Tadeusz Banachiewicz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tadeusz Banachiewicz
Banachiewicz.jpg
Born (1882-02-13)13 February 1882
Poland
Died 17 November 1954(1954-11-17) (aged 72)
Poland
Occupation Astronomer, mathematician and geodesist
Spouse(s) Laura de Sołohub Dikyj
(m. 1931-?)
Parent(s)
  • Artur Banachiewicz 1840–1910 (father)
  • Zofia née Rzeszotarska 1852–1920 (mother)

Tadeusz Banachiewicz (13 February 1882, Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire – 17 November 1954, Kraków[1]) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and geodesist.[2]

He was educated at University of Warsaw and his thesis was on "reduction constants of the Repsold heliometer".[3] In 1905, after the closure of the University by the Russians, he moved to Göttingen and in 1906 to the Pulkovo Observatory. He also worked at the Engel'gardt Observatory at Kazan University from 1910–1915.[4]

In 1919, after Poland regained its independence, Banachiewicz moved to Kraków, becoming a professor at the Jagiellonian University and the director of Kraków Observatory. He authored approximately 180 research papers and modified the method of determining parabolic orbits. In 1925, he invented a theory of "cracovians" — a special kind of matrix algebra — which brought him international recognition. This theory solved several astronomical, geodetic, mechanical and mathematical problems.[1]

In 1922 he became a member of PAU (Polska Akademia Umiejętności) and from 1932 to 1938 was the vice-president of the International Astronomical Union. He was also the first President of the Polish Astronomical Society, the vice-president of the Geodetic Committee of The Baltic States and, from 1952 to his death, a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He was also the founder of the journal Acta Astronomica. He was the recipient of Doctor Honoris Causa titles from the University of Warsaw (1929),[5] the University of Poznań (1936)[6] and the Sofia University in Bulgaria (1948).[7][1]

Banachiewicz invented a chronocinematograph. The lunar crater Banachiewicz and the main-belt asteroid 1286 Banachiewicza are named after him. Tadeusz Banachiewicz is the author of more than 500 scientific papers, scientific and popular press communications, telegraph scientific reports, polemics, reviews, reports and editorial works, which concern astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, geodesy, geophysics and other fields of science.[8] The LU decomposition was introduced by Banachiewicz in 1938.[9]


Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Tadeusz Banachiewicz", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
  2. ^ In Russian his last name was written Банахевич. His name is often Anglicized to "Thaddeus Julian Banachiewicz".
  3. ^ Hockey, Thomas (2009). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. Retrieved August 22, 2012. 
  4. ^ The Observatory in the years of T. Banachiewicz's management (1919-1954), Krakow Astronomical Observatory, Retrieved 10 February 2010
  5. ^ "Doktoraty honorowe (Honorary Doctorates)" (in Polish). University of Warsaw. Retrieved 2016-03-01. 
  6. ^ "Doktoraty Honoris Causa, lata 1931 - 1965" (in Polish). University of Poznań. Retrieved 2017-03-02. 
  7. ^ "Доктор хонорис кауза (Doctor honoris causa)" (PDF) (in Bulgarian). Sofia University. page 9, pos. 116. Retrieved 2017-02-28. 
  8. ^ Bujakiewicz-Korońska, Renata; Koroński, Jan (2016). "The life of Tadeusz Banachiewicz and his scientific activity". 
  9. ^ Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A. "On matrix factorization and efficient least squares solution.". 

External links[edit]