Taekkyeon

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Taekkyeon
Korean martial art-Taekkyeon-02.jpg
Martial artists presenting taekkyeon for Hi! Seoul Festival on April 28, 2007
Also known asTaekgyeon, Taekkyon
FocusKicks, trips, throws
HardnessFull contact
Country of origin Korea
ParenthoodSubak
Official websiteSeveral associations
Popular spelling
Hangul
Revised RomanizationTaekgyeon
McCune–ReischauerT'aekkyŏn
Dictionary spelling
Hangul
Revised RomanizationTaekkyeon
McCune–ReischauerT'aekkyŏn

Taekkyeon is a traditional Korean martial art first explicitly recorded during the Joseon Dynasty. Taekkyeon is characterized by fluid, dynamic foot movement called "pum balgi" or Stepping-on-Triangles.

Taekkyon is concerned with applying both the hands and feet at the same time to unbalance, trip, or throw the opponent. Hands and feet are always used together.

Taekkyon has many leg and whole-body techniques with fully integrated armwork. Although taekkyeon primarily utilizes kicking, punching, and arm strikes thrown from a mobile stance and does not provide a framework for groundfighting, it does incorporate a variety of different throws, takedowns, and grappling techniques to complement its striking focus. The martial art is frequently romanized informally as Taekgyeon, Taekkyon, or Taekyun.

History of Taekkyeon[edit]

The earliest existing written source mentioning Taekkyeon is the book Jaemulbo (also Manmulbo), written by Lee Sung-Ji during the reign of Jeongjo (1776–1800):[1]

"Byeon and Subak are Byeon, Gangnyeok is Mu and all these are called Tak-gyeon" (卞 手搏爲卞 角力爲武 苦今之탁견)

I.e. the word is spelled Tak-gyeon, written in Hangul, while the other terms are written in hanja.

Around 1900 Taekkyon was practiced frequently around Hanyang (Seoul), the capital city of the Joseon Dynasty. Song Duk-ki (1893–1987) was critically responsible for conveying the art. In the foreword of his only book, he writes: "It cannot be said for sure when and how taekkyon came into existence, but until the end of the Korean kingdom, certain people did taekkyon together."[2]

The "Daekwaedo". Museum of University of Seoul.

Taekkyeon matches were frequent in the late Joseon Dynasty. For example, during the Dano-Festival, a tournament called Gyeollyeon (결련) was carried out. Players who beat five opponents consecutively could take a rest and re-enter the tournament again later.[3]

Taekkyeon is documented as a living martial art in an 1895 book on Korean sports and games.[4]

In the book "Haedong Jukji" by Choe Yeong-nyeon (최영년, Hanja: 崔永年) from 1921, the idu-writing 托肩 is used to represent "Tak-gyeon". The translation of 托肩 is "push-shoulder". However this does not mean that the translation of Taekkyon is "push the shoulder", because idu is just a way to phonetically write pure Korean words with Chinese characters. At the same time, all the arm techniques of taekkyeon are generated from a shoulder movement first, by whipping the entire arm out. When fighting, there are numerous ways Taekkyeon pushes and pulls an opponent by the shoulders. Also in this book, there's a poem and a non-fictional text about Taekkyon, calling it lyrically "flying leg technique" (bi-gak-sul, 비각술, 飛脚術).[5]

Taekkyeon is also depicted in the image "Dae Kwae Do" (Hangeul 대쾌도, Hanja 大快圖) which was painted around 1850 by Hyesan Yu Suk (Hangeul 유숙, Hanja 劉淑). It shows Ssireum above and Taekkyeon below. Both combat sports were often done together at festivals, so Hyesan painted a lively scene with people from all social levels. The right Taekkyon player wears a coat called "Dopo" and ties their clothes together in order to have more freedom of motion. A Dopo was only worn by scholars (Seonbi, 선비). Soldiers are watching the games as well as ordinary people (Sangmin, 상민) which can be identified by their clothes (white hanbok) and behaviour. For instance, one of the lower class men at the left turned up his trouser legs, which was not considered good manners by the upper classes.

Taekkyeon took a severe blow when Neo-Confucianism grew in popularity, and then the Japanese occupation nearly made the art extinct. Taekkyeon has enjoyed a resurgence in the decades following the end of the Japanese colonial period in 1945. The last Taekkyeon Master from the Joseon-dynasty, Song Duk-Ki, maintained his practice of the Art throughout the Japanese occupation and subsequently laid the seeds for the arts' regeneration. The style he practiced was called Widae (high-village). On June 1, 1983, taekkyeon was given the classification as Important Intangible Cultural Asset No. 76" by the Korean government (중요무형문화재 제76호). It is the only Korean martial art which possesses such a classification.

In November 2011, Taekkyeon was recognized by UNESCO and placed on its Intangible Cultural Heritage List,[6] being honored as the first martial art on UNESCO's list.

Techniques[edit]

Nal-Chi-Gi
Taekkyeon combat held for Hi! Seoul Festival on April 28, 2007
Tae-Jil
Up-Eo-Chi-Gi

Taekkyeon contains many kinds of techniques, including hand and leg techniques as well as joint locks, throws and head butts. The whole body is used in each movement. Taekkyeon teaches a great variety of kicks, especially low kicks, knees, jumps. The basic steps are geometric and at the core of all advanced movement. All movements are natural to the human body.

The movements of Taekkyon are fluid with the practitioners constantly moving. One of its most striking characteristics is the motion called gumsil or ogeum jil: It is a constant bending and stretching of one's knees, giving the art a dance-like appearance. This motion is also used in the Korea mask dance talchum, so both arts look similar in a way. Taekkeyon does not make use of abrupt knee motions. The principles and methods used to extend the kick put more emphasis on grace and alignment for whole-body strength, as with the arm motions.

In competition, the players must use a foot work called pumbalkki (품밟기) which looks like a dance. The meaning of pumbalkki is "to step the pum". Pum refers to the triangular look of the hanja 品, as pumbalkki has a triangular form as well. The hanja pum means "level" or "goods", but it is used only because of its shape, not because of its meaning.

There are evolving forms in Taekkyeon. One form can be performed many different ways with its variations over the basic ten-year training period. The curriculum is adjustable within the traditional system. Masters may create their own personalized approach for teaching the basic Taekkyeon system.

Taekkyeon uses high, medium and low kicks. Sweeps with straight forward low kicks using the ball of the foot and the heel and flowing crescent-like high kicks. There are many kicks that move the leg outward from the middle, which is called gyeot chagi, and inward from the outside using the side of the heels and the side of the feet. The art also uses tricks like inward trips, wall-jumping, fake-outs, tempo, and slide-stepping. The art is also like a dance in which the fighter constantly changes stance from left to right by stepping forward and backwards with arms up and ready to guard, blending arm movements with leg.

As a competitive martial art / competition[edit]

When Taekkyeon is practiced in competition, it uses a limited subset of techniques, focusing on grappling and kicking only. Points are scored by throwing (or tripping) the opponent to the ground, pushing him out of the ring, or kicking him in the head. There are no hand strikes or headbutts, and purposefully injuring your opponent is prohibited. The head kicks are often quite sharp, but usually not full force, and fighters may not attempt to wear the opponent down with body blows as in western Boxing or Muay Thai. Matches are sometimes decided by the best of three falls—the first fighter to score two points wins. However, different modern associations employ slightly different rules. To an untrained eye, the matches are cautious but exhilarating affairs. The contestants circle each other warily, changing their footwork constantly using pumbalkki and feinting with low kicks, before exploding into a flurry of action which might leave one fighter flat on his/her back.

Modern development[edit]

Grandmaster Song Duk-ki was given living national treasure status by the South Korean government in 1983.[7] Song Duk-ki died on 23 July 1987, at the age of 94.

Various Taekkyeon organisations exist in Korea. These include:

  • The Korea Traditional Taekgyeon Association (KTTA). The KTTA is led by Jeong Gyeong-hwa who was given the title of "living cultural asset" by the Korean Government. He learned from Shin Han-seung and Song Duk Ki.
  • The Korea Taekkyon Federation (KTF). The KTF is led by Lee Yongbok, who learned from both Song Duk Ki and Shin Han-seung.
  • The Kyulyun Taekyun Association (KTK). The KTK is led by Do Ki-hyun who mainly learned from both Song Duk Ki, but also from Shin Han-seung.

Taekkyeon is also practiced in other nations around the world with organizations in Australia, China, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Kazakhstan, Russia and the USA

Old historical records on Taekkyeon-Yetbeob[edit]

Taekkyeon has always been teaching both regular Taekkyeon & street fighting Taekkyeon-Yetbeob which hits with any body part including powerful punches with historical Korean traits like shoulder (& torso) rotation, Yongryuk (stacking speed & power in motion), (no fist spin) horizontal fist. Nalparam is a form of Pyunssaum, Sibak (Nanjangbaksi of Bak-si, which is Si-bak) which hits with any body part including punches, kicks, headbutt. Street fighting styles (including punching & kicking) Nalparam & Sibak are taught by Taekkyeon like street fighting style Taekkyeon-Yetbeop is taught by Taekkyeon in South Korea. Taekkyeon's street fighting style Nalparam, Sibak (Nanjangbaksi), Yetbeop are likely created by being inspired by Kung Fu & Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop with little connection to Subak.

An important historical record exists on Korean street fighting game, which is the Prize Fight record in 1895 by Henry Savage Landor in his book "Corea", "the combatants generally fight with their fists, but, like the French, are much given to use their knees and feet as well in the contest."[8]

"분단되지 않았다면 날파람도 이어졌으리라. 다행히 1960년 초, 북한의 계정희 교수에 의해 개성에서 발굴된 것이 있다. 논문에서 택견 기능자 발굴이라는 말을 하는데, 북한학계에서는 날파람도 택견으로 보기에 그런 것이다." Translation: "If Korea was not split, South Korea would also have Nalparam. Fortunately, in the early 1960's, North Korea's professor Jungheui Gye found Nalparam artist. In his report, he described that Taekkyeon artist was found. This is because North Korean academia considers Nalparam also as a Taekkyeon."

[9] Nalparam is taught by Taekkyeon. Sibak is Taekkyeon-Yetbeob. North Korea also describes Nalparam to be cross-training Charyuk/Kihapsul/Kiaijutsu which includes Breaking/Tameshiwari. Regardless of how Breaking's system is for China & Japan, Breaking belonged to sidewalk performance art, power circus, power magic to Korean.

In medieval Jaemulbo book, Sibak was recorded to be also Taekyun, which would mean also being included in Taekyun.[10] "시박은 '서로 치는 것은 씨름의 일종인데 역(亦) 탁견'이라고 되어 있다." Translation: "Sibak's recorded, 'hitting each other (Sibak) is a type of wrestling, this is also Taekkyeon'." "시박? 낯선 이름이다. 위의 재물보에 수박과 함께 소개되고 있는 조선 고유의 체술 이었다." Translation: "Sibak? It's an unfamiliar name. Above in Jaemulbo, it's a Korean martial art introduced together with Subak." Murayama Jijun recorded Baksi & Nanjangbaksi in 1941, which were quite different from Taekyun.[11] "경북군위군의 군사(軍士)훈련이었던 박시(재물보상의 ‘시박’으로 여겨진다. 1941년, 무라야마지준의 글에도 언급되고 있다. 수백명의 사람들이 팔짱을 끼고 서로 어깨로 밀어 붙여 진(陳)을 뚫는 것이다. 나중에 동네 왈패들이 신작로에 모여 난장박시라 하는 패싸움을 했었다)등이 있었다." Translation: Gyungbook military training Baksi, etc existed. Seems Sibak from Jaemulbo. 1941's Murayama Jijun also mentions this. Hundreds of people, arms locked, push each other with shoulders to penetrate formation. Later, town thugs gather on the road to do team street fighting called Nanjangbaksi." (Korean sometimes reverse the word order, like Baksi & Sibak.)

an old Poongsokhwa drawing of Pyunssaum by (most likely) Gisan Joongeun Kim

Also, in 1930's reputable Korean newspaper, it describes that Taekkyeon was recorded by Muyedobotongji as Gwonbeop including hand techniques. 1930's newspaper recorded that Taekkyeon has contents to be recorded as Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop. Although there may be discrepancies between the military version Gwonbeop and the civilian version Sibak, the newspaper corroborated that Taekkyeon has such contents within Taekkyeon.[12]

Like Subak had Subakdaeo club to train, Nalparam also had a club to train. "1935년 7월 22일자 동아일보를 보자. [평양]지난 17일 평양서에서는 부내 창전리에서 주소부정의 현기한, 이오 외 십이명을 검거하야 엄중취조중이라는데 그들은 약 일주일전부터 기림리(산림리) 신궁앞 부근에서 부랑배 백수십여명을 모아노코 "날파람이"(망나니 짓이란 의미)를 연습하며". Translation: "Let's see 1935's July 22nd Dongailbo Newspaper. On the 17th, in Pyungyang's Changjeonli, Gihan Hyun, Oh Yi, etc 12 men were arrested and interrogated. They have gathered over a hundred thugs at Girimli (Sanlimli) Singoong's front, practicing Nalparami."[13][14]

A direct interview with Dukgi Song was recorded in Munyejinheung by Bohyung Lee, published in 1984 by Munyejinheungwon on Volume 11 Number 1 page 67 (이보형, 문예진흥 제 11권 1호, 문예진흥원, 1984.2, p.67, 이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용). "누상동에는 '장칼'이라는 장사가 있어 키도 크고 힘도 좋고 '복장지르기', '가슴치기'등 택견솜씨가 좋았다." Translation: "Nusangdong had a strongman named Jangkal. He was tall & strong; he was good at Taekyun techniques particularly Bokjangjireugi (Front Stomp Kick), Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap, slapping chest at front), etc." Dukgi Song testified directly about frontal slap in Taekkyeon. "이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용". Translation: "the content recorded by Bohyung Lee from direct interview with Dukgi Song."[15][16]

The same interview & the same book (by Munyejinheungwon & Bohyung Lee, 1984, Munyejinheung Volume 11 Number 1 page 67) includes Dukgi Song's direct testimony how Taekyun Yetbub broke jaw with 1 slap to the jaw as well as his testimony how Taekkyeon had frontal chest slap. There are also online Taekkyeon articles on Taekkyeon Yetbub by the official Taekkyeon organizations.[17]

Sibak (Nanjangbaksi) & Nalparam are street fighting rule martial arts including punching & kicking just like Taekkyeon-Yetbeop. Other than Sibak & Nalparam which are taught by Taekkyeon like South Korea's Taekkyeon-Yetbeop, there's also another traditional Korean martial art in street fighting rule including punching & kicking. There's a Korean martial art called Taegyeok. From the phonetic similarity, it is speculated to be related to Taekkyeon (particularly Taekkyeon-Yetbeop). Taegyeok's original textbook was drawn between 1920's & 1940's, but the currently existing Taegyeok textbook was redrawn in the late 1950's. The age of 1950's Taegyeok textbook was verified by professors and specialists in managing old documents. Taegyeok & its 1950's textbook have been in Northern Jeonla's Gimje, which is a distant away from where Karate (Tode) was taught in 1950's South Korea (also away from 1960's earlier Taekwondo gyms).[18]

Difference between Competition Taekkyeon, & Martial Taekkyeon-(Yetbeop)[edit]

Taekkyeon is a wrestling with kicking in soft-contact. Even 1920's reputable newspaper recorded water-Taekkyeon is done by throwing the opponent (throwing sister in law).[19] Stewart Culin also recorded "Htaik-Kyen-Ha-Ki" to be a throwing game 100 years ago. "A high kick is permitted, and is caught with the hands. The object is to throw the opponent."[20] Even today, Taekkyeon game is done by throwing opponent as well as kicking. Taekkyeon-Yetbub is a full contact street fighting game which hits with any body part including punching. Taekwondo is a mix of Chosun(Korean)-Gwonbeop (started 300 years ago by Korean Muyedobotongji textbook) gym & Karate gyms. However, Korea has had many other Fight Games, particularly street fighting[21] games called Nalparam, Taekyun-Yetbub, Flag Fight (Gitssaum)[22], Pyunssaum ("team-fight", "side-fight"), Sibak ("opponent-hitting").

Regular Taekkyeon is a wrestling game with kicks allowed. 1920's Korean newspaper Dongailbo recorded Water Taekkyeon to throw a sister in law. Stewart Culin also recorded in the book "Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan" that Taekkyeon has throwing in it. However, Taekkyeon has another Taekkyeon in Taekkyeon. In medieval Korean encyclopedia Jaemulbo, a new martial art called Sibak shows up; it was recorded to be "also Taekkyeon". Murayama Jijun recorded 100 years ago about Nanjangbaksi in Baksi. (Korean sometimes reverse the word order like Baksi & Sibak). He recorded Nanjangbaksi to be a team street fighting game like Korean Prize Fight historically recorded, not a wrestling game nor a kicking game.

Taekkyeon has both Taekkyeon & Sibak in it; there are 2 sets of games in Taekkyeon; Sibak (Baksi, Nanjangbaksi street fighting) is Yetbub. Sibak, including Nanjangbaksi recorded by Murayama Jijun, is also Taekkyeon other than the regular Taekkyeon. There are also other old names & games other than Sibak, like Gitssaum (Flag Fight, this is a fist fighting game that also represents general Pyunssaum, Sibak, Taekkyeon-Yetbub), Nalparam, etc; they are all a form of Sibak ("opponent-hitting") & Pyunssaum ("team fight", "side fight") enjoyed by Taekkyeon population historically for gaming street fight. Other than 1927's reputable newspaper's Gitssaum (Flag Fight) fist-fighting pictures[23], an old (drawn 100 years ago) Poongsokhwa drawing of Pyunssaum by (most likely) Gisan Joongeun Kim also helps identifying Taekyun Yetbub's moves. [24] In this old drawing, 2 teams are made, 1 team with red shirts and 1 team with black shirts. There are 2 games going on simultaneously. 1 game is Korean wrestling Ssireum; the other game is Pyunssaum punching & kicking, giving a visual understanding of Taekkyeon-Yetbub just like 1927's Gitssaum pictures. Yetbub is pyunssaum, Sibak which is also in Taekkyeon. Like the 1895's Prize Fight record, "the combatants generally fight with their fists, but, like the French, are much given to use their knees and feet as well in the contest."[25]

Yetbub is basically wrestlers street fighting in rules & postures including holding arm & punching at the same time like 1927's Gitssaum (Flag Fight) pictures (except that strikes are more powerful than a plain street fighting by shoulder-rotation, body momentum, Yongryuk stacking speed & power). In 1927's Flag Fighting & 300 years old Korean Muyedobotongji Kwonbeop, shoulder-rotation (turning, pushing the striking side's shoulder forward) is observed for punching front for extra mass, strength, speed. Shoulder-push means turning (pushing, rotating) shoulder forward when punching instead of the shoulders being stationary & square.[26][27] As for the texture of Korean strikes, Korean uses Yong which means stacking speed & power in the entire body including arms. Even Korean Ikmyung Yang's 1692's record of breaking a stone with hand strike used Yongryuk.[28] Horizontal fist is also observed for punching in 1927's Flag Fight, 100 years old Korean street fighting, 300 years old Muyedobotongji Gwonbub/Kwonbeop.[29][30][31] Taekkyeon Yetbub hits with such traits even today including in powerful punching (shoulder-push & Yong stacking speed, mass, power for horizontal-fist no-spin punching). Taekkyeon Yetbub's hand techniques have swings hitting front (& also hitting side such as jaw-breaking slap) as well as straight strikes including punching & frontal slap even today.

A direct interview with Dukgi Song was recorded in Munyejinheung by Bohyung Lee, published in 1984 by Munyejinheungwon on Volume 11 Number 1 page 67 (이보형, 문예진흥 제 11권 1호, 문예진흥원, 1984.2, p.67, 이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용). "누상동에는 '장칼'이라는 장사가 있어 키도 크고 힘도 좋고 '복장지르기', '가슴치기'등 택견솜씨가 좋았다." Translation: "Nusangdong had a strongman named Jangkal. He was tall & strong; he was good at Taekyun techniques particularly Bokjangjireugi (Front Stomp Kick), Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap, slapping chest at front), etc." Dukgi Song testified directly about frontal slap in Taekkyeon. "이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용". Translation: "the content recorded by Bohyung Lee from direct interview with Dukgi Song."[32][33]

The same interview & the same book (by Munyejinheungwon & Bohyung Lee, 1984, Munyejinheung Volume 11 Number 1 page 67) includes Dukgi Song's direct testimony how Taekyun Yetbub broke jaw with 1 slap to the jaw as well as his testimony how Taekkyeon had frontal chest slap. There are also online Taekkyeon articles on Taekkyeon Yetbub by the official Taekkyeon organizations.[34]

As a side note, slapping cheek is often thought as hitting side, but cheek or jaw is actually halfway frontal in about 45 degrees, not 90 degrees at side like ears. Also, hook and swing are two different motions; hook isn't really used for slapping cheek. Furthermore, sports create techniques & motions; they evolve & add motions not from everyday-life (explicit proofs have to check such). Also, whether hitting 45 degrees, 0 degrees or 90 degrees from the front, shoulder-push & Yong stacking speed, power, mass doesn't change for hand strike; the strike techniques are the same. Taekyun & Subak techniques are consistent in authenticity. Subak had swing slaps hitting front (frontal slap), straight slaps, punches already at the ancient time; Taekkyeon also had all those in the medieval times already. Straight slaps are also common in everyday-life anyway such as swatting, spanking. There are authoritative explicit proofs for Taekkyeon, Taekkyeon-Yetbub, Subak moves from the older eras by reputable sources.

Taekkyeon Myths & Facts[edit]

There's a Taekkyeon myth today that it is a kicking game. This is because Taekkyeon hasn't been a popular sport in South Korea while Taekwondo predominantly took Taekkyeon's place as an ethnic sport. Taekwondo originates from Gwonbeop (Mas Oyama wrote in his book "Karate for a million people" that Korean Gwonbeop existed even then, which Byungin Yoon's nickname Gyungnong 18ki, meaning Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop, corroborates) & Karate. However, Taekwondo has been putting in efforts to take a place as an ethnic sport in Korea. As a result, Taekkyeon has been known to the most people in the public through Taekwondo's rendition of Taekkyeon which is from indirect information via bits and pieces of records on Taekkyeon particularly in regards to kicking references.

In reality, there are 2 sets of games in Taekkyeon: regular competition Taekkyeon & Taekkeyon-Yetbeop. Regular Taekkyeon is a throwing wrestling game with kicks allowed. Taekkyeon-Yetbeop is a street fighting rule full contact style similar to Nalparam & Sibak including punching & kicking. Nalparam & Sibak are also taught by Taekkyeon whether that version of Taekkyeon is a set of 2 games like South Korea (regular Taekkyeon & Taekkyeon-Yetbeop) or just 1 game (Nalparam & Nanjangbaksi).

Difference between Sibak & Subak[edit]

Sibak isn't the same as Subak. Taekkyeon isn't Subak. Medieval Korean encyclopedia differentiates Taekkyeon & Subak. If they were the same, the people in the older era wouldn't have invented a new name to make the distinctions. Murayama Jijun recorded Nanjangbaksi to be a team street fighting game like Korean Prize Fight historically recorded, not a wrestling game nor a kicking game.[35] Sibak hits with any body part. Subak uses frontal slap, side slap, punches, Knife Hand strikes with fist and grab moving front and back, hand and fingers bending (Namseon Choi's description).[36] Also, Taekkyeon has kicks, which would be a main distinction between Subak & Sibak, which is why the older people differentiated Sibak from Subak. Also, Chaeho Shin testified that only Songdo (North Korea) had Subak 100 years ago. [37] Chaeho Shin also described that Subak became Gwonbeop in China, Judo in Japan.[38] Subak has relation to both wrestling & also striking martial art. Sibak (this is also a Taekkyeon) is a new version of Subak which includes kicking, headbutt, punches, etc.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (in Korean) Lee Yong-bok (이용복): "Taek-Gyeon Research" (택견연구) ISBN 8971930748. Seoul: Hakminsa Publishing, 2001
  2. ^ (in Korean) Song Dokki (송덕기) and Bak Jong-gwan (박종관): The traditional martial art Taekkyon (전통무예 택견). Seoul: Seorim Munhwasa Publishing 1983. ISBN 89-7186-209-2. ISBN 89-7186-001-4 (Set)
  3. ^ (in Korean) Lee Yongbok (이용복): Taekkyon, a Korean Martial Art (한국무예 택견). Seoul: Hakminsa Publishing 1990.
  4. ^ Culin, Stewart. Korean games with notes on the corresponding games of China and Japan (1895) pg. 39
  5. ^ (in Korean) Lee Yong-bok (이용복): Taekkyon (택견). Daewonsa Publishing, Seoul 1995, S. 14 f.
  6. ^ UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity List
  7. ^ Song Dokki (송덕기) und Bak Jong-gwan (박종관): Taekkyeon, a Traditional Martial Art (전통무예 택견). Seoul: Seorim Munhwasa Publishing 1983. Page 21.
  8. ^ "1895's Korean Prize Fighting Game".
  9. ^ "Taekkyon Yetbub is Nalparam".
  10. ^ "medieval Korean encyclopedia Jaemulbo records Sibak ("opponent-hitting") to be also Taekkyeon".
  11. ^ "1941's Murayama Jijun's Baksi & Nanjangbaksi record".
  12. ^ "Taekkyeon has contents to be recorded as Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop".
  13. ^ "Taekyun-Yetbub is Nalparam 1".
  14. ^ "Taekyun-Yetbub is Nalparam 2".
  15. ^ "Taekyun-Yetbub has frontal chest slap; the same book also mentions jaw breaking Taekyun-Yetbub slap".
  16. ^ "Taekkyeon Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap) description".
  17. ^ "Taekyun-Yetbub article on Mookas News".
  18. ^ "Taekkyeon-Yetbeop related Taegyeok with textbook drawn in 1950's".
  19. ^ "1920's Water-Taekkyeon throwing sister in law".
  20. ^ "Stewart Culin's record on Taekkyeon rule".
  21. ^ "1888's Korean street fighting scene with no-spin horizontal fist punching".
  22. ^ "1927's Korean Flag Fight, Gitssaum, a street fighting game with no-spin horizontal fist punching & shoulder-push for frontal punch".
  23. ^ "1927's Korean Flag Fight, Gitssaum, a street fighting game with no-spin horizontal fist punching & shoulder-push for frontal punch".
  24. ^ "an old Poongsokhwa drawing of Pyunssaum by Gisan Joongeun Kim".
  25. ^ "1895's Korean Prize Fighting Game".
  26. ^ "300 years old Korean Gwonbub picture pushing shoulder in punch for mass & strength".
  27. ^ "1927's Korean Flag Fight, Gitssaum, a street fighting game with no-spin horizontal fist punching & shoulder-push for frontal punch".
  28. ^ "1692's Korean Ikmyung Yang breaking a stone with hand strike & Yongryuk (stacking speed & power)".
  29. ^ "300 years old Korean Muyedobotongji Gwonbub's Taekwondo punch".
  30. ^ "1888's Korean street fighting scene with no-spin horizontal fist punching".
  31. ^ "1927's Korean Flag Fight, Gitssaum, a street fighting game with no-spin horizontal fist punching & shoulder-push for frontal punch".
  32. ^ "Taekyun-Yetbub has frontal chest slap; the same book also mentions jaw breaking Taekyun-Yetbub slap".
  33. ^ "Taekkyeon Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap) description".
  34. ^ "Taekyun-Yetbub article on Mookas News".
  35. ^ "1941's Murayama Jijun's Baksi & Nanjangbaksi record".
  36. ^ "Chosun Common Sense Q & A, 1937's Subak Newspaper Column".
  37. ^ "North Korea's Songdo city had Subak 100 years ago".
  38. ^ "North Korea's Songdo city had Subak 100 years ago".

External links[edit]