Taghut

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Taghut (ar. طاغوت, ṭāġūt. pl. ṭawāġīt. literally: tyrant) is Islamic terminology denoting a focus of worship other than Allah. In traditional theology, the term often connotes idols or demons drawn to blood.[1] In modern times, the term is also applied to earthly tyrannical power, as implied in surah Al-ma’idah verse 60.[2] The modern Islamic philosopher Abul A'la Maududi defines taghut in his Qur'anic commentary as a creature who not only rebels against God but transgresses his will.[3] Due to these associations, in recent times the term may refer to any person or group accused of being anti-Islamic and an agent of Western cultural imperialism. The term was introduced to modern political discourse since the usage surrounding Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini during the 1979 Iranian Revolution, through accusations made both by and against Khomeini.[2]

Etymology[edit]

Most Orientalists take the word as derived from Ethiopic amlaka gebt meaning strange, foreign god, interpretated by Muhammad as referring to an idol or a false deity.[4]

Otherwise the Arabic word ṭāġūt is seen as derived from the three-letter Arabic verbal root of ط-غ-ت T-G-T which means to "cross the limits, overstep boundaries," or "to rebel."[5] From this, Taghut denotes one who exceeds their limits.

In the Qur'an[edit]

The term taghut occurs eight times in the Qur'an.[2]

Do you not see how those given a share of the Scripture, [evidently] now believe in idols and evil powers? (Taghut) They say of the disbelievers, 'They are more rightly guided than the believers.

— Qur'an, Sura 4 (An-Nisa), ayat 51[6]

This is taken to refer to an actual event in which a group of disbelieving Meccans went to two eminent Jewish figures for counsel on the truth of Muhammad's teachings and were told that the pagans were more rightly guided than Muslims.[7]

Do you [Prophet] not see those who claim to believe in what has been sent down to you, and in what was sent down before you, yet still want to turn to unjust tyrants for judgement, although they have been ordered to reject them? Satan wants to lead them far astray.

— Qur'an, Sura 4 (An-Nisa), ayat 60[8]

The Arabic taghut is variously interpreted to refer to idols, a specific tyrant, an oracle, or an opponent of the Prophet.[9][10]

The believers fight for God's cause, while those who reject faith fight for an unjust cause (taghut). Fight the allies of Satan: Satan's strategies are truly weak.

— Qur'an, Sura 4 (An-Nisa), ayat 76[11]

Again, this term taghut has been used here to designate a demon worshipped by the Quraysh.[12]

There is no compulsion in religion: true guidance has become distinct from error, so whoever rejects (taghut) false gods and believes in God has grasped the firmest hand-hold, one that will never break. God is all hearing, all knowing.

— Qur'an, Sura 2 (Al-Baqarah), ayat 256[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 210 (German)
  2. ^ a b c Momen, Moojan. (1995). "Țāghūt". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ Mawdudi, 1988, vol.1, pp.199-200
  4. ^ Bellamy, James A. “Textual Criticism of the Koran.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 121, no. 1, 2001, pp. 1–6. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/606724.
  5. ^ Understanding the Islamic Scripture 2007 Mustansir Mir p.55
  6. ^ Quran 7:51
  7. ^ See Abdel Haleem Oxford Translation p.87 notes
  8. ^ Quran 4:60
  9. ^ See Abdel Haleem Oxford Translation of the Qur'an p.89
  10. ^ Abdel Haleem Oxford Translation p.91
  11. ^ Quran 4:76
  12. ^ Dr. Shmuel Bar Lebanese Hizballah – Political, Ideological and Organizational Highlights 29 October 2006 p. 6
  13. ^ Quran 7:256