|Radio Cincinnati, Inc. (1939–1959)|
|Industry||television and radio network|
|Fate||Acquired by Clear Channel Communications|
The company is rooted in the family of William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States. In 1879, William Howard's brother, Charles Phelps Taft, purchased two afternoon newspapers in Cincinnati, The Times and The Cincinnati Daily Star, merging them into the Cincinnati Times-Star in 1880. It was during the tenure of the merged paper's second publisher, Hulbert Taft Sr., son of Charles and William Howard's half-brother, Peter Rawson Taft II, that the newspaper also became involved in broadcasting.
The company was the owner of such major media and entertainment properties as Hanna-Barbera Productions, Worldvision Enterprises, Ruby-Spears Productions, KECO Entertainment and many television and radio stations. It also owned 50% of CIC Video's Australian operations, CIC-Taft Home Video.
The company went through a huge reorganization period starting in the late 1980s with its acquisition by Carl Lindner, Jr. to become Great American Broadcasting. Shortly after filing for bankruptcy in 1993, it became Citicasters and was, in 1999, acquired by Clear Channel Communications, which was renamed iHeartMedia in 2014. Taft — as Citicasters — is still incorporated as a holding company within iHeartMedia.
In April 1949 Taft's first TV station, WKRC-TV in Cincinnati began broadcasting.
In 1951, in its first expansion outside Ohio, Radio Cincinnati acquired a 20 percent interest in WBIR-AM-FM in Knoxville, Tennessee from father-and-son owners J. Lindsay and Gilmore Nunn. A year-and-a-half later, the Taft family increased its stake to 30 percent when the Nunns sold additional shares in that station to Martha and Robert Ashe, John P. Hart, and Radio Cincinnati.
In August 1956 WBIR-TV in Knoxville began broadcasting, under the same ownership structure as the WBIR radio stations.
In 1958, the Cincinnati Times-Star was merged into the Cincinnati Post, published by the E.W. Scripps Company. Radio Cincinnati also purchased WKXP-TV in Lexington, Kentucky, from local interests and changed its call letters to WKYT-TV.
In 1959, the company acquired the remaining 70 percent of WBIR-AM-FM-TV in Knoxville. Also in 1959, the Taft family merged its broadcasting subsidiaries into one, using the Taft Broadcasting Company name.
In 1960 Taft launched WTVN-FM in Columbus (it is now WLVQ). A year later the company sold the WBIR stations in Knoxville to WMRC, Inc. (later to become Multimedia Inc.) of Greenville, South Carolina.
In 1963, Taft purchased several stations from Transcontinent Television Corporation: WDAF-AM-FM-TV in Kansas City, Missouri, WGR-AM-FM-TV in Buffalo, New York, and WNEP-TV in Scranton, Pennsylvania.
In October 1966 Taft purchased the Hanna-Barbera cartoon studio from its founders, Joseph Barbera, William Hanna and George Sidney. Several months later in April 1967, the firm sold WKYT-TV to a subsidiary of Kentucky Central Life Insurance Company.
On November 10, 1967, Taft Broadcasting president and chairman Hulbert Taft Jr. died in liquid propane gas-related explosion in a bomb shelter he had built on his property in the Cincinnati suburb of Indian Hill. Days after his death, his son Dudley S. Taft replaced him on the firm's board of directors, and he eventually became head of the company.
In 1969, Taft purchased WIBF-TV in Philadelphia and changed its call letters to WTAF-TV. The FCC initially granted Taft a waiver to keep both WTAF-TV and WNEP-TV, but later reversed itself in 1973 (four years later), and Taft sold the Scranton outlet to the station's management, who formed NEP Communications.
In 1970, Taft formed Rhodes Productions, a television syndication arm for various independent TV programs, including those of Hanna-Barbera.
In 1972, Taft opened its first theme park, Kings Island, outside of Cincinnati. Taft owned five other theme parks through its KECO Entertainment division. WBRC radio and WBRC-FM in Birmingham are sold to Mooney Broadcasting.
In 1975, Rhodes Productions was sold to Filmways. Taft, H-B Program Sales and Taft, H-B International were established as the new domestic and overseas television distribution arms.
In 1979, Taft purchased WDCA-TV in Washington, D.C. from the Superior Tube Company. Around this same period, Taft also acquired independent distributor Worldvision Enterprises (formerly a division of ABC) and production company QM Productions.
In 1980, Taft acquired Sunn Classic Pictures and two additional Schick divisions. Sunn Classic was reincorporated as Taft International Pictures as well as QM Productions reincorporated into Taft Entertainment Television, although the QM name and logo continued to be used on-screen and for copyright purposes until 1983.
In 1981, Taft acquired Ruby-Spears Productions from Filmways. Around this time, Taft split its operation into two "subdivisions": the "Taft Entertainment Company" (which included Hanna-Barbera, Ruby-Spears, Worldvision, the theme parks, Taft International Pictures, and Taft Entertainment Television). The other was the "Taft Television & Radio Co, Inc.". Also in 1981, Taft, in partnership with The Great-West Life Assurance Company or Winnipeg and Denver, opened Canada's Wonderland, a theme park near Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
In 1985 Taft purchased Gulf Broadcasting, which includes KTXA in Fort Worth; KTXH in Houston; WTSP in St. Petersburg, Florida; KTSP-TV (now KSAZ-TV) in Phoenix; KESQ-TV in Palm Springs, California; and WGHP in High Point, North Carolina. As a result, Taft sold several radio stations to CBS to comply with FCC rules. KESQ-TV was spun off to former Gulf Broadcasting executive E. Grant Fitts.
In October 1986, WTAF-TV in Philadelphia and WCIX in Miami became charter affiliates of the Fox Broadcasting Company. One month later, Taft announced the sale of both of those stations along with its three independent stations (WDCA-TV, KTXA, and KTXH) to the TVX Broadcast Group; the sale was completed in April 1987. Taft also sold WGR radio and WRLT-FM (the former WGR-FM) in Buffalo to Rich Communications, a subsidiary of Buffalo-based Rich Products.
Later in 1987, Cincinnati-based businessman Carl Lindner, Jr. became Taft's majority stockholder in a hostile takeover and renamed the company Great American Broadcasting (also known as Great American Communications) following a major restructuring of its operations. The new name came from Linder's insurance company, Great American Insurance. The FCC considered this restructuring to be an ownership change, and told Lindner he could not keep both WTVN-TV and WKRC-TV. As a result, Great American spun off WTVN-TV to Anchor Media, a new firm composed of former Taft Broadcasting board members led by Robert Bass. (The two stations have since been reunited under the Sinclair Broadcast Group, with cross-ownership rules having since been relaxed.) Another new company, led by former Taft Broadcasting president Dudley S. Taft Sr., took the Taft Broadcasting name. This new company retained WGHP and later purchases another Philadelphia station, WPHL-TV.
In 1988, Great American Broadcasting sold Worldvision to Aaron Spelling Productions. Included with Worldvision were outright ownership of all of Great American's programming assets (including the remnants of Taft International Pictures and Taft Entertainment Television), except for the Hanna-Barbera and Ruby-Spears libraries, which remained owned by Great American for the time being. However, Worldvision continued to hold syndication rights until the two animation studios found new owners.
In 1991, Hanna-Barbera, along with much of the original Ruby-Spears library, was acquired by Turner Broadcasting System, which became part of Time Warner in 1996. As part of this deal, syndication rights to the libraries were passed to Turner Program Services (via Turner Entertainment Co.) prior to Time Warner's purchase of Turner. Eventually, TPS was folded into Warner Bros. Television Distribution. The Ruby-Spears studio was spun off and bought back by Joe Ruby and Ken Spears, and operated as an independent operation from then forward.
In 1992, KECO Entertainment, Great American's theme park division, was sold to Paramount Communications (the parent of Paramount Pictures; the parent company was formerly known as Gulf+Western) and became Paramount Parks, later to be acquired by Viacom. (These parks were sold to Cedar Fair Entertainment Co. by CBS in 2006.) Great American also reacquired WGHP from Dudley Taft.
In 1993, Great American filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and renamed to Citicasters Communications. It also sold WKRC radio to Jacor and shut down Electra, a teletext service operated as a joint venture between Taft, Zenith, and Turner Broadcasting's WTBS (now WPCH-TV) in Atlanta.
In 1994, Citicasters sold most of its TV stations, including WDAF-TV and KSAZ-TV to New World Communications, and WBRC and WGHP to the News Corporation's Fox Television Stations unit, which would later acquire the New World chain.
In 1996, Citicasters, by then the owner of two television stations, five AM radio stations and 14 FM radio stations, merged with Jacor, which became a subsidiary of Citicasters. Three months after the merger was completed, Jacor exchanged WTSP to Gannett in return for Gannett's radio stations in Los Angeles, San Diego and Tampa. In 1997, as a condition of the merger, Jacor sold WKRQ and the original WDAF-FM (by then KYYS, now KCKC) to American Radio Systems, which would become acquired by Infinity Broadcasting (later renamed CBS Radio) in 1998. Also in 1997, Jacor sold WDAF-AM (now KCSP) to Entercom.
In 1997, the Worldvision properties that had previously been under Taft and Great American (with the exception of the Hanna-Barbera and most of the Ruby-Spears material) were incorporated into Republic Pictures (today part of CBS Television Studios).
Stations formerly owned by Taft Broadcasting and its successors
Stations are arranged in alphabetical order by state and city of license.
- Two boldface asterisks appearing following a station's call letters (**) indicate a station that was built and signed-on by Taft.
|City of license / Market||Station||Channel
|Years owned||Current ownership status|
|Birmingham - Tuscaloosa - Anniston||WBRC-TV||6 (50)||1957–1995||Fox affiliate owned by Gray Television|
|Phoenix||KTSP-TV||10 (10)||1985–1994||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O), KSAZ-TV|
|Washington, D.C.||WDCA-TV||20 (35)||1979–1987||MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated (O&O)|
|Miami - Fort Lauderdale||WCIX||6 (now 4 (22))||1983–1987||CBS owned-and-operated (O&O), WFOR-TV|
|St. Petersburg - Tampa||WTSP||10 (10)||1985–1996||CBS affiliate owned by Tegna Inc.|
|Lexington, Kentucky||WKYT-TV||27 (36)||1958–1967||CBS affiliate owned by Gray Television|
|Kansas City, Missouri||WDAF-TV||4 (34)||1964–1994||Fox affiliate owned by Tribune Broadcasting|
|Buffalo, New York||WGR-TV||2 (33)||1964–1983||NBC affiliate, WGRZ, owned by Tegna Inc.|
|High Point - Greensboro -
|WGHP||8 (35)||1985–1995||Fox affiliate owned by Tribune Broadcasting|
|Cincinnati||WKRC-TV **||12 (12)||1949–1996||CBS affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group|
|Columbus, Ohio||WTVN-TV||6 (48)||1953–1987||ABC affiliate, WSYX, owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group|
|Philadelphia||WTAF-TV||29 (42)||1969–1987||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O), WTXF-TV|
|WPHL-TV||17 (17)||1987–1992||MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Tribune Broadcasting|
|Scranton - Wilkes-Barre, PA||WNEP-TV||16 (50)||1964–1973||ABC affiliate owned by Dreamcatcher Broadcasting, LLC|
(operated through a SSA by Tribune Broadcasting)
|Knoxville, Tennessee||WBIR-TV||10 (10)||1959–1961 1||NBC affiliate owned by Tegna Inc.|
|Fort Worth - Dallas||KTXA||21 (29)||1985–1987||Independent owned by CBS Corporation|
|Houston||KTXH||20 (19)||1985–1987||MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated (O&O)|
- 1 Prior to full ownership, Taft held a 30% interest in WBIR between 1956 and 1959.
(a partial listing)
|AM Station||FM Station|
|City of license/Market||Station/frequency||Years owned||Current ownership|
|Birmingham, Alabama||WBRC–960||1957–1972||WERC, owned by IHeartMedia|
|WBRC-FM 106.9||1957–1972||WBPT, owned by SummitMedia|
|Kansas City, Missouri||WDAF 610||1964–1987||KCSP, owned by Entercom|
|WDAF-FM 102.1||1964–1987||KCKC, Owned by Wilks Broadcasting|
|Buffalo, New York||WGR 550||1964–1987||Owned by Entercom|
|WGR-FM 96.9||1964–1987||WGRF, owned by Cumulus Media|
|Cincinnati||WKRC 550||1939–1987||Owned by IHeartMedia|
|WKRC-FM 101.9 **||1947–1987||WKRQ, owned by Hubbard Broadcasting|
|Columbus, Ohio||WTVN 610||1954–1987||Owned by IHeartMedia|
|WTVN-FM 96.3 **||1960–1987||WLVQ, owned by Wilks Broadcasting|
|Pittsburgh||KQV 1410||1974–1982||Owned by Calvary, Inc.|
|WDVE 102.5||1974–1987||Owned by IHeartMedia|
|Knoxville, Tennessee||WBIR 1240||1959–1961 1||WIFA, owned by Progressive Media, Inc.|
|WBIR-FM 103.5||1959–1961 1||WIMZ-FM, owned by Midwest Communications|
- 1 Prior to full ownership, Taft held a 20% interest in the station from 1951 to 1953. The stake was increased to 30% from 1953 to 1959.
- Albiniak, Paige (November 25, 2001). "A Cloud Over Clear Channel; Petition says it controls stations through 'fronts,' including Ohio FM it seeks to buy". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Times-Star buys WKRC, Cincinnati." Broadcasting - Broadcast Advertising, September 1, 1939, pg. 34. [permanent dead link]
- "WKRC's transfer approved by FCC." Broadcasting - Broadcast Advertising, December 1, 1939, pg. 36. [permanent dead link]
- "Taft gets WBIR interest." Broadcasting - Telecasting, September 17, 1951, pg. 4. 
- "FCC okays ownership shifts for KTHT, WBIR." Broadcasting - Telecasting, April 13, 1953, pg. 52. [permanent dead link]
- "TV station is purchased." The New York Times, January 13, 1953, pg. 32.
- "Taft buys WTVN for $1.5 million." Broadcasting, January 19, 1953, pg. 56. 
- "FCC approves WTVN (TV) sale from Lamb to Taft family." Broadcasting, March 2, 1953, pg. 54. 
- "WHKC bought by WTVN (TV), WKRC interests for $158,000." Broadcasting - Telecasting, April 19, 1954, pg. 7. 
- "This week's receipts: $26 million." Broadcasting - Telecasting, April 8, 1957, pp. 31-32. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, May 19, 1958, pp. 88, 90
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, October 12, 1959, pg. 54[permanent dead link]
- "Taft files with SEC to sell common stock." Broadcasting, June 15, 1959, pg. 66. 
- "For the record." Broadcasting, June 29, 1959, pg. 92: Subsidiaries WBRC, Inc. (WBRC-AM-FM-TV), WTVN, Inc. (WTVN-TV), Radio Cincinnati, Inc. (WKRC-AM-FM-TV and WKYT-TV), and Radio Columbus, Inc. (WTVN-AM-FM) were merged into Taft Broadcasting Co., announced June 23, 1959. 
- "For the record." Broadcasting, February 8, 1960, pg. 98: Subsidiary WBIR, Inc. (WBIR-AM-FM-TV) was merged into Taft Broadcasting Co., announced February 1, 1960. 
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, September 26, 1960, pg. 50[permanent dead link]
- "Principals complete WBIR-AM-TV transfer." Broadcasting, January 16, 1961, pg. 53. [permanent dead link]
- "Transcontinent sale: Last of its kind?" Broadcasting, February 24, 1964, pp. 27-28. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "Radio-TV concern to sell stations." The New York Times, Aug. 3, 1963, pg. 21.
- "Yogi and friends going to Taft". Broadcasting, October 31, 1966, pg. 78. 
- "Station sales total $10.7 million". Broadcasting, May 1, 1967, pg. 58. 
- "Gas Leak May Have Caused Blast Blast Killing Hulbert Taft Jr". The Cincinnati Enquirer. November 12, 1967. p. 1.
- "Hulbert Taft Jr. Killed as Blast Rips Shelter". The Cincinnati Enquirer. November 11, 1967. p. 1.
- "Dudley S. Taft Named to Board". The Cincinnati Enquirer. November 14, 1967. p. 29.
- "$20 million in TV sales approved." Broadcasting, May 12, 1969, pg. 48. [permanent dead link]
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, November 26, 1973, pg. 28[permanent dead link]
- "Taft's WBRC-AM-FM sold for $2 million." Broadcasting, January 24, 1972, pg. 29. [permanent dead link]
- "Taft in, ABC out of Pittsburgh radio." Broadcasting, April 1, 1974, pg. 22. [permanent dead link]
- "Taft's turn to buy WDCA-TV; price this time is $13.5 million." Broadcasting, May 1, 1978, pg. 50. 
- "FCC stays on course, just barely, with top-50 policy; grants waiver for Taft buy of WDCA-TV." Broadcasting, August 20, 1979, pp. 25-26. [permanent dead link] [permanent dead link]
- "A THEME PARK CALLED WONDERLAND OPENS NEAR TORONTO". The New York Times. 1981-05-24. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, April 12, 1982, pg. 98[permanent dead link]
- "$110 million deal for Miami independent." Broadcasting, August 2, 1982, pg. 24. 
- "Taft buys Gulf." Broadcasting, February 4, 1985, pg. 38
- "In brief." Broadcasting, June 3, 1985, pg. 128
- "CBS's audio concentration." Broadcasting, May 6, 1985, pg. 40[permanent dead link]
- Broadcasting Yearbook, 1987, pg. 353
- "Fox network begins to take shape." Broadcasting, August 4, 1986, pg. 44. [permanent dead link]
- "Taft's TV's go to TVX for $240 million." Broadcasting, November 24, 1986, pg. 41. [permanent dead link]
- "McDonald paints a bright picture for TVX." Broadcasting, May 11, 1987, pg. 37. [permanent dead link]
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, February 23, 1987, pg. 64
- Applebome, Peter (June 5, 1988). "TEXAS DEAL MAKER: Robert M. Bass; A Younger Brother Steps Out on His Own". New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
- "Taft Broadcasting now Taft-less." Broadcasting, February 2, 1987, pg. 43. 
- "Green light expected for Taft sale." Broadcasting, September 28, 1987, pp. 36-37. 
- Shostak, Stu (01-16-2013). "Interview with Joe Ruby and Ken Spears". Stu's Show. Retrieved 03-18-2013.
- WTVN-TV History Page at the Early Television Foundation