, then ↵ Enter Alt+-
Maximize the focused window Alt+Space then X[notes 10] or ⊞ Win+ (Windows 7+) ⌘ Cmd+L Alt+F3 then X Alt+F10 Ctrl+x, then 1 Alt
Maximize horizontally Available, but no default Available, but no default
Maximize vertically ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+ (Windows 7+) Available ('Zoom'), but no default Available, but no default Available, but no default
Minimize all ⊞ Win+M or ⊞ Win+D ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Minimize all non focused windows ⊞ Win+Home (Windows 7+) Available, but no default
Undo minimize all ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Switch fullscreen/normal size F11 or ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+↵ Enter (UWP apps only) ⌘ Cmd+Ctrl+F or
F11 F11 Fullscreen
Show the window in full screen mode, with no border, menubar, toolbar or statusbar Depends on application, system default: ⌘ Cmd+Ctrl+F and
Ctrl+⇧ Shift+F Ctrl+F11
Rollup/down window Available, but no default Alt+F12
Show all open windows ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ F3 or

F9 or Fn+F9 or Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[24][25]

⊞ Win works per desktop on Gnome 3+ Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b Show Windows
Show all windows of current application ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ Ctrl+F3 or

F10 or Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[24][25]

Ctrl+` Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all workspaces ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ (Windows 10) F8 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[24][25]

⊞ Win then mouse over the desktop bar on the right edge of the screen Show Windows
Move window to left/right/up/down workspace ⊞ Win+/ (Windows 7+) Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+ / / / ⇧ Shift+Search+[/]
Move window between multiple monitors ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+/ (Windows 7+) Alt+Search+M
Move window to workspace n Available, but no default
Switch to next/previous workspace list Available, but no default
Go to workspace n Ctrl+n Ctrl+Fn ⇧ Shift+Search+n
Go to left/right/up/down workspace [notes 12] Ctrl+ /

Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.5 to 10.6), Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.7 and later)

Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+ /

/ /

Quit application of current window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies[notes 13] ⌘ Cmd+Q[notes 14] Ctrl+Alt+Esc q Ctrl+⇧ Shift+W
Close dialog Esc (Laptop)
⊞ Win++F4 (Desktop)
or sometimes
⌘ Cmd+.
Esc or Ctrl+⇧ Shift+W
Open/Focus (preview) pinned program on the taskbar ⊞ Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows Taskbar (Windows 7+) Alt+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Shelf
Open new program window of pinned program in Quick Launch ⊞ Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Quick Launch toolbar (Windows Vista, 7+) ⌘ Cmd+A+⇧ Shift Alt+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Shelf
Open new program window of the pinned program on the taskbar (if program is already opened) ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows Taskbar (Windows 7+) Alt+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Shelf
Focus the first taskbar entry; pressing again will cycle through them ⊞ Win+T, then back and forth; hold ⇧ Shift to cycle backwards (Windows 7+)
Peek at the desktop ⊞ Win+Space (Windows 7)
⊞ Win+Comma (Windows 8+)
⌘ Cmd+F3 or

F11 or Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[24][25]

Bring gadgets to the front of the Z-order and cycle between gadgets ⊞ Win+G (Windows Vista,7) or ⊞ Win+Space (Vista only, no cycling)
External display options (mirror, extend desktop, etc.) ⊞ Win+P (Windows 7+) Ctrl+Fullscreen

User interface navigation (widgets and controls)[edit]

Action Windows macOS[notes 1] KDE GNOME
Moves keyboard focus to next/previous control Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹[notes 2] Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹

Ctrl+Tab ↹ / Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹

Pop up tooltip for currently focused control ⇧ Shift+F1 Ctrl+F1
Show context-sensitive help for currently focused window or control ⇧ Shift+F1 ⌘ Cmd+? ⇧ Shift+F1 ⇧ Shift+F1
Give focus to next/previous pane Ctrl+F6 / Alt+F5 ⌘ Cmd+`
⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+`
F5 / Alt+F6
Give focus to splitter bar in paned window F8
Give focus to window's menu bar F10 or Alt ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+/, then type command name, or
Ctrl+F2 (or Fn+Ctrl+F2 on some keyboards)[notes 2]
Alt F10
Pop up contextual menu for currently selected objects (aka context menu) ⇧ Shift+F10 or ≣ Menu Varies with laptop / extended keyboard type; enable Mouse keys in Universal Access, then Fn+Ctrl+5 or

Ctrl+5 (numeric keypad) or Function+Ctrl+I (laptop)

≣ Menu ≣ Menu or ⇧ Shift+F10
Toggle selected state of focused checkbox, radio button, or toggle button Space Space Space Space
Activate focused button, menu item etc. ↵ Enter Space (also ↵ Enter[notes 5] for menu items) ↵ Enter ↵ Enter
Expand a drop-down list F4 or Alt+
Select/move to first/last item in selected widget Home / End Home / End
Scroll selected view by one page up/left/down/right PageUp / PageDown

( Fn+ / Fn+ )

PageUp / Ctrl+PageUp /
PageDown / Ctrl+PageDown
Scroll selected view to top/bottom Home / End

( Fn+ / Fn+ )

Switch focus to the next/previous tab/view within a window Ctrl+Tab ↹ Ctrl+Tab ↹

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹

Ctrl+Tab ↹ ->

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ <-

Switch focus to the next/previous panel on the desktop Ctrl+Alt+Tab ↹ / Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹
Switch focus to the next/previous panel (without dialog) Ctrl+Alt+Esc /

Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+Esc

Command line shortcuts[edit]

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used in a command line environment. Bash and Z shell keybindings are derived from Emacs text editing bindings.

Action Windows
(bash, zsh)
(POSIX-compliant shell)
Scroll through history of typed commands / / / or Ctrl+P/Ctrl+N ESC K / ESC J
Signal end-of-file Ctrl+Z Ctrl+D
Abort current command/typing Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C
Erase word to the left Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+W or Esc+← Backspace
Erase word to the right Ctrl+Delete Ctrl+Delete Alt+D
Erase line to the left Ctrl+Home Ctrl+Home Ctrl+U
Erase line to the right Ctrl+End Ctrl+End Ctrl+K
Yank/paste previously erased string Ctrl+Y
Move one word to the left (backward) Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Alt+B
Move one word to the right (forward) Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Alt+F
Move to beginning of line Home Home Ctrl+A

or Home

Move to end of line End End Ctrl+E

or End

Reverse search of history F8 F8 Ctrl+R
Pause execution of the current job Ctrl+Z
Insert the next character typed verbatim Ctrl+V
Autocomplete command/file name Tab ↹ (enabled by default in Windows XP and later) Tab ↹ Tab ↹ (usually once) Esc (usually twice)
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Alt+Space then E[notes 10] then P Ctrl+V ⇧ Shift+Ins
Scroll window up ⇧ Shift+PageUp (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) PageUp ⇧ Shift+PageUp
Scroll window down ⇧ Shift+PageDown (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) PageDown ⇧ Shift+PageDown
Clear screen Ctrl+L


  • In Windows, it is possible to disable these shortcuts using the Accessibility or Ease of Access control panel.
  • In GNOME, these shortcuts are possible, if Universal Access is enabled on the system.
Action Windows macOS KDE GNOME
Utility Manager ⊞ Win+U
Use keyboard to control cursor Left Alt+Left Shift+Numlock [26]
Allow user to press shortcuts one key at a time ⇧ Shift press 5 times ⇧ Shift 5 times[27]
Hear beep when -lock key pressed Numlock hold 5 seconds
Stop/slow repeating characters when key is pressed Right Shift hold 8 seconds ⇧ Shift hold for 8 seconds[28][29][30]
Inverse (Reverse Colors) Mode Left Alt+Left Shift+PrtScn ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+Ctrl+8 Meta+⇧ Shift+i (if enabled)
Inverse (Reverse Colors) Mode (Only current window) Meta+⇧ Shift+u (if enabled)
Accessibility Shortcut[notes 15] Ctrl+⊞ Win+C

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Highlighted shortcuts are from the list of "sacred" keybindings.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Requires full keyboard access active:
    (The Apple menu) > System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls
    Alternatively use Ctrl+F7 to toggle this setting.
  3. ^ Takes you to the "Switch User" screen when Fast User Switching has been enabled (enabled by default in XP).
  4. ^ Shows task manager in Windows XP if the welcome screen is enabled. Otherwise displays an NT-style menu, with the option of launching the task manager; likewise for Vista.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i On Mac OS, OS X, and macOS, the key commonly called ↵ Enter is properly called ↩ Return, while ⌅ Enter is a separate key normally located on the numeric keypad or invoked as ⌥ Opt+↩ Return (mainly on keyboards without a numeric keypad).
  6. ^ For the concept of "selected text" see also X Window selection
  7. ^ A full list of all default Cocoa textview key bindings can be dumped by executing this command in Terminal.app: plutil -p /System/​Library/​Frameworks/​AppKit.framework/​Resources/​StandardKeyBinding.dict
  8. ^ In whole document (%), substitute (s) fosh by fish, don't stop at one substitution per line (g) and ask for confirmation for each substitution (c).
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Holding Ctrl+Shift+Page Up/Page Down will move the selected tab past multiple tabs to the left/right.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g In Microsoft Windows, all shortcuts with Alt+Space followed by another key are language dependent. The Alt+Space combination opens the window menu, and the following key selects from the menu. As the menu labels (and their underlined hotkeys) vary with the Windows system language, the hotkeys are different for international versions of Microsoft Windows, and may change if users change their Windows system language preference. The given examples are valid for English user preferences/version of Windows.
  11. ^ Needs to be activated first on some distributions.
  12. ^ The WinSplit window manager application for Windows knows to emulate this behaviour.
  13. ^ There is no single consistent shortcut for closing a document or quitting an application in Windows XP. In many multiple document interface applications, Ctrl+W or Ctrl+F4 closes a document and Alt+F4 quits. In other applications where each document is in its own window, such as later versions of Microsoft Word, Ctrl+W, Ctrl+F4, and Alt+F4 close a document, and there is no consistent shortcut for quitting an application.
  14. ^ macOS uses ⌘ Cmd+W Close (window), ⌘ Cmd+Q Quit (application), and ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+Esc Force Quit (application); ⌥ Option+F4 can be used to quit certain services or applications. Quit is closest to Kill.
  15. ^ This can be set as Greyscale, Invert Colours, Magnifier and more in Ease of Access settings


  1. ^ "Mac 101: Set your preferences". Article: HT2490. Apple Inc. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  2. ^ Hoffman, Chris (May 4, 2018). "Secret Windows Hotkey Restarts Your Graphics Card Drivers". howtogeek.com. How-To Geek LLC. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  3. ^ Chen, Kent (May 7, 2018). "Windows 10 Tip: How To Restart Video Driver without Rebooting Computer". nextofwindows.com. Next of Windows. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  4. ^ Singh, Swapnil (2012-02-08). "10 Cool Windows Shortcuts You Need to Know". Tricktactoe.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
  5. ^ Tate, Jody (2017-09-27). "High Sierra 10.13 : Keychain Access Menubar Item Missing?". StackExchange.com. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  6. ^ a b "Set keyboard shortcuts". GNOME Help. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 2023-06-28.
  7. ^ "Mac keyboard shortcuts". Article: HT201236. Apple Inc. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  8. ^ "How to take a screenshot on your Mac". Article: HT201361. Apple Inc. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Taking Screenshots". User Guide 2.32. The GNOME Project. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  10. ^ "Screencast Recording". GNOME Cheat Sheet. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  11. ^ "Screen Shot Record". GNOME Help Guide. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  12. ^ "What's New in macOS Mojave - Screenshots". Apple. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  13. ^ "Use keyboard shortcuts to create PowerPoint presentations - Microsoft Support". support.microsoft.com. Archived from the original on 28 May 2024. Retrieved 2024-05-28.
  14. ^ "Keyboard shortcuts to select and move text in a document". help.hcltechsw.com. Archived from the original on 2024-05-28. Retrieved 2024-05-28.
  15. ^ "Text System Defaults and Key Bindings". Apple Developer Documentation Archive. September 9, 2013. Archived from the original on March 10, 2024. Retrieved 2024-01-18.
  16. ^ a b "HIG/Keyboard Shortcuts". KDE Techbase. KDE. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  17. ^ "Appendix A — Keyboard Shortcuts". Libre Office Documentation. The Document Foundation. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  18. ^ a b Linux Mint Community. "OpenOffice.org and LibreOffice keyboard shortcuts". Community.LinuxMint.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
  19. ^ "Browser Shortcuts". Mirus IT. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Keyboard shortcuts — Firefox Help". Support.mozilla.org. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  21. ^ a b c "Keyboard shortcuts — Opera Help". Help.opera.com. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  22. ^ a b c "Keyboard shortcuts — Google Chrome Help". Support.google.com. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  23. ^ "Shortcuts". Library.gnome.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
  24. ^ a b c d "Mac OS X 10.6 Help: Using a screen saver". Docs.info.apple.com. Retrieved 2011-01-03.
  25. ^ a b c d "Mac OS X 10.4 Help: Setting a hot corner for Dashboard". Docs.info.apple.com. Retrieved 2011-01-03.
  26. ^ "Click and Move Mouse Pointer Using the Keypad". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  27. ^ "Turn on Sticky Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  28. ^ "Turn On Slow Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  29. ^ "Turn Off Repeated Key Presses". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  30. ^ "Turn On Bounce Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012.

External links[edit]