Tags (Unicode block)

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Range U+E0000..U+E007F
(128 code points)
Plane SSP
Scripts Common
Assigned 97 code points
Unused 31 reserved code points
1 deprecated
Unicode version history
3.1 97 (+97)
Note: [1][2]

Tags is a Unicode block containing formatting tag characters (language tag and ASCII character tags).

U+E0001, U+E0020–U+E007F were originally intended for invisibly tagging texts by language[3] but that use is no longer recommended.[4] All of those characters were deprecated in Unicode 5.1.

With the release of Unicode 8.0, U+E0020–U+E007E are no longer deprecated characters. The change was made "to clear the way for the potential future use of tag characters for a purpose other than to represent language tags".[5] Unicode states that "the use of tag characters to represent language tags in a plain text stream is still a deprecated mechanism for conveying language information about text".[5]

With the release of Unicode 9.0, U+E007F is no longer a deprecated character. (U+E0001 LANGUAGE TAG remains deprecated.) The release of Emoji 5.0 in March 2017 considers these characters to be emojis for use as modifiers in special sequences. The only usage specified is for representing the flags of regions, alongside the use of Regional Indicator Symbols for national flags[6]. These sequences consist of U+1F3F4 🏴 WAVING BLACK FLAG followed by a sequence of tags corresponding to the region as coded in the CLDR, then U+E007F CANCEL TAG. For example, using the tags for "gbeng" (🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿) will cause some systems to display the flag of England, those for "gbsct" (🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿) the flag of Scotland, and those for "gbwls" (🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿) the flag of Wales.[6] Sequences representing other subnational flags (for examples US states) are also possible using this mechanism, but as of Unicode version 11.0 only the three flag sequences listed above are "Recommended for General Interchange" by the Unicode Consortium, meaning they are "most likely to be widely supported across multiple platforms".[7]

Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+E000x  LANG 
U+E002x   SP     !     "     #     $     %     &     '     (     )     *     +     ,     -     .     /  
U+E003x   0     1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9     :     :     <     =     >     ?  
U+E004x   @     A     B     C     D     E     F     G     H     I     J     K     L     M     N     O  
U+E005x   P     Q     R     S     T     U     V     W     X     Y     Z     [     \     ]     ^     _  
U+E006x   `     a     b     c     d     e     f     g     h     i     j     k     l     m     n     o  
U+E007x   p     q     r     s     t     u     v     w     x     y     z     {     |     }     ~    END 
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
3.^ Unicode code points U+E0001 and U+E0020 through U+E007F were deprecated with Unicode version 5.1 however as of Unicode version 9.0 only U+E0001 remains deprecated


The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Tags block:

Version Final code points[a] Count L2 ID WG2 ID Document
3.1 U+E0001 1 L2/97-203 Whistler, Ken; Adams, Glenn (1997-08-05), Plane 14 characters for generic tags 
L2/97-171R2 Whistler, Ken (1997-09-18), Plane 14 Characters for Generic Tags 
L2/97-256 Allouche, Mati (1997-10-20), Comments on Plane 14 Position Paper 
L2/97-255R Aliprand, Joan (1997-12-03), "3.B. Lightweight language tagging", Approved Minutes - UTC #73 & L2 #170 joint meeting, Palo Alto, CA - August 4-5, 1997 
L2/98-027 N1670 Plane 14 characters for language tags, 1997-12-12 
L2/98-039 Aliprand, Joan; Winkler, Arnold (1998-02-24), "2.C REVISED PROPOSALS", Preliminary Minutes - UTC #74 & L2 #171, Mountain View, CA - December 5, 1997 
N1697 US contribution for the definition of an updated scope for ISO/IEC 10646 Part 2, 1998-03-02 
L2/98-281R Aliprand, Joan (1998-07-31), "IETF and W3C Issues", Unconfirmed Minutes - UTC #77 & NCITS Subgroup L2 # 174 JOINT MEETING, Redmond, WA -- July 29-31, 1998 
L2/02-166R2 Moore, Lisa (2002-08-09), "Character Deprecation", UTC #91 Minutes 
U+E0020..E007F 96 L2/16-042 Fonts, Agustin; Pournader, Roozbeh (2015-01-26), Clarifications Requested for "Full Emoji Data" and Emoji Flags 
L2/15-145 Edberg, Peter (2015-05-04), Proposal for additional regional indicator symbols 
L2/15-107 Moore, Lisa (2015-05-12), "E.1.3 Proposal for additional regional indicator symbols", UTC #143 Minutes 
L2/15-190 Edberg, Peter (2015-06-29), PRI #299 Background: Representing Additional Types of Flags 
L2/15-206 Davis, Mark (2015-07-25), Region / Subdivision validity for flags 
L2/16-180 Burge, Jeremy; Williams, Owen (2016-07-07), Proposal to include Emoji Flags for England, Scotland and Wales 
L2/17-048 Pournader, Roozbeh (2017-01-24), Feedback on PRI 343 (Unicode Emoji 5.0) 
L2/17-086 Burge, Jeremy; et al. (2017-03-27), Add ZWJ, VS-16, Keycaps & Tags to Emoji_Component 
  1. ^ Proposed code points and characters names may differ from final code points and names


  1. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  2. ^ "Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  3. ^ "RFC2482: Language Tagging in Unicode Plain Text". Network Working Group. January 1999. 
  4. ^ "RFC6082: Deprecating Unicode Language Tag Characters: RFC 2482 is Historic". Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). November 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "Unicode 8.0.0, Implications for Migration". Unicode Consortium. 
  6. ^ a b "UTR #51: Unicode Emoji". Unicode Consortium. 2017-05-18. 
  7. ^ "emoji-sequences.txt". Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 27 April 2018.