Taegeuk

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For the taekwondo poomsae, see Taegeuk (taekwondo).
Taegeuk
Taegeuk.svg
The taegeuk found on the flag of South Korea.
Korean name
Hangul 태극
Hanja 太極
Revised Romanization Taegeuk
McCune–Reischauer T'aegŭk

Taegeuk (Hangul태극; Hanja太極, Korean pronunciation: [tʰɛgɯk̚]) is the Korean form of the Chinese term Taiji "supreme ultimate"..[1][2] The Korean term more specifically refers to the graphical symbol (taijitu) composed of interlocking spirals. This symbol chosen for the design of the national flag in the 1880s, known as taegeukgi (hangul: 태극기, where gi means "flag").[3] The taegeuk is commonly associated with Korean Taoism philosophical values[4] as well as Korean shamanism.[5]

History[edit]

The Pal Gwae (Bagua) from Daoism
(palgwae = "eight trigrams", Hangul: 팔괘 , hanja: 八卦 )

The taegeuk has been in use for the majority of written history of Korea.[6] The origins of the interlocking-spirals design can be traced to as early as the Goguryeo or Silla period, e.g. in the decoration of a sword, dated to the 5th or 6th century, recovered from the grave of Michu of Silla,[7] or an artifact with the taegeuk pattern of similar age found in the Bogam-ri tombs of Baekje at Naju, South Jeolla Province in 2008.[8][9] In the compound of Gameunsa, a temple built in AD 628 during the reign of King Jinpyeong of Silla, a stone object, perhaps the foundation of a pagoda, is carved with the taegeuk design.[3][10]

In Joseon, the design was used to represent Daoism in Korea and to express the hope for harmony of yin and yang.[3][11]

South Korean flag[edit]

The taegeuk symbol is most prominently displayed on South Korea's national flag, called the taegeukgi (along with four of the eight trigrams used in divination). Because of the taegeuk's association with the national flag, it is often used as a patriotic symbol, as are the colors red, blue, and black. The “geon” trigram (☰) represents the heaven, spring, east, and justice. The “gon” trigram (☷) symbolizes the earth, summer, west, and vitality, the “gam” trigram (☵) the moon, winter, north, and wisdom, and the “ri” trigram (☲) the sun, autumn, south, and fruition. The four trigrams supposedly move in an endless cycle from “geon” to “ri” to “gon” to “gam” and back to “geon” in their pursuit of perfection.[12] The white background symbolizes the homogeneity, integrity and peace-loving nature of the Korean people. Traditionally, Koreans often wore white clothing, earning the nickname “white-clothed people” and therefore the color white epitomizes the Korean people.[6][12]

Variants[edit]

Tricolored Taegeuk[edit]

Hand fan with a three-color Taegeuk Design

A popular variant in Korea is the tricolor taegeuk (samsaeguitaegeuk 삼색의태극 or samtaegeuk 삼태극), which adds a yellow lobe or "pa" (hanja: Hangul: ). The yellow is taken as representing humanity, in addition to the red and blue representing heaven and earth.[citation needed] It is frequently seen as a design on the face of hand fans.

A rendition of the tricolored taegeuk also appeared in the official logo of the 1988 Summer Olympics accompanied by the five Olympic rings.[13] A similar symbol is used by the Miss Asia Pacific World Beauty Pageant, which was hosted in South Korea from its inception in 2011 until 2014, and most recently hosted in Thailand in 2015.

Paralympics symbol[edit]

Further information: Paralympic symbols
First Paralympic symbol (1988-1994) used five pa.

The first designated Paralympic logo, created for the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul, was based on a traditional the pa {Hangul: 파; Hanja: 巴}, the spiral components making up the taegeuk symbol. In March 1992,[14] the Paralympic symbol was changed to a version utilizing only three pa. This was not fully adopted until after the 1994 Winter Paralympics in Lillehammer, Norway, since the Lillehammer Paralympic Organizing Committee had by then already started a marketing program based on the five-pa version. The three-pa version remained in place from the close of the Lillehammer Games through the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, Greece.[15][16]

Gallery[edit]

Taegeuk

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gukgiwon (국기원) (2005). Taekwondo textbook. Seoul: 오성출판사. p. 303. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  2. ^ Rogers, William Elford (1994). Interpreting Interpretation: Textual Hermeneutics as an Ascetic Discipline. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 303. ISBN 9780271010618. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c Korean overseas information service (2003). Handbook of Korea. (11. ed.). Seoul: Korean Overseas Information Service. p. 568. ISBN 9788973750054. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  4. ^ Kim, Sang Yil; Ro, Young Chan (1984). Hanism as Korean mind : interpretation of Han philosophy. Los Angeles, Calif.: Eastern Academy of Human Sciences. p. 66. ISBN 0932713009. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Korea's Sam-Taegeuk Symbol. san-shin.org, dedicated to the sacred mountains of Korea.
  6. ^ a b Islam, M. Rafiqul (2014). Unconventional Gas Reservoirs: Evaluation, Appraisal, and Development. Elsevier. p. 352. ISBN 9780128005941. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  7. ^ Proceedings of the International Symposium on Cultivation and Utilization of Asian, Sub-tropical, and Underutilized Horticultural Crops: Seoul, Korea, August 13-19 2006 (2011), p. 48
  8. ^ 국내 最古 태극무늬, 1400년 만에 햇빛 Dong-A Science, Yoon wan-jun, 2009-06-04
  9. ^ "Oldest Taegeuk Pattern Found in Naju". Koreatimes.co.kr. 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2013-01-12. 
  10. ^ 경주감은사지 Encyclopedia of Korea
  11. ^ An Illustrated Guide to Korean Culture - 233 traditional key words by The National Academy of the Korean Language
  12. ^ a b Ludden, Ken (2010). Mystic Apprentice Volume 3: Meditative Skills with Symbols and Glyphs Supplemental. p. 131. ISBN 9780557728503. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  13. ^ http://www.aldaver.com/Images/Os/lg1988sm.gif
  14. ^ Vom Rehabilitationssport zu den Paralympics (German), Sportmuseum Leipzig
  15. ^ "New Logo and Motto for IPC". International Paralympic Committee. 2003. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2015. 
  16. ^ International Paralympic Committee - The IPC logo, motto and flag, CRWFlags.com

External links[edit]