Tai Nüa language
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|Pronunciation||[tai taɯ xoŋ][need tone]|
|Native to||China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos|
|(720,000 cited 1983–2007)|
|Tai Le alphabet|
Official language in
|co-official in Dehong, China|
tdd – Tai Nüa
thi – Tai Long
Tai Nüa (Tai Nüa: ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ) (also called Tai Nɯa, Dehong Dai, or Chinese Shan; own name: Tai2 Lə6, which means "upper Tai" or "northern Tai", or ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ [tai taɯ xoŋ]; Chinese: Dǎinǎyǔ 傣哪语 or Déhóng Dǎiyǔ 德宏傣语; Thai: ภาษาไทเหนือ, pronounced [pʰāːsǎː tʰāj nɯ̌a] or ภาษาไทใต้คง, pronounced [pʰāːsǎː tʰāj tâj.kʰōŋ]) is one of the languages spoken by the Dai people in China, especially in the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in the southwest of Yunnan province. It is closely related to the other Tai languages. Speakers of this language across the border in Myanmar are known as Shan. It should not be confused with Tai Lü (Xishuangbanna Dai). There are also Tai Nüa speakers in Thailand.
Most Tai Nüa people call themselves tai˥lə˧, which means 'upper Tai' or 'northern Tai'. Note that this is different from Tai Lue, which is pronounced tai˥lɪ˦˧ in Tai Nüa.
Dehong is a transliteration of the term taɨ˧˩xoŋ˥, where taɨ˧˩ means 'bottom, under, the lower part (of)', and xoŋ˥ means 'the Hong River' (more widely known as the Salween River or Nujiang 怒江 in Chinese) (Luo 1998).
Zhou (2001:13) classifies Tai Nüa into the Dehong (德宏) and Menggeng (孟耿) dialects. Together, they add up to a total of 541,000 speakers.
- Dehong dialect 德宏土语: 332,000 speakers
- Menggeng dialect 孟耿土语: 209,000 speakers
- Pu'er City 普洱市 / Simao District 思茅地区: Menglian 孟连、Jinggu 景谷、Lancang 澜沧、Zhenyuan 镇沅、Ximeng 西盟、Jingdong 景东、Simao 思茅、Pu'er 普洱、Mojiang 墨江
- Baoshan District 保山地区: Changning 昌宁
- Lincang District 临沧地区: Gengma 耿马、Lincang 临沧、Shuangjiang 双江、Cangyuan 沧源、Yongde 永德、Zhenkang 镇康、Yunxian 云县、Fengqing 风庆. A separate traditional script has been developed in Mengding Township 勐定镇, Lincang 临沧, and is different from the one used in the Dehong area — see Zhou (2001:371).
Tai Nüa is a tonal language with a very limited inventory of syllables with no consonant clusters. 16 syllable-initial consonants can be combined with 84 syllable finals and six tones.
Tai Nüa has 17 consonants:
- p, pʰ, f, m
- t, tʰ, ts, s, n
- k, x, ŋ
- ʔ, h, l, j, w
All consonants except for n can occur at the beginning of a syllable. Only the following consonants can occur at the end of a syllable: /p, t, k, m, n, ŋ/.
Vowels and diphthongs
Tai Nüa has ten vowels and 13 diphthongs:
- a, aː, ɛ, e, i, ɯ, ə, ɔ, o, u
- iu, eu, ɛu; ui, oi, ɔi; əi, əu; ai, aɯ, au; aːi, aːu
Tai Nüa has six tones:
- 1. rising [˨˦] (24)
- 2. high falling [˥˧] (53) or high level [˥] (55)
- 3. low level [˩] (11)
- 4. low falling [˧˩] (31)
- 5. mid falling [˦˧] (43) or high falling [˥˧] (53)
- 6. mid level [˧] (33)
Syllables with p, t, k as final consonants can have only one of three tones (1., 3., or 5.).
The original Tai Nüa spelling did not generally mark tones and failed to distinguish several vowels. It was reformed to make these distinctions, and diacritics were introduced to mark tones. The resulting writing system was officially introduced in 1956. In 1988, the spelling of tones was reformed; special tone letters were introduced instead of the earlier Latin diacritics.
The modern alphabet has a total of 35 letters, including the five tone letters. It is encoded under the name "Tai Le" in the Basic Multilingual Plane of Unicode at U+1950-U+1974.
The Tai Nüa numerals are similar to Myanmar numerals; they are in fact unified with Myanmar's numerals in Unicode (U+1040-U+1049) despite some glyph variations.
The transcription below is given according to the Unicode tables.
Vowels and diphthongs
Consonants that are not followed by a vowel letter are pronounced with the inherent vowel [a]. Other vowels are indicated with the following letters:
Diphthongs are formed by combining some vowel letters with the consonant ᥝ [w] and some vowel letters with ᥭ [ai]/[j].
In the Thai and Tai Lü writing systems, the tone value in the pronunciation of a written syllable depends on the tone class of the initial consonant, vowel length and syllable structure. In contrast, the Tai Nüa writing system has a very straightforward spelling of tones, with one letter (or diacritic) for each tone. The first tone is not marked.
Examples in the table show the syllable [ta] in different tones, in old (1956) and new (1988) spellings.
Tai Nüa has official status in some parts of Yunnan (China), where it is used on signs and in education. Yunnan People's Radio Station (Yúnnán rénmín guǎngbō diàntái 云南人民广播电台) broadcasts in Tai Nüa. On the other hand, however, very little printed material is published in Tai Nüa in China. However, many signs of roads and stores in Mangshi are in Tai Nüa.
In Thailand, a collection of 108 proverbs was published with translations into Thai and English.
- Tai Nüa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Tai Long at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Tai Nua". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Tai Long". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Thawi Swangpanyangkoon and Edward Robinson. 1994. (2537 Thai). Dehong Tai proverbs. Sathaban Thai Suksa, Chulalankorn Mahawitayalai.
- Luo Yongxian. 1998. A dictionary of Dehong, Southwest China. Pacific Linguistics Series C, no. 145. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
- Roong-a-roon Teekhachunhatean รุ่งอรุณ ทีฆชุณหเถียร: Reflections on Tai Dehong Society from Language Point of View. In: Journal of Language and Linguistics 18.2 (January–June 2000), pp. 71–82.
- Zhōu Yàowén 周耀文, Fāng Bólóng 方伯龙, Mèng Zūnxiàn 孟尊贤: Déhóng Dǎiwén 德宏傣文 (Dehong Dai). In: Mínzú yǔwén 《民族语文》 1981.3.
- Zhou Yaowen, Luo Meizhen / 周耀文, 罗美珍. 2001. 傣语方言硏究 : 语音, 词汇, 文字 / Dai yu fang yan yan jiu: yu yin, ci hui, wen zi. Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.
- Zhāng Gōngjǐn 张公瑾: Dǎiwén jí qí wénxiàn 傣文及其文献 (The Dai language and Dai documents). In: Zhōngguóshǐ yánjiū dòngtài 《中国史研究动态》 1981.6.
- Neua (Na) in Yunnan (PRC) and the LPDR: a minority and a "non-minority" in the Chinese and Lao political systems, Jean A. Berlie, School of Oriental and African Studies editor, University of London, London, United Kingdom 1993.
|Tai Nüa language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Tai Dehong
- Dehong Daiwen jianjie ji zifuji 德宏傣文简介及字符集 (Introduction to Dehong Dai with examples; in Chinese)
- Daiyu, Daiwen 傣语、傣文 (in Chinese)
- Yunnan sheng yuyan wenzi wang 云南省语言文字网 (Yunnan province language and writing web; in Chinese)
- Neua (Na) in Yunnan ([PRC) and the LPDR: a minority and a "non-minority" in the Chinese and Lao political systems, Jean A. Berlie, School of Oriental and African Studies editor, University of London, London, United Kingdom, published in 1993.