Tagalog Republic

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Tagalog Republic (Filipino: Republika ng Katagalugan or Republikang Tagalog) is a term used to refer to two revolutionary governments involved in the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and the Philippine–American War. Both were connected to the Katipunan revolutionary movement.

Etymology[edit]

The term Tagalog commonly refers to both an ethno-linguistic group in the Philippines and their language. Katagalugan often refers to the Tagalog-speaking regions of the island of Luzon in the Philippine archipelago.

However, the Katipunan secret society extended the meaning of these terms to all of the natives in the Philippine islands. The society's primer explains its use of Tagalog in a footnote:

Sa salitáng tagalog katutura’y ang lahát nang tumubo sa Sangkapuluáng itó; sa makatuid, bisaya man, iloko man, kapangpangan man, etc., ay tagalog din. (The word Tagalog refers to all of those born in this archipelago; therefore, even Visayans, Ilocanos, Kapampangans, etc. would just as well be called Tagalogs.)[1][2]

The revolutionary Carlos Ronquillo wrote in his memoirs:

Ang tagalog o lalong malinaw, ang tawag na "tagalog" ay waláng ibáng kahulugán kundi ‘tagailog’ na sa tuwirang paghuhulo ay taong maibigang manirá sa tabíng ilog, bagay na 'di maikakaila na siyáng talagáng hilig ng tanang anák ng Pilipinas, saa’t saán mang pulo at bayan. (Tagalog, or more precisely, the name "Tagalog", has no other meaning but "tagailog" which, traced directly to its root, refers to those who prefer to settle along rivers, truly a trait, it cannot be denied, of all those born in the Philippines, in whichever island or town.)[1][2]

In this respect, Katagalugan may be translated as the "Tagalog nation."[1][2]

Andrés Bonifacio, a founding member of the Katipunan and later its supreme head (Supremo), promoted the use of Katagalugan for the Philippine nation. The term "Filipino" was then reserved for Spaniards born in the islands. By eschewing "Filipino" and "Filipinas" which had colonial roots, Bonifacio and his cohorts "sought to form a national identity."[1]

In 1896, the Philippine Revolution broke out after the discovery of the Katipunan by the authorities. Prior to the outbreak of hostilities, the Katipunan had become an open revolutionary government.[1][3][4] The American historian John R. M. Taylor, custodian of the Philippine Insurgent Records, wrote:

The Katipunan came out from the cover of secret designs, threw off the cloak of any other purpose, and stood openly for the independence of the Philippines. Bonifacio turned his lodges into battalions, his grandmasters into captains, and the supreme council of the Katipunan into the insurgent government of the Philippines.[1][2]

Several Filipino historians concur. According to Gregorio Zaide:

The Katipunan was more than a secret revolutionary society; it was, withal, a Government. It was the intention of Bonifacio to have the Katipunan govern the whole Philippines after the overthrow of Spanish rule.[1][4]

Likewise, Renato Constantino and others wrote that the Katipunan served as a shadow government.[5][6][7][8]

Influenced by Freemasonry, the Katipunan had been organized with "its own laws, bureaucratic structure and elective leadership".[1] For each province it involved, the Supreme Council coordinated provincial councils[2] which were in charge of "public administration and military affairs on the supra-municipal or quasi-provincial level"[1] and local councils,[2] in charge of affairs "on the district or barrio level".[1]

Bonifacio[edit]

Sovereign Tagalog Nation

Haring Bayang Katagalugan
1896–1897
Flag of Tagalog Republic
Philippine revolution flag pugadlawin.svg
Two of several variations of Katipunan flags
Great Seal of Tagalog Republic
Great Seal
Anthem: Marangál na Dalit ng̃ Katagalugan
("Honorable Hymn of the Tagalog Nation")
StatusUnrecognized state
CapitalTondo, Manila
Common languagesTagalog, Philippine languages
GovernmentRevolutionary republic
President / Supreme Leader 
• 1896–1897
Andrés Bonifacio
LegislatureKataas-taasang Sanggunian (Supreme Council)
Historical eraPhilippine Revolution
August 24, 1896
August 30, 1896
September 1, 1896
December 30, 1896
December 31, 1896
March 22, 1897
May 10, 1897
CurrencyPeso
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Captaincy General of the Philippines
Captaincy General of the Philippines
Tejeros Government

In the last days of August, 1896, Katipunan members met in Caloocan and decided to start their revolt[1] (the event was later called the "Cry of Balintawak" or "Cry of Pugad Lawin"; the exact location and date are disputed). A day after the Cry, the Supreme Council of the Katipunan held elections, with the following results:[1][2]

Position Name
President / Supremo Andrés Bonifacio
Secretary of War Teodoro Plata
Secretary of State Emilio Jacinto
Secretary of the Interior Aguedo del Rosario
Secretary of Justice Briccio Pantas
Secretary of Finance Enrique Pacheco

The above was divulged to the Spanish by the Katipunan member Pío Valenzuela while in captivity.[1][2] Teodoro Agoncillo thus wrote:

"Presidente" Bonifacio in La Ilustración Española y Americana, February 8, 1897

Immediately before the outbreak of the revolution, therefore, Bonifacio organized the Katipunan into a government revolving around a ‘cabinet’ composed of men of his confidence.[9]

Milagros C. Guerrero and others have described Bonifacio as "effectively" the commander-in-chief of the revolutionaries. They assert:

As commander-in-chief, Bonifacio supervised the planning of military strategies and the preparation of orders, manifests and decrees, adjudicated offenses against the nation, as well as mediated in political disputes. He directed generals and positioned troops in the fronts. On the basis of command responsibility, all victories and defeats all over the archipelago during his term of office should be attributed to Bonifacio.[1]

One name for Bonifacio's concept of the Philippine nation-state appears in surviving Katipunan documents: Haring Bayang Katagalugan ("Sovereign Nation of the Tagalog People", or "Sovereign Tagalog Nation") - sometimes shortened into Haring Bayan ("Sovereign Nation"). Bayan may be rendered as "nation" or "people". Bonifacio is named as the president of the "Tagalog Republic" in an issue of the Spanish periodical La Ilustración Española y Americana published in February 1897 ("Andrés Bonifacio - Titulado "Presidente" de la República Tagala"). Another name for Bonifacio's government was Repúblika ng Katagalugan (another form of "Tagalog Republic") as evidenced by a picture of a rebel seal published in the same periodical the next month.[1][2]

Official letters and one appointment paper of Bonifacio addressed to Emilio Jacinto reveal Bonifacio's various titles and designations, as follows:[1][2]

  • President of the Supreme Council
  • Supreme President
  • President of the Sovereign Nation of Katagalugan / Sovereign Tagalog Nation
  • President of the Sovereign Nation, Founder of the Katipunan, Initiator of the Revolution
  • Office of the Supreme President, Government of the Revolution

An 1897 power struggle at the Imus Assembly in Cavite led to command of the revolution shifting at the Tejeros Convention, where a new insurgent government was formed with Emilio Aguinaldo as president. Bonifacio refused to recognize the new government after his election as Director of the Interior was questioned by Daniel Tirona. This led to the Acta de Tejeros, the Naic Military Agreement and Bonifacio's trial and execution.

Sakay[edit]

Tagalog Republic

Repúbliká ng̃ Katagalugan
1902–1906
Flag of Tagalog Republic
Flag
Coat of arms of Tagalog Republic
Coat of arms
StatusUnrecognized state
CapitalRizal
GovernmentProvisional government
President 
• 1902–1906
Macario Sakay
Vice President 
• 1902–1906
Francisco Carreón
Historical eraPhilippine–American War
• Declaration of Independence
May 6, 1902
• Capture of Macario Sakay
July 14, 1906
Preceded by
Succeeded by
United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands
First Philippine Republic
Insular Government of the Philippine Islands
Today part ofPhilippines

After Emilio Aguinaldo and his men were captured by the US forces in 1901, General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member, established in 1902 his own Tagalog Republic (Tagalog: Repúbliká ng̃ Katagalugan) in the mountains of Morong (today, the province of Rizal), and held the presidency with Francisco Carreón as vice president.[10] In April 1904, Sakay issued a manifesto declaring Filipino right to self-determination at a time when support for independence was considered a crime by the American colonial government.[11]

Position Name
President Macario Sakay
Vice President Francisco Carreón
Minister of War Domingo Moriones
Minister of the Government Alejandro Santiago
Minister of State Nicolás Rivera

The republic ended in 1906 when Sakay and his leading followers were arrested by American authorities and the following year executed for banditry.[11] Some of its survivors escaped to Japan to be joined with Artemio Ricarte, an exiled Katipunan veteran, and later returned to support the Second Philippine Republic, a client state of Japan, during World War II.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Guerrero, Milagros; Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (2003), "Andrés Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution", Sulyap Kultura, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 1 (2): 3–12
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Guerrero, Milagros; Schumacher, S.J., John (1998), Reform and Revolution, Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People, 5, Asia Publishing Company Limited, ISBN 962-258-228-1
  3. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 177–179
  4. ^ a b Zaide, Gregorio (1984), Philippine History and Government, National Bookstore Printing Press
  5. ^ Constantino 1975, pp. 179–181
  6. ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 25 (Item 3 in the list, referring to Note 41 at p. 61, citing Guerrero, Encarnacion & Villegas 2003);
    ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 26, "Formation of a revolutionary government";
    ^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 135 (in "Document G", Account of Mr. Briccio Brigado Pantas).
  7. ^ Halili & Halili 2004, pp. 138–139.
  8. ^ Severino, Howie (November 27, 2007), Bonifacio for (first) president, GMA News.
  9. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. [page needed]
  10. ^ Kabigting Abad, Antonio (1955). General Macario L. Sakay: Was He a Bandit or a Patriot?. J. B. Feliciano and Sons Printers-Publishers.
  11. ^ a b Flores, Paul (August 12, 1995). "Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?". Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-08.

References[edit]