Taejong of Joseon
|Taejong of Joseon|
|King of Joseon|
|Reign||28 November 1400 – 9 September 1418|
|Predecessor||Jeongjong of Joseon|
|Successor||Sejong of Joseon|
|King Emeritus of Joseon|
|Tenure||9 September 1418 – 30 May 1422|
|Predecessor||Jeongjong of Joseon|
|Born||June 13, 1367|
Hamheung, Kingdom of Goryeo
|Died||May 30, 1422 (aged 55)|
Changgyeong Palace, Kingdom of Joseon
|Issue||Sejong of Joseon|
|House||House of Yi|
|Father||Taejo of Joseon|
|Revised Romanization||Yi Bang-won|
Founding of Joseon
He was born as Yi Bang-won in 1367 as the fifth son of King Taejo and Queen Sinui, he was qualified as an official of Goryeo Dynasty in 1382. During his early days, he helped his father to extend his support with the citizens and many influential figures of the government. Taejong helped his father and founded a new dynasty by assassinating powerful officials such as Jeong Mong-ju, who remained loyal to the Goryeo dynasty. He was called Prince Jeongan during the reign of King Taejo and was taught by Confucian scholars including Won Cheon-seok
Strife of princes
In 1392 he helped his father overthrow Goryeo in order to establish a new dynasty, Joseon. He expected to be appointed as the successor to the throne for he contributed most to the founding of Joseon, but his father, Taejo, and prime minister Jeong Do-jeon favored Taejo's eighth son and Yi Bangwon's half-brother (second son of Queen Sindeok), Yi Bangseok, as the crown prince. This conflict arose chiefly because Jeong Do-jeon, as the principal architect of the ideological, institutional and legal foundations of the new dynasty, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by its ministers through appointment by the king. In contrast, Yi Bangwon sought direct rule through an absolute monarchy. These differences ultimately contributed to an environment of deep political tension. Following the sudden death of Queen Sindeok in 1398, Yi Bang-won led a coup d'etat while King Taejo was in mourning for his second wife. This event led to the deaths of Jeong Do-jeon and his supporters, as well as the late Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince. This incident became known as the First Strife of Princes.
Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, and psychologically exhausted from the death of his second wife, King Taejo abdicated and immediately crowned his second son (the oldest-surviving son) Yi Bang-gwa, or King Jeongjong, as the new ruler. One of King Jeongjong's first acts as monarch was to revert the capital to Gaeseong, where he is believed to have been considerably more comfortable. Yet Yi Bangwon retained real power and was soon in conflict with his disgruntled older brother Yi Bang-gan, who also yearned for power. In 1400, General Bak Po, who was disappointed by Yi Bangwon for not rewarding him enough for his action in the First Strife of Princes, allied with Bangwon's older brother Yi Bang-gan (Prince Hwi Ahn) and rebelled against him in what came to be known as the Second Strife of Princes. Yi Bangwon successfully defeated his brother's forces, then executed Bak Po and sent Yi Bang-gan into exile. King Jeongjong, who was afraid of his powerful brother, named Yi Bangwon as crown prince and abdicated in the same year. Yi Bangwon assumed the throne of Joseon at long last as King Taejong, the third king of Joseon.
Consolidation of royal power
In the beginning of Taejong's reign, the Grand King Former, Taejo, refused to relinquish the royal seal that signified the legitimacy of any king's rule. Taejong began to initiate policies he believed would prove his qualification to rule. One of his first acts as king was to abolish the privilege enjoyed by the upper echelons of government and the aristocracy to maintain private armies. His revoking of such rights to field independent forces effectively severed their ability to muster large-scale revolts, and drastically increased the number of men employed in the national military. Taejong's next act as king was to revise the existing legislation concerning the taxation of land ownership and the recording of state of subjects. With the discovery of previously hidden land, national income increased twofold.
He also initiated the system of hopae, an early form of identification recording the bearer's name and residence, used to control the movement of people. He also set a big drum in front of his court, so that the common people, when they had some problems, could come to the palace and consult the king.
In addition, he created a strong central government and an absolute monarchy. In 1399, Taejong had played an influential role in scrapping the Dopyeong Assembly, a council of the old government administration that held a monopoly in court power during the waning years of the Goryeo dynasty, in favor of the State Council of Joseon (의정부), a new branch of central administration that revolved around the king and his edicts. After passing the subject documentation and taxation legislation, King Taejong issued a new decree in which all decisions passed by the State Council could only come into effect with the approval of the king. This ended the custom of court ministers and advisors making decisions through debate and negotiations amongst themselves, and thus brought the royal power to new heights. Shortly thereafter, Taejong installed an office, known as the Sinmun Office, to hear cases in which aggrieved subjects felt that they had been exploited or treated unjustly by government officials or aristocrats.
However, Taejong kept Jeong Do-jeon's reforms intact for the most part. He promoted Confucianism, which was more like political philosophy rather than a religion, thus demoting Buddhism, which was far from daily living and decayed from the power given by Goryeo kings back then. He closed many temples that were established by Goryeo kings, and seized their large possessions and added them to the national treasury. Meanwhile, he honored Jeong Mong-ju with the posthumous title of Chief State Councillor (equivalent to Prime Minister), even though it was he who assassinated Jeong — leading to an irony of history, in which Jeong Do-jeon was vilified throughout the Joseon dynasty while Jeong Mong-ju was honored despite his opposition to its birth.
In foreign policy, he was a straight hardliner — he attacked the Jurchens on the northern border and Japanese pirates on the southern coast. Taejong is also known for being responsible for the Ōei Invasion of Tsushima Island in 1419. He also promoted publications, commerce and education. He also founded and encouraged Uigeumbu, the royal guard and secret police at the same time. In 1418, he abdicated and gave the throne to Sejong the Great of Joseon, but continued to rule with an iron fist, deciding important matters and executing Sejong's father-in-law Shim On and Shim's brother.
Taejong executed or exiled many of his supporters who helped him ascend to the throne in order to strengthen the royal authority. To limit influence of in-laws, he also killed all four brothers of his Queen Won-gyeong and his son Sejong's in-laws. Taejong remains a controversial figure who killed many of his rivals (including Jeong Mong-ju and Jeong Do-jeon) and relatives to gain power and yet ruled effectively to improve the populace's lives, strengthen national defense, and lay down a solid foundation for his successor Sejong's rule. Taejong was known for his passion for hunting, considered unseemly in a ruler.
|Ancestors of Taejong of Joseon|
- Father: King Taejo of Joseon (27 October 1335 – 18 June 1408) (조선 태조)
- Mother: Queen Shinui of the Anbyeon Han clan (September 1337 – 21 October 1391) (신의왕후 한씨)
- Grandfather: Han Gyeong (한경)
- Grandmother: Lady Shin of the Saknyeong Shin clan (삭녕 신씨)
- Consorts and their Respective Issue(s):
- Queen Wongyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan (11 July 1365 – 10 July 1420) (원경왕후 민씨)
- Princess Jeongsun (1385 – 25 August 1460) (정순공주)
- Princess Gyeongjeong (1387 – 6 June 1455) (경정공주)
- Princess Gyeongan (1393 – 30 May 1415) (경안공주)
- Yi Je, Grand Prince Yangnyeong (1394 – 7 September 1462) (이제 양녕대군)
- Yi Bo, Grand Prince Hyoryeong (6 January 1396 – 12 June 1486) (이보 효령대군)
- Yi Do, Grand Prince Chungnyeong (15 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) (이도 충녕대군)
- Princess Jeongseon (1404 – 25 February 1424) (정선공주)
- Yi Jong, Grand Prince Seongnyeong (3 August 1405 – 11 April 1418) (이종 성녕대군)
- Unnamed prince
- Unnamed prince
- Unnamed prince
- Unnamed prince (1412 - 1412)
- Royal Noble Consort Ui of the Andong Kwon clan (의빈 권씨)
- Princess Jeonghye (정혜옹주) (? - 1424)
- Royal Noble Consort Myeong of the (old) Andong Kim clan (? - 1479) (명빈 김씨)
- Royal Noble Consort Hyo of the Cheongpung Kim clan (? – 1454) (효빈 김씨)
- Yi Bi, Prince Gyeongnyeong (13 December 1395 – 1458) (이비 경녕군)
- Royal Noble Consort Shin of the Yeongwol Shin clan (? – 1435) (신빈 신씨)
- Yi In, Prince Hamnyeong (1402 – 1467) (이인 함녕군)
- Yi Jeong, Prince Onnyeong (1407 – 1453) (이정 온녕군)
- Princess Jeongshin (? – 26 September 1457) (정신옹주)
- Princess Jeongjeong (1410 – 1455) (정정옹주)
- Princess Sukjeong (? – 1456) (숙정옹주)
- Princess Suknyeong (숙녕옹주)
- Princess Soshin (? – 1437)(소신옹주)
- Princess Sosuk (? – 1456) (소숙옹주)
- Princess Sukgyeong (1420 – 1494) (숙경옹주)
- Royal Noble Consort Seon of the Sunheung Ahn clan (? – 1468) (선빈 안씨)
- Royal Noble Consort So of the Jangyeon No clan (? – 1479) (소빈 노씨)
- Princess Sukhye (? – 1464) (숙혜옹주)
- Royal Noble Consort Jeong of the Go clan (? – 1426) (정빈 고씨)
- Yi Nong, Prince Geunnyeong (1411 – 1462) (이농 근녕군)
- Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Choi clan (숙의 최씨)
- An unnamed daughter (1400 - 1402)
- Yi Ta, Prince Huiryeong (1412 – 7 July 1465) (이타 희령군)
- Princess Sukgong of the Cheongdo Kim clan (숙공궁주 김씨)
- Princess Uijeong of the Hanyang Jo clan (? – 1454) (의정궁주 조씨)
- Princess Hyesun of the Goseong Lee clan (? – 1438) (혜순궁주 이씨)
- Princess Shinsun of the Seongju Yi clan (1390 – ?) (신순궁주 이씨)
- Princess Deoksuk of the Lee clan (덕숙옹주 이씨)
- Yi Gan, Prince Huryeong (1419 – 6 October 1450) (이간 후령군)
- Princess Hyeseon of the Hong clan (혜선옹주 홍씨)
- Princess Sunhye of the Andong Jang clan (? – 26 July 1423) (순혜옹주 장씨)
- Princess Suksun (숙순옹주)
- Princess Seogyeong (서경옹주)
- Palace Lady Kim (후궁 김씨)
- Princess Sukgeun (? – 1450) (숙근옹주)
- Lady Lee (이씨)
Tears of the Dragon, a popular KBS television historical drama that aired from 1996–8, portrayed Taejong's life. It depicts him as being committed to the stability of the kingdom, a commitment that translated into affection and devotion towards his father and heir (originally Taejong's firstborn son), although these feelings were not reciprocated due to anger about the 1398 assassinations. The anger culminated in the retired Taejo's efforts to remove Taejong by backing the Jo Sawi's rebellion and personally shooting an arrow at him during a reconciliation meeting. According to the series, Taejong grew to become perpetually suspicious of others around him (especially his in-laws), resulting in purges, a typical example being his execution of the queen's influence-peddling-but-loyal oldest brothers and naїvely-innocent youngest brothers. In disgusted response, his Crown Prince rejected the throne to become a playboy and his second-born son joined the Buddhist priesthood, deferring the position to the third-born son.
King Taejong is also depicted in the 2008 KBS historical drama King Sejong the Great about his third son and successor King Sejong, the 2011 SBS drama Deep Rooted Tree, the 2012-13 SBS drama The Great Seer, the 2014 KBS drama Jeong Do-jeon, the 2015 SBS drama Six Flying Dragons, and the 2016 KBS historical science drama Jang Yeong-sil.
Actors who have played King Taejong include:
- Im Hyuk-joo in the 1983 KBS1 TV series Foundation of the Kingdom.
- Lee Jung-gil in the 1983 MBC TV series The King of Chudong Palace.
- Yoo Dong-geun in the 1996-1998 KBS TV series Tears of the Dragon.
- Kim Yeong-cheol in the 2008 KBS2 TV series King Sejong the Great and in the 2016 KBS TV series Jang Yeong-sil.
- Baek Yoon-sik in the 2011 SBS TV series Deep Rooted Tree.
- Choi Tae-joon in the 2012 SBS TV series The Great Seer.
- Park Yeong-gyu in the 2012 film I Am the King.
- Ahn Jae-mo in the 2014 KBS TV series Jeong Do-jeon.
- Ahn Nae-sang in the 2015 JTBC TV series Maids.
- Jang Hyuk in the 2015 film Empire of Lust and the 2019 JTBC TV series My Country: The New Age.
- Yoo Ah-in and Nam Da-reum in the 2015-2016 SBS TV series Six Flying Dragons.
- Kam Woo-sung in the 2021 SBS TV series Joseon Exorcist..
- Portrayed by Joo Sang-wook in the 2021 KBS1 TV series Taejong Yi Bang-won.
- List of Korea-related topics
- Rulers of Korea
- Cheonsang Yeolcha Bunyajido
- Chen Yanxiang, a Chinese merchant from Java that Taejong hosted during his reign
- 탐라 성주시대 413년 ~ 탐라 성주시대 464년
- 《백과사전》 태종 참조
- 한국역대인물 종합정보 시스템 - "태종 (太宗)"
- 두산 백과사전 "태종 太宗"
- 태종실록 (1431) 1권, 태종 1년 6월 12일 기사 1번째기사
- 최양진 (2008-07-04). "한비자의 냉정한 정치로 승부수 띄운 '태종'". 한국경제. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
- Grayson, James Huntley (2002). Korea: A Religious History. United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1605-X. (p108)
- 편집부 (1963-01-18). "창경궁(昌慶宮), 문화재정보". 위키트리IT/과학. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Second daughter of Min Je (민제, 1339–1408), Internal Prince Yeoheung (여흥부원군), Lord Munha, Second State Councillor (문하좌정승), Duke Mundo (문도공); and Lady Song (송씨), Lady Samhanguk, Princess Consort to the Internal Prince (삼한국대부인).
- Later married Yi Baek-gang (이백강), Duke Jeongjeol (정절공), created Internal Prince Consort Cheongpyeong (청평부원군); second son of Yi Geo-yi (이거이), Internal Prince Seowon (서원부원군), Duke Mundo (문도공).
- Her other titles include "Lady/Princess of Pyeongyang" (평양군궁주), "Lady/Princess Gyeongjeong" (경정궁주), and "Princess Jeonggyeong" (정경공주).
- Later married Jo Dae-rim (조대림), Duke Kangan (강안공), created Internal Prince Consort Pyeongyang (평양부원군); son of Jo Jun (조준), Chief State Councillor (영의정부사).
- Later married Kwon Gyu (권규, 1393-1421), created Prince Consort Gilchang (길창군); second son of Kwon Geun (권근, 1352-1409), Internal Prince Gilchang (길창부원군). His nephew (through his eldest brother Kwon Je (권제)) is Kwon Ram, one of Sejo's supporters who lead the 1453 coup that dethroned Sejo's nephew Danjong of Joseon and helped enthrone Sejo himself.
- 1st son born and to had lived past the traditional 100 days.
- Later married Nam Hwi (남휘), Duke Sogan (소간공), created Prince Consort Uisan (의산군); son of Nam Gyeong-mun (남경문).
- Also known by her titles "Princess Jeongui" (정의궁주) & "Yeongsugung" (영수궁 寧壽宮; lit. "Palace of Repose and of Long Life").
- Daughter of Kwon Hong (권홍), an Akjeong of Seonggyungwan (악정).
- Became Taejong's first concubine in 1402 to which enacted the concubine/consort system then on
- Later married Park Jong-woo (박종우) (1405 - 1464), created Prince Consort Woonseong (운성군); son of Park Shin (박신), an official at the State Council (의정부참찬).
- Daughter of Kim (김구덕, 金九德) (? - 1428) and Lady Shin of the Yeongwol Shin clan (정부인 영월 신씨, 貞夫人 寧越 辛氏). Through her younger brother, Kim Oh-mun (김오문, 金五文), she became the aunt of Crown Princess Consort Hwi of the Andong Kim clan; the consort of King Munjong
- Formerly known by her title "Princess Hyosun" (효순궁주), she was raised to bin (嬪) status during Gojong's reign.
- She was said to be Queen Shindeok's maidservant in the Yasa, but in the Records of the Annals of Taejong, Taejong stated that she was originally one of Queen Wongyeong's female servants back at her old household.
- Daughter of Shin Yeong-gwi (신영귀).
- Originally one of Queen Wongyeong's retinue of assistant court ladies (na-in).
- Also known by her titles "Princess Shinnyeong" (신녕궁주) and "Princess Shinnyeong" (신녕옹주), the latter granted on 13 January 13 1414, during her pregnancy.
- Later married Yoon Gye-dong (윤계동), created Prince Consort Yeongpyeong (영평군); son of Yoon Hang (윤항).
- Later married Jo Seon (조선), Duke Sohwoe (소회공), created Prince Consort Hanwon (한원군); son of Jo Mal-saeng (조말생), Minister of the Military and Defense (병조판서).
- Later married Jeong Hyo-jeon (정효전), Duke Chunggyeong (충경공), created Prince Consort Ilseong (일성군), and future Minister of the Military and Defense (병조판서); son of Minister (판서) Jeong Jin (정진).
- Later married Yoon Woo (윤우), created Prince Consort Paseong (파성군); son of Vice-Minister (참판) Yoon So-mi (윤수미).
- Later married Byeon Hyo-sun (변효순), Duke Kangyi (강이공), created Military Officer Yoocheon (유천위); son of Byeon Sang-joo (변상주).
- Later married Yoon Yeon-myeong (윤연명), Duke Pyeongdo (평도공), created Prince Consort Haepyeong (해평군); son of Yoon Dal-seong (윤달성).
- Later married Yoon Am (윤암), Duke Jedo (제도공), created Prince Consort Papyeong (파평군); son of Yoon Tae-san (윤태산).
- Daughter of Ahn Eui (안의).
- Also known by her title "Princess Sukseon" (숙선옹주), granted in 1421.
- Later married Yi Wan (이완), created Prince Consort Jeonui (전의군); son of Yi Gong-jeon (이공전).
- Later married Hwang Yoo (황유), Duke Yangdo (양도공), created Military Officer Hwoecheon (회천위); son of Hwang Ja-hu (황자후).
- Daughter of No Goo-san (노구산), Lord Miljik, Scholar of the Office of Special Advisors (밀직제학); and Lady Choi of the Chungju Choi clan (충주 최씨, 忠州 崔氏), whose father Choi Ryeom (최렴) is the Lord Geomgyo, Third State Councillor (검교의정부우의정).
- Also known by her title "Princess Sohye" (소혜궁주), granted on November 20, 1411 and Princess Sohye (소혜옹주, 昭惠翁主)
- Later married Yi Jeong-nyeong (이정녕), Duke Jangjeol (장절공), created Military Officer Seongwon (성원위); son of Yi Sa-hu (이사후) and grandson of Yi Jik (이직), Internal Prince Seongsan (성산부원군).
- Park Yeong-gyu's book (조선의 왕실과 외척) claims his real son is Prince Hyeryeong, not Prince Geunnyeong; but "Seonwon Gyebo Giryak (선원계보기략)" states that his real mother is another Lady Ahn, as Taejong had a son and three daughters by another Lady Ahn (Royal Concubine Seon).
- Sources claim his mother is Royal Councubine Shin, but sources "Seonwon-rok (선원록)" & "Seonwon Gyebo Giryak (선원계보기략)" indicate his real mother is Royal Concubine Jeong, since she died in 1426 and the other claimant died 9 years later.
- On November 20, in the 11th year of King Taejong (1411), she was entrusted to be a concubine along with the Myeongbin Kim and Sobin No, and was sealed as Princess Sukgong. In the 3rd year of King Sejong (1421), it became known that her father Kim Jeom (金漸) had received numerous bribes while he was a governor of Pyeongan-do.
- Daughter of Kim Jeom (김점, 金漸) (1369 - 1457)and Lady Kwon (권씨, 權氏)
- Daughter of Jo Noe (조뇌, 趙賚)
- Daughter of Lee Un-ro (이운로, 李云老)
- Daughter of Yi Jik (이직, 李稷) (1362 - 1431) and Lady Heo (허씨)
- Her younger sister married Min Mu-hyul (민무휼, 閔無恤) (? - 1416) who was the younger brother of Queen Wongyeong
- Was given the titles of Princess Gayi (가이옹주, 加伊翁主) and Lady Gahuia (가희아, 加喜兒)
- Daughter of Jang Sa-gil (장사길, 張思吉) (? - 1418) and Kisaeng Bok-deok (기생 복덕, 福德)
- Later married Yoon Pyeong (윤평), created Military Officer Pawon (파원위); son of Yoon Chang (윤창).
- In the Joseon Annals, Princess Seogyeong is recorded as Geumyeong (金英). It is not clear whether the word gold (geum) (金: Kim) is a surname or a first name. However, it is clear that she had been serving Taejong since she was in Jamje (潛邸: Saga)
- Later married Kwon Gong (권공), Duke Yanghyo (양효공), created Prince Consort Hwacheon (화천군); son of Kwon Bok (권복).