||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Land of Fire. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2015.|
- 1 Creation and conception
- 2 Geography
- 3 Phenomena
- 4 Ninja: ranks, title and organizations
- 5 References
Creation and conception
When Kishimoto was creating the setting of the Naruto manga, he initially concentrated on the designs for the village of Konohagakure, the primary setting of the series. He asserts that his design for Konohagakure was created "pretty spontaneously without much thought", but admits that the scenery is based on his home in the Okayama prefecture in Japan. Kishimoto created Konohagakure without specifying an era or location in the real world, noting that the village is "just a place in his head". Without a specific time period, Kishimoto included modern elements in the series such as convenience stores and movies, but specifically excluded projectile weapons and vehicles from the storyline. For reference materials, Kishimoto performs his own research into Japanese culture and alludes to it in his work. In an interview, he commented that he "often visits Japanese gardens and goes to Kabuki performances" for reference material.
Kishimoto added that, as Naruto takes place in a "Japanese fantasy world," the creator has to "set certain rules, in a systematic way" so that he could easily "convey the story." Kishimoto wanted to "draw on" the Chinese zodiac tradition, which had a long-standing presence in Japan; the zodiac hand signs originate from this. Regarding technology, Kishimoto said that Naruto would not have any firearms. He said he may include automobiles, aircraft, and "low-processing" computers; Kishimoto specified the computers would "maybe" be eight-bit and that they would "definitely not" be sixteen-bit.
In the Ninja World, countries operate as separate political entities ruled by landlords. Within these countries are hidden villages (隠れ里 kakurezato?), settlements housing ninja, warriors capable of using super power abilities in combat. A hidden village maintains the economy of the parent country by training ninja from a young age and using them to perform missions for other countries. The ninja of a hidden village also serve as the military force of their parent country. The leaders of the hidden villages hold equal status with the leaders of their respective countries. Five countries in the Ninja World: the Land of Earth, the Land of Fire, the Land of Lightning, the Land of Water, and the Land of Wind are known as the "Five Great Shinobi Nations". These countries are the most powerful in the Ninja World. They are ruled by a feudal lord and the leaders of the hidden villages in these countries hold the title of Kage. During the "Fourth Ninja World War", the hidden villages of all five nations join together to confront Akatsuki's forces as the "Ninja Alliance Army." Other apparently smaller nations have been named in passing, in either the manga or anime, but are yet to be explored.
Land of Fire
The Land of Fire (火の国 Hi no Kuni?) is one of the Five Great Shinobi Continents, is where the majority of the Naruto series takes place, getting its name from its bright and hot weather. It is where The Village Hidden In Leaves (木ノ葉隠れの里 Konohagakure no Sato?), also known as the Hidden Leaf Village (木ノ葉隠れ Konohagakure?) or Konoha (木ノ葉 Konoha?), is located. The village was founded by the two rival ninja clans descended from the Sage of Six Paths: The Senju led by Hashirama and the Uchiha under Madara. When Hashirama was named Konoha's leader, the First Hokage, events led to an epic battle with a furious Madara that led to Konoha obtaining possession of Kurama the Nine-Tailed Fox and the formation of the Valley of the End (終末の谷 Shūmatsu no Tani?) with large statues of Hashirama and Madara overlooking a waterfall. One of Konoha's landmarks is the Hokage mountain where the faces of Hashirama, Tobirama Senju, Hiruzen Sarutobi, Minato Namikaze, Tsunade, Kakashi Hatake, and Naruto Uzumaki were etched into stone.
During Part I of the series, Konoha is led by the Third Hokage, Hiruzen, after his successor, Minato, sacrificed himself to save the village from Kurama, who ran rampant as the result of Obito Uchiha's actions. Hiruzen subsequently sacrificed himself to defeat his student, Orochimaru during his invasion of Konoha, and the position of the Fifth Hokage is taken by his other student, Tsunade, who oversees the village's reconstruction. Later in Part II, the Akatsuki's figurehead leader Pain (Nagato) leads an attack on Konoha and destroys most of the village in the process before being stopped by Naruto. But Nagato's attack resulted with Tsunade in a coma with Danzo Shimura made acting Hokage prior to his death by Sasuke Uchiha's hand. Kakashi Hatake was about to be elected Hokage, but Tsunade regained consciousness and resumes her position as Hokage for the Fourth Ninja World War. After the war Tsunade passes the title to Kakashi who then passes it to Naruto after a few years. Within Konoha are a number of locations featured prominently during the series: Naruto Uzumaki's favorite restaurant Ichiraku Ramen (ラーメン一楽 Rāmen Ichiraku?), the Training Grounds with at least forty four locations existing; two of the most notable are the Third (第三演習場 Daisan Enshūjō?) where Team Kakashi and Team Hiruzen once partake in a bell test, and the Forty Fourth (第44演習場 Daiyonjū Enshūjō?), also known as the Forest of Death (死の森 Shi no Mori?) used for the biyearly Chunin Exams, the Naka Shrine (南賀ノ神社 Naka no Jinja?) where the tablet containing information about the Sage of the Six Paths is located, and the long abandoned Uzumaki Clan's Mask Storage Temple (うずまき一族の納面堂 Uzumaki Ichizoku no Nōmendō?) which stores various ancient masks such as the one which could summon the Death Seal. After the war, the village has overall grown in size and a modern city has grown from it complete with towering skyscrapers right behind the Hokage Monument and experienced a technical revolution.
Land of Wind
The Land of Wind (風の国 Kaze no Kuni?), one of the Five Great Shinobi Nations, is a large desert country whose cities are found near water sources. While much of the country is inhospitable, the population is large and prosperous due to frequent trade with the Land of Fire. Its resident ninja village is Sunagakure (砂隠れの里 Sunagakure no Sato?, lit. "Village Hidden Among Sand" or "Village Hidden in the Sand"), also known as Suna, which is ruled by the Kazekage and possesses the Shukaku, the One-Tail. Before the start of the series, the Land of Wind's feudal lord began to reduce Sunagakure's budget, and send mission requests to Konoha instead of Sunagakure. This led the Fourth Kazekage to forge an alliance with the village of Otogakure to wipe out Konoha during the Chunin Exams. However, the attack fails with Sunagakure becoming allies with Konoha upon learning that Orochimaru, the leader of Otogakure, murdered the Fourth Kazekage before the attack began. In Part II of the series, Gaara, the son of the Fourth Kazekage and the One-Tail's Jinchuriki, succeeds his father as the Fifth Kazekage prior to losing Shukaku to the Akatsuki. Other than Gaara's brother Kankuro and their sister Temari, members of Sunagakure include the Sand Siblings' teacher Baki (バキ?), the Akatsuki's Sasori, his grandmother Chiyo, and Pakura (パクラ?), a famed kunoichi who possessed the advanced Kekkei Genkai Scorch Style and was killed during an incident with Kirigakure.
Land of Water
The Land of Water (水の国 Mizu no Kuni?) is one of the Five Great Shinobi Nations, composed of many islands with each having its own unique traditions. Within the Land of Water is Kirigakure (霧隠れの里 Kirigakure no Sato?, lit. "Village Hidden in Mist"), currently ruled by the Fifth Mizukage Mei Terumī (照美 メイ Terumī Mei?). Prior to the series, Kirigakure possessed Isobu, the Three-Tails and Saiken, the Six-Tails. Isobu's last Jinchuriki was Mei's predecessor, the Fourth Mizukage Yagura who gave his village the moniker "Blood Mist" due to the use of death fights among graduating ninja until Zabuza Momochi killed all the students in his class discontinued the process. He is later revealed to had been under the influence of Obito, though the village had obtained the moniker long before Obito changed allegiance.
Kirigakure is also known for its strongest ninja, the members of the Seven Shinobi Swordsmen of the Mist (霧の忍刀七人衆 Kiri no Shinobigatana Nananin Shū?). Each member carries a blade of great power: Kubikiribōchō (首斬り包丁 "Decapitating Carving Knife?) which uses the iron from the blood of its victims to restore itself, the sentient Samehada (鮫肌?, Sharkskin) which feeds on an enemy's chakra, the needle-shaped Nuibari (縫い針?, "Sewing Needle) that pierces enemies and "sews" them together in human bundles, the defense destroying Kabutowari (兜割?, "Helmet Splitter"), the explosive Shibuki (飛沫?, "Splash"), the lightning-imbued twin blades Kiba (牙?, "Fangs") and Hiramekarei (ヒラメカレイ?) that can store the user's chakra to assume any form. The weapons are passed down from one generation of Swordsmen to the next.
However, the group disbanded with only Hiramekarei remaining in service to Kirigakure. Members of the last generation include Zabuza, the Akatsuki's Kisame Hoshigaki, Raiga Kurosuki (黒鋤 雷牙 Kurosuki Raiga?) who possessed Kiba prior to his death, Mangetsu Hozuki (鬼灯 満月 Hōzuki Mangetsu?) who trained to use all seven swords, and a youth named Chojuro (長十郎 Chōjūrō?) who became Mei's bodyguard and possesses Hiramekarei. During the Fourth Ninja World War, other than Zabuza, Kisame, and Mangetsu, Kabuto reanimated the strongest generation of Swordsmen: Zabuza's previous teammates Kushimaru Kuriarare (栗霰 串丸 Kuriarare Kushimaru?), Ameyuri Ringo (林檎 雨由利 Ringo Ameyuri?), Jinpachi Munashi (無梨 甚八 Munashi Jinpachi?), Jinin Akebino (通草野 餌人 Akebino Jinin?), and Fuguki Suikazan (西瓜山 河豚鬼 Suikazan Fuguki?). Suigetsu, Mangetsu's younger brother, made it his goal to reclaim the swords of the Seven Swordsmen to revive the group.
Other ninja from Kirigakure include Ao (青?), Mei's bodyguard who had a functional Byakugan implanted on him and had fought Shisui Uchiha in his life, Zabuza's apprentice Haku, who hailed from the Yuki clan and had the advanced Kekkei Genkai Ice Release, the Demon Brothers Gozu (牛頭 Gōzu?) and Meizu (冥頭?) who were working under Zabuza, Chūkichi (中吉?), a renowned shinobi who had strong hatred with the organization Akatsuki, and the Second Mizukage, who hailed from the Hōzuki clan and had a long-standing rivalry with the Second Tsuchikage, Mū.
Land of Lightning
The Land of Lightning (雷の国 Kaminari no Kuni?) is one of the Five Great Shinobi Nations, consisting of numerous mountain ranges with one of the highest mountains being where Kumogakure (雲隠れの里 Kumogakure no sato?, lit. "Village Hidden in the Clouds") is located. The village is occupied by lightning using ninja under the leadership of the Fourth Raikage Ay (エー Ē?). Years prior to the series, a leader of Kumogakure used an alliance with Konoha as an excuse to get close enough to abduct Hinata Hyūga for her Byakugan. Though the leader was killed by Hiashi Hyūga, Hinata's father, Kumogakure demand the clan head's life with threat of war. However, the twin brother of the Hyuuga clan head and Neji's father, Hizashi Hyūga, takes his brother's place so Kumogakure could not obtain the Byakugan.
As the series began, Kumogakure had two Tailed Beasts in its possession: Matatabi the Two Tails and Gyūki the Eight-Tails. During the time of Hashirama Senju, Kumogakure attempted to capture Kurama with the traitorous Gold and Silver Brothers, Kinkaku (金角?) and Ginkaku (銀角?) who only managed to ingest the demon fox's flesh to increase their powers and stole five of the Ninja Treasures of the Sage of the Six Paths, weapons that require huge amounts of chakra to wield. In Part II, the Akatsuki captured Matatabi's Jinchuriki Yugito Nii (二位 ユギト Nii Yugito?) and later send Taka in an attempt to obtain Gyūki from Ay's adopted younger brother, Killer Bee, though they failed and only managed to obtain Gyūki's tentacle. Other ninja from Kumogakure include: Ay's bodyguards Darui (ダルイ?), a white-haired Jōnin who wields a giant blade similar to the Seven Swordsmen of the Mist and Cee (シー Shī?), a medical ninja, Samui (サムイ?) and her brother Atsui (アツイ?), Killer Bee's students Karui (カルイ?) and Omoi (オモイ?), and Toroi (トロイ?), a famed Kumogakure shinobi who possessed the advanced Kekkei Genkai Magnet Release.
Land of Earth
The Land of Earth (土の国 Tsuchi no Kuni?) is one of the Five Great Shinobi Nations, mostly made up of rock formations with a rocky mountain range blocking communication with other countries and Iwagakure (岩隠れの里 Iwagakure no sato?, lit. "Village Hidden Among the Rocks") located in the center of mountain ranges. The leader is called the Tsuchikage, and the current leader is Onoki (オオノキ Ōnoki?), the Third Tsuchikage. Trained by his mentor Mū (無?), the Second Tsuchikage, Onoki had a student named Deidara before he ran off and joined the Akatsuki. Not much is known about Iwagakure other than its ninja who specialize in earth-based jutsu and had two Tailed Beasts in its possession: Son Gokū, the Four-Tails, sealed within an old man named Rōshi; and Kokuō, the Five-Tails, sealed within a large, armor-clad man named Han, both of which had already been captured by Akatsuki. Other members of Iwagakure include Onoki's granddaughter Kurotsuchi (黒ツチ?), who serves as Onoki's bodyguard alongside Akatsuchi (赤ツチ?), her father Kitsuchi (黄ツチ?), and Gari (ガリ?), a renowned Iwagakura shinobi who had the advanced Kekkei Genkai Explosion Release and was part of Iwagakure Explosion Corps.
Land of Waves
The Land of Waves (波の国 Nami no Kuni?) is a poor nation, and as a result does not have a hidden village. It is an isolated island that prosperous until it was taken over by the crime lord Gato, who monopolized the economy and ruled it like a despot. The Land of Waves is introduced early in Part I as the site of Naruto Uzumaki's first mission as a member of Team 7 where they serve as bodyguards for a bridge builder who Gato saw as a threat to the point of hiring Zabuza and later deeming him disposable. With the aid of the populace of the Land of Waves, Gato killed by a dying Zabuza prior, Team 7 manage to drive off Gato's army of thugs and restore the country to its former status. As a sign of gratitude, the bridge is named the "Great Naruto Bridge" (ナルト大橋 Naruto Ōhashi?) in honor of Naruto for being the peoples' inspiration in reclaiming their home.
Land of Sound
Originally known as the Land of Rice Fields (田の国 Ta no Kuni?, English TV: "Land of Rice Paddies"), a small country sharing a border with the Land of Fire. But when Orochimaru took control of the country, he renamed it the Land of Sound (音の国 Oto no Kuni?) and founded Otogakure (音隠れの里 Otogakure no Sato?, lit. "Village Hidden in Sound"). Though Orochimaru claimed that it was created so any ninja can find purpose without subjugation to the Five Ninja Nations, Otogakure is actually multiple assorted lairs and laboratories located within the Land of Sound and outside it meant to enable Orochimaru to utilize the ninja he took under his wing in a series of experiments to achieve his goals.
Kusagakure (草隠れの里 Kusagakure no Sato?, lit. "Village Hidden in Grass") is a ninja village located in an unnamed country, bordered by two Great Shinobi Nations: the Land of Fire and Land of Earth to the east and northwest, respectively, Takigakure to the northeast, and Amegakure to the south. It is dominated with large amount of Plantae environment, consisting of large trees and mushrooms, which may contribute to its naming. Although the village has never been formally introduced in the series, many of its country locations are vital to the story. Many Kusagakure ninja have also been seen, particularly during the Chūnin Exams, suggesting that the village has good diplomatic relationship with the Five Great Shinobi Nations. Point of interest in the country include the Kannabi Bridge (神無毘橋 Kannabi-kyō?), which was used as Iwagakure's line of supply during the Third Ninja World War after Kusagakure had been dominated by them. It was destroyed by Team Minato of Konohagakure, though at the cost of one of its member, Obito Uchiha. Orochimaru had also built a hideout somewhere in the country, with the Tenchi Bridge (天地橋 Tenchi-kyō?) located near it, which is used by Kabuto Yakushi to meet with his employer, Sasori. The bridge is later destroyed by Naruto in his Four-Tails form. The country is also used as the setting for the fifth Naruto Shippūden film Naruto the Movie: Blood Prison, where it is revealed that Kusagakure had once attained dominance of the world during the time of the Sage of the Six Paths through the use of Box of Enlightenment, though they eventually fell when the Great Shinobi Nations unite to stop them. A prison called the Hōzuki-jo (鬼灯城?) is built in the country, which is used to contain high-ranking criminals, though it is unknowingly used to hide the Box, which required chakra extracted from the prisoners.
Takigakure (滝隠れの里 Takigakure no Sato?, lit. "Village Hidden in Waterfall") is a ninja village situated in an unnamed country. It has yet to be explored much in the series, though the anime depicts the village being built around a giant tree with many waterfalls scattered around, which gave the village their name. Despite being surrounded by four countries (two of which are Great Shinobi Nations), it has never been invaded, a feat which they frequently boast for. Takigakure is the only ninja village of a non-Shinobi Nation to be in possession of a Tailed Beast: Chōmei, the Seven Tails, who was sealed in Fū. However, the villagers despised her due to this and when she became one of the first Jinchuriki to be captured by Akatsuki, the villagers were glad to got rid of her. The only other ninja known from Takigakure is Kakuzu, who defected from the village after a failure of certain mission and stole the Earth Grudge technique, before joining Akatsuki.
Amegakure (雨隠れの里 Amegakure no Sato?, lit. "Village Hidden in Rain"), named for the continuous rain in its skies, is situated in an unknown country. The country's borders are highly defended, and those wishing to pass through it are subject to constant surveillance for the duration of their stay. As it is situated between three of the Five Great Shinobi Nations, it serves as a battlefield for their wars. Most of the population consists of war refugees under the dictatorship of Hanzo the Salamander, who christened Hiruzen Sarutobi's students as the Sannin (伝説の三忍 Densetsu no Sannin, lit. The Legendary Three Ninja?) when only they survive an attack that wipe out their entire platoon during the Second Ninja World War. At the time of the Third Ninja World War, Amegakure was the site of a civil war with Hanzo killed by Nagato of the Akatsuki which was a liberation group prior to becoming a criminal organization. Following the war's conclusion, going by the name of Pain, Nagato becomes the leader of the village and uses it as a base for the Akatsuki while eliminating would be assassins loyal to the former Amegakure regime. The inhabitants of Amegakure consider Pain to be a god due to his ability to briefly stop the rain, following his aide Konan when she takes leadership after his death. However, after Tobi kills Konan to obtain Nagato's Rinnegan eyes, it is unknown who succeeded her as Amegakure's leader.
Land of Iron
The Land of Iron (鉄の国 Tetsu no Kuni?) is a smaller, snowy country, which lies between three large mountains, named the Three Wolves. Its leader is Mifune (ミフネ?), an elderly samurai who specializes in Iaido, and had fought Hanzo of the Salamader in his youth. This country is unusual for its military being made up of samurai, instead of ninja. The samurai, adept in kenjutsu, utilize their chakra by streaming it into their swords. The country is neutral among the Five Great Shinobi Nations and never start wars with them which contributes to its stable security and makes it the ideal place for the Five Kage Summit. The samurai later join the Shinobi Alliance in the Fourth Ninja World War against the criminal organization Akatsuki.
Land of Whirlpools
The Land of Whirlpools (渦の国 Uzu no Kuni?), located on an island off the Land of Fire's coast, is the site of the ruins of an ancient shinobi village called Uzushiogakure (渦潮隠れの里 Uzushiogakure no Sato?, lit. "Village Hidden In Whirlpools") or "The Village of Longevity" (長寿の里 Chōju no Sato?). It is also Naruto's ancestral home through the Uzumaki Clan, the distant relatives of the Senju Clan who are composed of red-haired ninja with longevity who invented various Sealing Jutsus. When Uzushiogakure fell, the Uzumaki scattered to the winds with Mito Uzumaki (うずまき ミト Uzumaki Mito?) marrying the First Hokage Hashirama Senju and the becoming the first Jinchuriki of Kurama, before passing it to Kushina Uzumaki (うずまき クシナ Uzumaki Kushina?), the wife of the Fourth Hokage Minato Namikaze who passed on the task to their son Naruto. Mito's only living descendant is Tsunade, who inherited her grandmother's long life. Other members of the Uzumaki Clan include Nagato from Amegakure, also known as Pain of the Akatsuki who had Rinnegan implanted to him by Madara Uchiha, and Karin, a member of Sasuke's Taka and former subordinate of Orochimaru.
Jutsu are techniques used by ninja, utilized by molding chakra in conjunction with various hand signs.
Sage of the Six Paths
Hagoromo Ōtsutsuki (大筒木 ハゴロモ Ōtsutsuki Hagoromo?), known as the Sage of the Six Paths (六道仙人 Rikudō Sennin?), is a legendary ninja whose actions in the past influenced the series' storyline. One of the twin sons of Kaguya Ōtsutsuki, Hagoromo was naturally born with chakra already in his body. Possessing the Rinnegan, Hagoromo mastered all forms of nature chakra and used them to end the bloodshed of his time while creating the fundamentals of ninjutsu. Hagoromo also possessed five treasured tools which requires high amount of chakra to use: a thick rope capable of drawing out people's word soul called Kōkinjō (幌金縄?, lit. "Golden Canopy Rope"), a sword capable of cursing people's word soul called Shichiseiken (七星剣?, lit. "Seven Star Sword"), a gourd capable of sealing people after having their word soul cursed and reciting their most-used word called Benihisago (紅葫蘆?, lit. "Crimson Gourd"), a pot capable of sealing people when they respond after being called named Kohaku no Jōhei (琥珀の浄瓶?, lit. "Amber Purifying Pot"), and a feathered fan capable of dealing powerful elemental attacks called Bashōsen (芭蕉扇?, lit. "Banana Palm Fan").
Having sealed Kaguya in her Ten Tails incarnation within himself with the help of his brother Hamura, Hagoromo becomes the first Jinchuriki. Soon after, Hagoromo gains two sons: the eldest Indra who inherited his "eyes" - his chakra and spiritual energy - while the younger Asura only inherited his "body" - his life force and physical energy. Knowing he could not fulfill his ideals of peace, Hagoromo selected Asura to continue his legacy as the youth's ability to work well with others were an ideal method of peace. Near the end of his life, to ensure his mother would not break free with his death Hagoromo separated the Ten-Tails' chakra into the nine Tailed Beasts. From there, Hagoromo sealed the powerless Ten-Tails, the Gedo Statue, within the celestial body that becomes the moon where Hamura and most of his bloodline would live from then on to keep vigil so Kaguya could not escape.
But what Hagoromo did not know was that Kaguya used that moment to creation a personification of his her will, Black Zetsu, to preyed on Indra's feelings towards not being named his father's heir, causing the family feud between Hagoromo's sons that continued to the time of the Sage's descendants: the Uchiha and the Senju/Uzumaki. Though he faded into myth, Hagoromo's exploits were researched by Madara Uchiha who Black Zetsu manipulated into summoning the Gedo Statue back to the world. Furthermore, meeting Naruto and Sasuke during their respective near death experiences by Madara's hand, Hagoromo reveals that his sons are able to reincarnate with Naruto and Sasuke respectively the most recent reincarnations of Asura and Indra. Though he was neutral throughout his sons' timeless conflict while observing his numerous descendants, Hagoromo only acts when his worst fears are realized in Madara becoming like Kaguya. To that end, Hagoromo decides to entrust both his sons with stopping Madara and achieve peace by dividing his powers between their current incarnations: giving Naruto his ability to use multiple chakra natures and heal any injury while turning one of Sasuke's eyes into a Rinnegan. As Naruto and Sasuke battled a fully restored Kaguya, Hagoromo used the lower body of Madara to regain physical form to free the tailed beasts from Kaguya's body while enlisting the reanimated Hokages' help alongside the other deceased Kage he summoned to bring Team 7, the tailed beasts, and Madara back to their reality. Hagoromo eventually fades back to the after life during Naruto and Sasuke's final battle, the former promising to put an end to the conflict that the sage's sons started.
The Shinju (神樹?, lit. Divine Tree) was a tree that legends referred to as the creator of the world, which bares chakra-rich fruit once a millennia that humanity is warned not to eat as that person would become a part of the entity. However, a princess named Kaguya Ōtsutsuki defied the taboo in her desire for peace. This ultimately led to her eventual madness as she enacts the first Infinite Tsukiyomi to assimilate all life into the Shinju, turning the assimilated humans into creatures called White Zetsu. But when Kaguya learns that some of her chakra was transferred into her children, she became enraged and fused into the Shinju to transform it into the Ten-Tails (十尾 Jūbi?) to reclaim her chakra. As a living weapon of mass destruction that acts on Kaguya's rage and base instincts, the Ten-Tails is able to terraform areas with its attacks, generate multiple natural disasters at once, and spawn what is later revealed to assimilated life forms from its body. Being the progenitor of chakra within every ninja, the Ten-Tails is also able to use attacks and projectiles based on Yin-Yang Style (陰陽遁 Omyōton?) which can negate all chakra-based ninjutsu except Sage chakra. Due to the dangers the rampaging Ten-Tails poses to the world, Hagoromo and Hamura sealed their mother with the former becoming the first Jinchuriki. But as his death would undo the seal on the monster, Hagoromo separated the Ten-Tails's chakra from its body and scattered it into the four winds as the Tailed Beasts before sealing the body away in what would become the moon.
However, Kaguya created Black Zetsu prior to her imprisonment to manipulate Hagoromo's son Indra and his descendants in a scheme to free her and restore her power. Black Zetsu eventually finds Madara Uchiha, leading him to an altered document of the legend and having him summon the Ten-Tails's husk, the Gedo Statue (外道魔像 Gedō Mazō?, Demonic Statue of the Outer Path), to Earth. From there, using one of the White Zetsu as a host, Black Zetsu oversaw Madara's apprentice Obito Uchiha and the Akatsuki gather all the Tailed Beasts save Kurama and Gyūki. Despite a few set backs, from the Ten Tails slowly assuming its full form to Obito briefly becoming its Jinchuriki, Black Zetsu succeeds in having Madara complete the Eye of the Moon plan as the Ten-Tails Jinchuriki and cast the Infinite Tsukuyomi to repeat Kaguya's act of having the Shinju consume all life. With that accomplished, Black Zetsu proceeds to complete Kaguya's resurrection by taking over Madara's body. But the plan that Kaguya and Black Zetsu conducted eventually failed when Naruto and Sasuke, with the aid of their Team 7 teammates and Obito, reseal Kaguya and revert her back into the Gedo Statue with the tailed beast chakra purged from her. Before the seal is complete, Naruto throws the severed part of Kaguya's body that Black Zetsu is latched into it to make sure the Gedo Statue could not be found again.
The Tailed Beasts (尾獣 Bijū?) are nine giant concentrations of Chakra that serve to drive the plot of the Naruto series. They were all originally part of the Ten-Tails' chakra before Hagoromo Ōtsutsuki separated it and splits the energy into nine constructs. Though referred to by the number of their tails, the Sage gave them proper names out of respect: Shukaku (守鶴?) the wild one-tailed tanuki; Matatabi (又旅?) the polite two-tailed cat; Isobu (磯撫?) the shy three-tailed turtle; Son Gokū (孫悟空?) the prideful four-tailed ape; Kokuō (穆王?) the reserved five-tailed dolphin-horse; Saiken (犀犬?) the boastful six-tailed slug; Chōmei (重明?) the cheery seven-tailed rhinoceros beetle; Gyūki (牛鬼?) the berserker eight-tailed octopus-ox; and Kurama (九喇嘛?) the cynical nine-tailed fox. The beasts are told by Hagoromo of a certain person and that one day they would be joined back to their original form while understanding true power. In time, as their immense strength can be tempered by Jinchuriki, the Tailed Beasts end up being used as weapons by the ninja villages. With the exception of Gyuki, though they benefited from the knowledge of their hosts and better utilize their powers, the other Tailed Beasts despised the humans for their actions and being seen by them as nothing more than tools. Only Kurama evaded capture until the founding of Konohagakure, in which Madara Uchiha controlled it during his battle with Hashirama Senju and was sealed within Hashirama's wife Mito Uzumaki, eventually winding up to Naruto Uzumaki.
Despite hating this forced symbiosis with their jinchuriki, Tailed Beasts tend to be protective of their hosts to the point of taking over their hosts' bodies if needed to. Even some Jinchuriki are able to speak to their tailed beasts like equals, allowing a mutual and strong relationship where the Jinchuriki is allowed to use a tailed beast's power while still maintaining his sense of self.
Throughout part II of the series, under Madara's instructions, Obito uses the Akatsuki to capture the current Jinchuriki to have the Tailed Beasts sealed within the Gedo Statue, the Ten-Tails's body to enact the Eye of the Moon plan to subjugate the Ninja World. Eventually, only Kurama and Gyuki remain to be captured after the five Kage's refusal to hand their hosts, Naruto and Killer Bee respectively, to Obito, leading to the Fourth Great Ninja War. During the war, with the help of Kabuto, Obito reanimates the former hosts as his personal Six Paths of Pain and seals the Tailed Beasts back within them in an attempt to capture Naruto and Killer Bee, though Naruto's determination to save the Tailed Beasts surprises and amazes them as Kurama realizes that he must be the person that the Sage told them long ago.
Agreeing with Kurama, Matatabi, Isobu, Son Gokū, Kokuō, Saiken, and Chōmei each give Naruto a bit of their chakra before being sealed back in the Gedo Statue as Obito decides to revive Ten-Tails by adding Gyūki's tentacle, and parts of Kurama's chakra stored in Kinkaku and Ginkaku. Despite this turn of events, Naruto's determination allows him and his allies to free the captive Tailed Beasts from the Ten-Tails before all nine are captured by Madara and sealed back into the Gedo Statue as Black Zetsu eventually restores it into Kaguya. However, having Yin Kuruma and bits of Shukaku and Gyūki transferred into his body, Naruto learns that all nine tailed beasts are within him as they decide the time that the Sage foretold had come. While despite their attempt to erupt from Kaguya's body in a hare-like form, the tailed beasts are freed once Naruto and Sasuke manage to seal her. Despite a brief imprisonment within Chibaku Tensei-based satellites by Sasuke as part of his own agenda to change the world before being defeated by Naruto, whose body will serve as a meeting ground through the fragments of their chakra lingering in him, the tailed beasts go their separate ways while Gyuki returns to Killer Bee and Kurama to Naruto while absorbing his yin half to become whole again.
The Jinchuriki (人柱力 lit. "Power of Human Sacrifice"?), or simply hosts, are humans who have had a Tailed Beast sealed into their bodies. When the ninja villages were established, seeing the potential of a Tailed Beast's power focused by a human element, Jinchuriki were utilized to have an advantage over their rivals. However, due to the destruction they can cause if the Tailed Beasts take control and destroy everything around them, those who become Jinchiriki are seen are tools rather people with some becoming outcasts.
Each of the hosts appear to have a physical characteristic that resembles their beast; Naruto has fox-like whisker-marks on his face, while Gaara has tanuki-like rings around his eyes. Other than them and Killer Bee, the most recent Jinchūriki of the other Tailed Beasts include Yugito Nii (二位ユギト?), the Fourth Mizukage Yagura (やぐら?), Rōshi (老紫?), Han (ハン?), the rogue ninja Utakata (ウタカタ?), and Fū (フウ?). Fū and Han are both captured and killed by Akatsuki during Part I, while the other four meet the same fate throughout Part II of the story. Their corpses are later altered by Obito to become his personal Six Paths of Pain and with their former Tailed Beasts sealed back inside of them.
Normally, if a beast is removed from its host's body, the host would immediately die. However, those descended from Hagoromo like the Uzumaki Clan would be left severely weakened or on the verge of death. However, the same cannot be said for a Tailed Beast as its "death", like Isobu after Rin's death, is only temporary. While Naruto originally finds himself in conflict with Kurama attempting to take his body over, the youth manages to forcefully consume its chakra to enter "Nine Tails Chakra Mode" before establishing an equal partnership. With Minato is Reanimated, he is revealed to have become a jinchuriki himself due to absorbing Kurama's Yin chakra through the Reaper Death Seal he used on the Nine Tails. But Madara succeeds in obtaining all the tailed beasts and becoming the Ten Tails Jinchuriki prior to a restored Kaguya taking his body as her own.
After receiving half of Hagoromo's power, believed by the tailed beasts to be the one whom Hagoromo had foretold to appear when they become a single being once more, Naruto becomes a Jinchuriki to all nine due to obtaining Yin Kurama from his father and fragments of the other tailed beasts. Still having the fragments in his body after they are freed from Kaguya, Naruto's body would serve as meeting place for the tailed beasts.
Great Ninja Wars
The Great Ninja Wars (忍界大戦 Ninkai Taisen?, literally "Ninja World Wars") are a series of wars among the Shinobi Nations that usually spans decades before each village agrees on a peace treaty that allows years of peace before another begins. There have been four Ninja World Wars, three of which occurred before the start of the series. The First Great Ninja War (第一次忍界大戦 Daiichiji Ninkai Taisen?) occurred shortly after the founding of each ninja villages pioneered by the founding of Konohagakure by the Senju Clan and Uchiha Clan. The First Hokage, Hashirama Senju had divided the Tailed Beasts to each village, but this did not prevent the war from happening. There were many casualties in this war, including Hashirama himself and not long after, his successor, Tobirama Senju, who passed the title of Hokage to Hiruzen Sarutobi. The villages agreed on a peace treaty only after each of them had been severely damaged and it only lasted twenty years before the Second Great Ninja War (第二次忍界大戦 Dainiji Ninkai Taisen?) happened. The war is considerably larger as it also involved smaller ninja villages like Amegakure. Many important events occurred, including the christening of Hiruzen's students as the Sannin by Hanzō of the Salamander and Sakumo Hatake gaining fame as "Konoha's White Fang" after his murder of Sasori's parents. The period of peace between this war and the Third Great Ninja War (第三次忍界大戦 Daisanji Ninkai Taisen?) is very short, resulting in the lack of manpower in the latter war. The Third Ninja World War mainly involved Konohagakure and Iwagakure, with Konoha being the winner after they managed to sabotage Iwa's supply line despite the presumed death of Obito Uchiha. Konoha also had conflict with Kumogakure, whose leader, the Third Raikage recently died while battling 10,000 ninja army. The two did not fully reconcile until several years after the war ended. Since then, the Ninja World enjoyed a long period of peace and many villages, most notably Kirigakure, began forming friendship with each other.
The Fourth Great Ninja War (第四次忍界大戦 Daiyonji Ninkai Taisen?) occurs during Part II of the story. Instead of battling each other, all Five Great Shinobi Nations unite to stop Obito Uchiha, under the guise of Madara Uchiha, with assistance by Kabuto Yakushi's Reanimation jutsu. Though Naruto and Killer Bee were kept out of the war to keep their Tailed Beasts Kurama and Gyūki from falling into enemy hands, the two Jinchuriki gave their side the advantage over the White Zetsu Army. However, despite reinforcements from Sasuke and the reanimated Hokage, the war takes a turn for the worst when the real Madara Uchiha enters the fight as he eventually becomes the Ten Tails' Jinchuriki and carries out Project Tsuki no Me. Luckily, Naruto and Sasuke manage to seal Kaguya Ōtsutsuki, the real perpetrator behind the war, and, after finally settling things between them, free the entrapped humans by breaking the Infinite Tsukiyomi. By the epilogue, no more wars occurred since peace among the Five Great Shinobi Nations was established.
Ninja: ranks, title and organizations
The academy is where would-be ninja start; they are not actually considered ninja until they graduate. Academy students take formal and practical tests of all sorts and are taught basic ninja skills, such as martial arts, techniques, physical fitness, as well as extensive mental training such as math, science, history, and specifically these things in relation to their uses in battle tactics; academy students are also taught the way of the ninja. Basic weapon usage, such as kunai and shuriken, are commonly taught. Elementary ninja techniques, such as transformation jutsu and clone jutsu, though they vary from village to village, are also taught. Once a student has become proficient in these areas they are allowed to graduate. Upon graduation, students are organized into three-person teams under the leadership of a Jonin. In some villages, the Jonin administers a final test to determine whether or not the team will be able to advance to the rank of Genin. Those who fail must return to the academy. When Naruto Uzumaki graduates at the start of the series, only nine of the thirty graduates become Genin.
Genin (下忍?, literally "Lower Ninja", Viz "Genin" and "Junior Ninja") are the lowest level of ninja. Genin are given headbands with their village's symbol on it to represent what village they come from and that they are full-fledged ninja. Genin are also put in a platoon of three-man-cell, and are then assigned a Jonin sensei to mentor them. This is done to teach the Genin teamwork and experience true ninja life under the supervision and protection of an elite shinobi. The make-up of these teams is based on the individual skills of the Genin, so that there will remain a balance between the teams. When they become Genin, ninja start to do their bit for their village's economy, for which they are given a small payment. They are typically sent on D-rank missions, which are the lowest rank and are almost entirely risk-free jobs of manual labor, or experienced Genin are sent on C-rank missions, which are a cut above that and begin to verge on real "ninja" work, though they generally have a very low possibility of risk to the ninja involved. In some circumstances, a genin may have the skills of Chunin or above, but are not officially considered a Chunin or Jonin because they have not been formally promoted. An example of a Genin who has shown skills that have surpassed those of a Jonin or even a Kage of a village is the titular character of the franchise, Naruto Uzumaki.
Chunin (中忍 Chūnin?, literally "Middle Ninja", Viz "Chūnin" and "Journeyman Ninja") are ninja who are qualified to watch over and guide other ninja. Chunin have reached a level of maturity that primarily consists of leadership skills and tactical prowess. Some of them, like Shikamaru Nara, serve as team leaders in charge of small teams who need to make decisions and use the skills of the shinobi under their command to the maximum effect. Upon reaching Chunin level, ninja can wear an identifying tactical vest that holds ninjutsu scrolls. This vest is not required; instead, some may look for more elaborate clothing like capes or robes. One does not have to be a Chunin to wear the capes or robes, however, as Naruto, during his time as a Genin, was shown wearing a cape on both his mission to locate Itachi Uchiha and when he went to the Gokage Summit. They also normally wield a tantō, which is another means of identifying them as Chunin. Chunin are typically sent on C or B-rank missions.
To become a Chunin, a Genin can either be appointed by his/her village leader or participates, with his or her team, in a large examination, known as the "Chunin Exams," hosted twice a year due to the growing number of ninjas. In the past, each village held their own Chunin exam. After the Third Ninja World War, allied ninja villages agreed to hold the exams together at the selected village that would host the exam, so villages could improve and strengthen their relationships. Another advantage is that ninja that took the exam might attract clients who are interested in hiring them. The exam is a test not only of strength, but information gathering abilities, survival skills, and adhering to guidelines. Those who have all of these qualities are grouped together into predetermined fights, watched by a council that decides who becomes a Chunin and who does not. While the winners are able to proceed to fight the next opponent, it is aptitude, rather than winning, that is evaluated to determine whether a candidate is promoted. This way even one who loses his or her match can become a Chunin as evidenced by Shikamaru's promotion while he surrendered to Temari in the finals.
Jonin (上忍 Jōnin?, literally "High Ninja") are the elite ninja who are given A or S-rank missions. Even as achieving Chunin demonstrates proficiency and skill, achieving Jonin is a sign of mastery as ninja of that rank are exceptional fighters who operate on a completely different level than their lower ranked counterparts. Because of this, they are given missions with high responsibility, some of which may be life-threatening or may determine the reputation of the village. It is not uncommon for them to do their missions alone. While Chunin are in charge of teaching academy students, Jonin are placed as mentors of three-man Genin teams.
There are also Special Jonin (特別上忍 Tokubetsu Jōnin?, literally "Special High Ninja"), who are specialized in a specific skill and, while less skilled than usual Jonin, are dangerous in battle. Special Jonin may specialize in interrogation (such as Ibiki Morino), intel-gathering (such as Aoba Yamashiro), or private instructor for elite ninja (such as Ebisu).
The ANBU (暗部?, literally "Dark Side", Viz manga "Black Ops", English TV "ANBU Black Ops") is actually short for Ansatsu Senjutsu Tokushu Butai (暗殺戦術特殊部隊?, literally Assassination Tactics Special Force), and is an organization of assassination squads that serves directly under the village's leader. It is still unclear as to what requirements a shinobi must possess to be an ANBU operative. The ANBU wear porcelain animal masks in order to distinguish themselves from normal shinobi and to conceal their identities, and also have standard uniforms consisting of black and gray armor, arm guards, a signature spiral tattoo on their shoulder (Men: left shoulder. Women: right shoulder) and a Ninjatō strapped on their back. They know the layout of the human body in detail, and have developed several techniques to perform their duties, such as paralyzing the target. ANBU are considered the elite, and they perform high-ranked and dangerous missions. An ANBU may retire their duty to return to the life of Jonin, as in the case of Kakashi Hatake or Yuugao Uzuki. Within the ANBU of Kirigakure, and presumably other ninja villages, there exists a sub-group called Hunter-nin (追い忍 Oinin?, literally "Chasing Ninja", English TV "Tracker Ninja"), given the specific duty of hunting down rogue ninja, and destroying their bodies, so their village's secrets will not be revealed to foreign ninja.
Konoha is shown having three ANBU-like organizations, though they are separate from ANBU entirely. The Konoha Military Police Force (木ノ葉警務部隊 Konoha Keimu Butai?, English TV: "Leaf Anbu"), or Military Police for short, is a unique organization in Konoha, though other villages may have similar organizations. The Second Hokage, Tobirama Senju founded the organization as a sign of trust with the Uchiha clan and thus, the symbol of the organization is that of the Uchiha clan family crest. The Military Police previously consisted of mostly Uchiha clan members, though now that Itachi and Obito have eliminated all but Sasuke this is no longer the case. The Military Police are in charge of law enforcement within the village, and their jurisdiction is virtually unlimited except in matters that are under the Hokage's direct control. There is also the Nijū Shōtai (二十小隊?, Twenty Platoons), a task force created by the Fifth Hokage, Tsunade for the purpose of tracking down, attempting to capture, and, if necessary, eliminating Akatsuki members in the Land of Fire. This force consists of twenty four-man teams, making eighty shinobi in all.
Konoha ANBU are usually under the direct command of the Hokage, but several years before the start of the series there was an ANBU Training Department known as the "Foundation" (根 Ne?, lit. "Root"). The Foundation was created and directly controlled by Danzo Shimura, who trained and conditioned children intensively from a very young age. This was done to completely eliminate emotions and enable its members to complete missions without being held back. The Foundation tends to go further in its belief that ninja must not show any emotion than most other ninja groups do, as they forbid any members to possess anything that may invoke emotion. It was implied that the department might have used methods similar to Kirigakure's graduation exam, including putting students against each other in fights to the death. Members of the Foundation do not have an official attire like that of a normal ANBU, as they are shown wearing a personalized attire with the single distinguishing feature being a grey, midriff-baring jacket with red straps on the shoulder. Instead of the ANBU tattoo, they have a cursed seal on their tongue which paralyzes them if they try to talk about Danzō as a means of secrecy. The tattoo later disappears after Danzo's death. The Foundation was officially disbanded before the start of the series, though they are still loyal and acting on Danzo's orders up until his death.
Medical-nin (医療忍 iryō-nin?, English TV "Medical Corps Ninja") are ninja who specialize in medical treatment and use medical-oriented jutsu to heal others. Examples include Tsunade, Shizune, Sakura Haruno, and Ino Yamanaka. Becoming a medic-nin requires excellent chakra control, because medic-nin use chakra to heal injuries. Aside from their medical training, their combat training consists mainly of taijutsu skills, with emphasis placed on evading enemy attacks, as the death of the medic-nin could result in the death of the team, though medical techniques can also be used offensively. On dangerous missions, a medic-nin will usually be sent along with the team, to increase the survival rate of that team. Due to the importance of their role in missions, medic-nin have unspoken rules created by the greatest medic-nin in the Ninja World, Tsunade, which basically restricts them from participating in direct battles unless they have mastered the Mitotic Regeneration: One Hundred Healings jutsu.
Kage (影?, literally "Shadow") are the leaders of the five most powerful Hidden Villages and generally the most powerful ninja in their respective villages. These villages do not rule the country, but are equal to the government. The Kage stand equally with the rulers of their countries, oversee the activities of their villages, and are the leaders of ninja society. There may be exceptions, however, as a ninja may be the most powerful at the time of being installed as Kage, but may become less powerful upon aging, eventually being surpassed by a younger ninja. A Kage may retire and give the title to someone else; however, once granted, the title is held permanently, creating a situation where a village has two Kage at the same time, with only one of them actually active. Their elite status is also attributed to the tendency for most Kage to have family members who were previous Kage, or be personally taught by a former Kage or student of a former Kage, or some combination of these factors. The five Kage have different titles depending on their country. Those titles are:
- Hokage (火影?, literally "Fire Shadow") - Kage of Konohagakure. Tsunade was the Fifth Hokage (五代目火影 Godaime Hokage?) and all of her predecessors have connections with her, with Hashirama Senju (First) and Tobirama Senju (Second) being her grandfather and granduncle respectively, Hiruzen Sarutobi (Third) being her former teacher, and Minato Namikaze (Fourth) being a student of her teammate, Jiraiya. Danzō Shimura once acted as Sixth Hokage Candidate (六代目火影候補 Rokudaime Hokage Kōhō?) in place for the comatose Tsunade. After the Fourth Great Ninja War, having been considered after Danzo's death before she awakened from her coma, Kakashi Hatake succeeds Tsunade as the Sixth Hokage (六代目火影 Rokudaime Hokage?). In the epilogue of the series, Kakashi has retired his position to Naruto Uzumaki, who succeeds him as the Seventh Hokage (七代目火影 Nanadaime Hokage?).
- Kazekage (風影?, literally "Wind Shadow") - Kage of Sunagakure. Rasa, the Fourth Kazekage (四代目風影 Yondaime Kazekage?), is the Kazekage at the beginning of the series, until his death right before Orochimaru's invasion of Konoha. His youngest son, Gaara, succeeds him as the Fifth Kazekage (五代目風影 Godaime Kazekage?) sometime during the interim between Part I and II.
- Mizukage (水影?, literally "Water Shadow") - Kage of Kirigakure. For most of the series, Mei Terumī, the Fifth Mizukage (五代目水影 Godaime Mizukage?), takes the position, her immediate predecessor being the Three-Tails' Jinchūriki, Yagura (Fourth). Several years after the Fourth Great Ninja War, Mei succeeded by her bodyguard, Chōjūrō of the Seven Swordsmen of the Mist as the Sixth Mizukage (六代目水影 Rokudaime Mizukage?).
- Raikage (雷影?, literally "Lightning Shadow") - Kage of Kumogakure. Upon taking the position, all Raikage forsake their name in favor of the title "Ay". The Fourth Raikage (四代目雷影 Yondaime Raikage?) acts as Kumogakure's leader for most of the series, his father (Third) being his immediate predecessor. His bodyguard, Darui, succeeds him as the Fifth Raikage (五代目雷影 Godaime Raikage?) several years after the Fourth Great Ninja War.
- Tsuchikage (土影?, literally "Earth Shadow") - Kage of Iwagakure. For most of the series, Onoki, the Third Tsuchikage (三代目土影 Sandaime Tsuchikage?), acts as Iwagakure's leader, his immediate predecessor being his former teacher, Mu (Second). He has been the longest reigning Kage and possibly the longest-living of them all, having lived since before the ninja village's founding. Several years after the Fourth Great Ninja War, Onoki is succeeded by his granddaughter Kurotsuchi as the Fourth Tsuchikage (四代目土影 Yondaime Tsuchikage?).
The anime introduced a sixth Kage, the Hoshikage (星影 literally "Star Shadow"?) from Hoshigakure (Village Hidden in the Stars). However, this was a self-given title and not officially recognized by the five other villages.
Rogue Ninja (抜け忍 Nukenin?, literally "Fugitive Ninja", also called "Missing Ninja"/"Criminal Ninja") are ninja, of any rank, who have abandoned their Hidden Village homes. The Akatsuki is an organization that houses said rogue ninja from every Hidden Village except the Hidden Cloud who are the main antagonists in the series of Naruto. These ninja are mainly considered traitors and are hunted down because of the secrets they may hold. There are exceptions to this however. For example, Jiraiya and Tsunade left Konoha but were not targeted because they were not committing criminal acts in the process; additionally, Sasuke Uchiha left Konoha yet was repeatedly pardoned for his crimes. Other Hidden Villages would be interested in purchasing this information because it could be useful in gaining an upper hand in battle or obtaining a bloodline limit unique to a village. Some villages (Kirigakure being the only known example) create special units of hunter-nin to take care of this problem, although it's unlikely that every Rogue Ninja has a team of hunter-nin sent after them. On most other occasions, a team of ordinary ninja will try and locate the Rogue Ninja with the intention of capturing him/her and bringing the ninja back to the village, where they will be tried for their crimes.
- Kishimoto, Masashi (2007). Uzumaki: the Art of Naruto. Viz Media. p. 145. ISBN 1-4215-1407-9.
- Shonen Jump #33 Volume 3, Issue 9 September 2005. Viz Media. p. 8.
- "NARUTO―ナルト―［秘伝・臨の書］" (in Japanese). Shueisha. Retrieved May 3, 2008.
- Kishimoto, Masashi (2000). The Worst Client. Japan: Shueshia. p. 384. ISBN 4088728785.
- Kishimoto, Masashi (2009). NARUTO-ナルト-[秘伝・皆の書]オフィシャルファンBOOK. Shueisha. p. 116. ISBN 4-08-874834-4.