|Nominally part of the Abbasid Caliphate|
Provinces governed by the Tahirids
|Capital||Merv, later Nishapur|
|•||821||Tahir ibn Husayn|
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The Tahirid dynasty (Persian: طاهریان, Tâhiriyân) was a dynasty, of Persian dihqan origin, that effectively ruled the Khorasan from 821 to 873 while other members of the dynasty served as military and security commanders for the city of Baghdad from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn, a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv but was later moved to Nishapur. The Tahirids have been described as the first independent muslim Iranian dynasty after the fall of the Sassanian Empire. However, according to some sources, such a view is misleading and the Tahirids were loyal to the Abbasid caliphs and enjoyed considerable amount of autonomy rather than being independent from the central authority. In fact, under the Tahirid dynasty, the tax revenue of Khorasan that was sent directly to the caliphal treasury was perhaps much larger than the previously collected extractions.
Rulers of Khurasan
The founder of the Tahirid dynasty was Tahir ibn Husayn, a general who had played a major role in the civil war between the rival caliphs al-Amin and al-Ma'mun. He and his ancestors had previously been awarded minor governorships in eastern Khorasan for their service to the Abbasids. In 821, Tahir was made governor of Khorasan, but he died soon afterwards. The caliph then appointed Tahir's son, Talha, whose governorship lasted from 822–828. Tahir's other son, Abdullah, was instated as the wali of Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, and when Talha died in 828 he was given the governorship of Khorasan. Abdullah is considered one of the greatest of the Tahirid rulers, as his reign witnessed a flourishing of agriculture in his native land of Khorasan, popularity among the populations of the eastern lands of the Abbasid caliphate and extending influence due to his experience with the western parts of the caliphate.
Abdullah died in 845 and was succeeded by his son Tahir II. Not much is known of Tahir's rule, but the administrative dependency of Sistan was lost to rebels during his governorship. Tahirid rule began to seriously deteriorate after Tahir's son Muhammad ibn Tahir became governor, due to his carelessness with the affairs of the state and lack of experience with politics. Oppressive policies in Tabaristan, another dependency of Khorasan, resulted in the people of that province revolting and declaring their allegiance to the independent Zaydi ruler Hasan ibn Zayd in 864. In Khorasan itself, Muhammad's rule continued to grow increasingly weak, and in 873 he was finally overthrown by the Saffarid dynasty, who annexed Khorasan to their own empire in eastern Persia.
Governors of Baghdad
Besides their hold over Khorasan, the Tahirids also served as the military governors (ashab al-shurta) of Baghdad, beginning with Tahir's appointment to that position in 820. After he left for Khorasan, the governorship of Baghdad was given to a member of a collateral branch of the family, Ishaq ibn Ibrahim, who controlled the city for over twenty-five years. During Ishaq's term as governor, he was responsible for implementing the Mihna (inquisition) in Baghdad. His administration also witnessed the departure of the caliphs from Baghdad, as they made the recently constructed city of Samarra their new capital. When Ishaq died in 849 he was succeeded first by two of his sons, and then in 851 by Tahir's grandson Muhammad ibn Abdallah.
Abdallah played a major role in the events of the "Anarchy at Samarra" in the 860s, giving refuge to the caliph al-Musta'in and commanding the defense of Baghdad when it was besieged by the forces of the rival caliph al-Mu'tazz in 865. The following year, he forced al-Musta'in to abdicate and recognized al-Mu'tazz as caliph, and in exchange was allowed to retain his control over Baghdad. Violent riots plagued Baghdad during the last years of Abdallah's life, and conditions in the city remained tumultuous after he died and was succeeded by his brothers, first Ubaydallah and then Sulayman. Eventually order was restored in Baghdad, and the Tahirids continued to serve as governors of the city for another two decades. In 891, however, Badr al-Mu'tadidi was put in charge of the security of Baghdad in place of the Tahirids, and the family soon lost their prominence within the caliphate after that.
Language and culture
The Tahirids were highly Arabized in culture and outlook, and eager to be accepted in the Caliphal world where cultivation of things Arabic gave social and cultural prestige. For this reason, the Tahirids could not play a part in the renaissance of New Persian language and culture. But the Persian language was at least tolerated in the entourage of the Tahirids and the amirs were not positively Anti-Iranian. On the other hand, the Saffarids played the leading part in the renaissance of Persian literature.
Members of the Tahirid dynasty
|Governors of Khurasan|
|Tahir ibn Husayn||821-822|
|Talha ibn Tahir||822-828|
|Abdallah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani||828-845|
|Tahir (II) ibn Abdallah||845-862|
|Muhammad ibn Tahir (II)||862-873|
|Governors of Baghdad|
|Tahir ibn Husayn||820-822|
|Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Mus'abi||822-850|
|Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim||850-851|
|Abdallah ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim||851|
|Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir||851-867|
|Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir||867-869|
|Sulayman ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir||869-879|
|Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah (again)||879-885|
|Muhammad ibn Tahir (II)||885-890|
|Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah (again)||890-891|
Bold denotes a Tahirid that served as governor of Khorasan; italics denotes an individual who served as governor of Baghdad.
- Encyclopedia Britannica "Ṭāhirid dynasty, (821–873 ce), Islamic dynasty of the land of Khorāsān (centred in northeastern Persia), which owed nominal allegiance to the ʿAbbāsid caliph at Baghdad but enjoyed virtual independence."
- Introduction: the Turko-Persian tradition, Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed. Robert Leroy Canfield, (Cambridge University Press, 1991), 6.
- Language situation and scripts: Arabic, S. Blair, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, ed. C.E. Bosworth and M.S. Asimov, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2003), 340.
- The Tahirids and Saffarids, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, ed. Richard Nelson Frye, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 90-91.
- Sectarian and national movements in Iran, Khurasan and Transoxanial during Umayyad in early Abbasid times, F. Daftary, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, 57.
- Encyclopedia Iranica "The Taherids of Iraq. As the events of the late Taherid period demonstrate, the Taherids in Iraq were just about as powerful and important, even if less well known, than their Khorasani relatives. They regularly held positions as military commanders, heads of the security forces (ṣāheb al-šorṭa) for eastern and western Baghdad, and chief tax collectors or administrators (e.g., ʿāmel and moʿāwen) for the Sawād of Kufa."
- Concise History of Islam page 178 : "The Tahirid dynasty is considered to be the first independent dynasty from the Abbasid caliphate established in Khorasan"
- The Ismaili Assassins: A History of Medieval Murder "820 Independent Tahirid dynasty in Khurasan"
- Hugh Kennedy (14 December 2015). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-317-37639-2.
- John L. Esposito (6 April 2000). The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-19-988041-6.
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam, E J Brill et al page : 104/105
- Tahirids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. X, ed. P. J. Bearman, T. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs, (Brill, 2000), 104-105.
- Hammuda, Abdul Hamid, H. The History of Independent Islamic States:Tarikh Adduwal Al-Islamiyyah Al-Mustaqillah, Al-Dar al-Thaqafiyyah lil-Nashr, Cairo, 2010, p.30-40
- Ira M. Lapidus (29 October 2012). Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-521-51441-5.
- Ira M. Lapidus (22 August 2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.
- see Hammuda
- Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996), The New Islamic Dynasties, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 168-9.
- Turner, John P., "Ishaq ibn Ibrahim," in Medieval Islamic Civilization, Volume 1, Ed. Josef W. Meri (Routledge 2006), p. 402.
- Gordon, Matthew S. (2001), The Breaking of a Thousand Swords: A History of the Turkish Military of Samarra (A.H. 200-275/815-889 C.E.), Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, p. 47 ff.
- Kennedy, Hugh (2001), The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, London: Routledge, pp. 135-9.
- Yar-Shater, Ehsan, ed. (1985-2007), The History of al-Tabari, Vols. 1-40, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, v. XXXV p. 124 ff.; v. XXXVI pp. 3-5, 13 ff.
- Bosworth, C. E. (1969). "The Ṭāhirids and Persian Literature". IRAN, the journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. 7: 103–106. doi:10.2307/4299615.
- Yar-Shater, Ehsan, ed. (1985-2007), The History of al-Tabari, Vols. 1-40, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, v. XXXIV pp. 105, 108, 110, 116; v. XXXVII pp. 147, 160
- Kraemer, Joel L (1989), Foreword, in Ehsan Yar-Shater (Ed.), The History of al-Tabari, Volume XXXIV: Incipient Decline, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, p. xxviii.