Tailings dam

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A tailings dam is typically an earth-fill embankment dam used to store byproducts of mining operations after separating the ore from the gangue. Tailings can be liquid, solid, or a slurry of fine particles, and are usually highly toxic and potentially radioactive. Solid tailings are often used as part of the structure itself.

Tailings dams rank among the largest engineered structures on earth. The Syncrude Mildred Lake Tailings Dyke in Alberta, Canada, is an embankment dam about 18 kilometres (11 mi) long and from 40 to 88 metres (131 to 289 ft) high. It is the largest dam structure on earth by volume, and as of 2001 it was believed to be the largest earth structure in the world by volume of fill.[1]

There are key differences between tailings dams and the more familiar hydroelectric dams. Tailings dams are designed for permanent containment, meant to "remain there forever".[2] Copper, gold, uranium and other mining operations produce varied kinds of waste, much of it toxic, which pose varied challenges for long-term containment.[3]

An estimated 3,500 active tailings impoundments stand around the world, although there is no complete inventory, and the total number is disputed. As of 2000 these structures experience known "major" failures of about 2 to 5 annually, along with 35 "minor" failures.[4] Assuming the 3,500 figure is correct, this failure rate is "more than two orders of magnitude higher than the failure rate of conventional water retention dams".[5]

Structure[edit]

Unlike water retention dams, a tailings dam is raised in succession throughout the life of the particular mine. Typically, a base or starter dam is constructed, and as it fills with a mixture of tailings and water, it is raised. Material used to raise the dam can include the tailings (depending on their size) along with dirt.[6]

Wheal Jane Tailings Dam, West Cornwall, England

There are three raised tailings dam designs, the upstream, downstream and centerline, named according to the movement of the crest during raising. The specific design used is dependent upon topography, geology, climate, the type of tailings, and cost. An upstream tailings dam consists of trapezoidal embankments being constructed on top but toe to crest of another, moving the crest further upstream. This creates a relatively flat downstream side and a jagged upstream side which is supported by tailings slurry in the impoundment. The downstream design refers to the successive raising of the embankment that positions the fill and crest further downstream. A centerlined dam has sequential embankment dams constructed directly on top of another while fill is placed on the downstream side for support and slurry supports the upstream side.[7][8]

List of largest tailings dams[edit]

Rank Name[9] Country Year completed Structure height [m] Structure volume[10] [106 m3] Reservoir volume [109 m3] Installed capacity [MW] Type
1 Syncrude Tailings Dam Mildred MLSB[11]  Canada 1995 88 540[12]/720 0.35 NA TE
2 Syncrude Tailings Dam Mildred SWSS[13]  Canada 2010 40-50 119[12] 0.25[12] NA TE
3 ASARCO Mission Mine Tailings Dam  United States 1973 30[14] 40.1 0 [15] NA ER

Type: TE - Earth; ER - Rock-fill; PG - Concrete gravity; CFRD - Concrete face rock fill

Concerns[edit]

The standard of public reporting on tailings dam incidents is poor. A large number remain completely unreported, or lack basic facts when reported. There is no comprehensive database for historic failures.[5] According to mining engineer David M Chambers of the Center for Science in Public Participation, 10,000 years is "a conservative estimate" of how long most tailings dams will need to maintain structural integrity. [16]

Failure rate[edit]

The lack of any comprehensive tailings dam database has prevented meaningful analysis, either gross comparisons (such as country to country comparisons, or tailings dam failures versus hydro dam failure rates) or technical failure analysis to help prevent future incidents. The records are very incomplete on crucial data elements: design height of dam, design footprint, construction type (upstream, downstream, center line), age, design life, construction status, ownership status, capacity, release volume, runout, etc.

An interdisciplinary research report from 2015 recompiled the official global record on tailings dam failures and major incidents and offered a framework for examining the severity and consequence of major incidents. That report shows a correlation between failure rates and the pace of copper ore production, and also establishes a relationship between the pursuit of lower grades of ore, which produces larger volumes of waste, and increasingly severe incidents.[17][18] For this reason, several programs to make tailing dams more sustainable have been set in motion in countries like Chile, where there are more than 740 spread across the country.[19]

Environmental damage[edit]

The mining and processing byproducts collected in tailings dams are not part of the aerobic ecological systems, and are unstable. They may damage the environment by releasing toxic metals (arsenic and mercury among others), by acid drainage (usually by microbial action on sulfide ores), or by damaging aquatic wildlife that rely on clear water.[20]

Tailings dam failures involving significant ecological damage include:

Tailings ponds can also be a source of acid drainage, leading to the need for permanent monitoring and treatment of water passing through the tailings dam. For instance in 1994 the operators of the Olympic Dam mine, Western Mining Corporation, admitted that their uranium tailings containment had released of up to 5 million m3 of contaminated water into the subsoil.[35] The cost of mine cleanup has typically been 10 times that of mining industry estimates when acid drainage was involved.[36]

Casualties[edit]

The following table of the deadliest known tailings dam failures is not comprehensive, and the casualty figures are estimates.

Dam/incident Year Location Fatalities Details
1962 Huogudu(火谷都), China tailing pond failure September 26, 1962 Huogudu (火谷都), GejiuYunan Province, China 171 Few details available. A tailings pond at a tin mine operated by Yunnan Tin Group collapsed. 368M m3 surged. One source reports 171 killed and another 92 injured; another has the date as September 26.[37][38]
Mina Plakalnitsa May 01, 1966 Vratsa, Bulgaria 480+ A tailings dam at Plakalnitsa copper mine near the city of Vratsa failed. A total 450,000 cu m of mud and water inundated Vratsa and the nearby village of Zgorigrad, which suffered widespread damage. The official death toll is 107, but the unofficial estimate was more than 480.[39]
Certej dam failure October 30, 1971 Certej Mine, Romania 89 A tailings dam built too tall collapsed, flooding Certeju de Sus with toxic tailings.[40]
Buffalo Creek Flood February 26, 1972 West Virginia, United States 125 Unstable loose constructed dam created by local coal mining company, collapsed in heavy rain. 1,121 injured, 507 houses destroyed, over 4,000 left homeless.
Val di Stava dam July 18, 1985 Tesero, Italy 268 Poor maintenance and low margin for error in design; outlet pipes failed, leading to pressure on dam and sudden collapse. Ten people were ultimately convicted of manslaughter and other charges.
Mufulira 1970 Zambia 89 A tailings reservoir breached and collapsed into the copper mine below it, killing 89 night-shift workers.[41]
Aberfan disaster October 21, 1966 Wales 144 The collapse and landslide of a spoil tip accumulated above the mining town on geologically unstable ground killed 28 adults and 116 children (not an engineered structure)
Hpakant jade mine disaster October 25, 2015 Myanmar 113 A slag heap reportedly used by multiple operators in this jade-mining region became unstable and flooded into nearby residences (not an engineered structure)[42]
El Cobre landslide March 28, 1965 Chile 300 Shaking from a magnitude 7.1 earthquake caused failure of two tailings dams at the El Soldado copper mine. The resulting flow destroyed the town of El Cobre.
Merriespruit Tailings Dam Failure February 22, 1994 Virginia, Free State, South Africa 17 Merriespruit tailings dam overtopped in heavy rains. The flow of an estimated 600,000 m3 (1.2 Million tonnes) of tailings reached the town of Merriespruit 2 kilometers away. With the seventeen fatal casualties, dozens of homes were engulfed.[43]
Taoshi landslide September 08, 2008 Linfen, Shanxi Province, China 254+ Iron mine tailings, formerly administered by the state and then put into private hands, collapsed into a village at 8 a.m.[44]
Bento Rodrigues dam disaster November 05, 2015 Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil 19 A tailings dam at an iron ore mine jointly owned by Vale S.A. and BHP and suffered a catastrophic failure releasing around 60 million cubic meters of iron waste into the Doce River which reached the Atlantic Ocean.
Brumadinho dam disaster January 25, 2019 Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, Brazil 259+[45] A tailings dam at an iron ore mine operated by Vale S.A. suffered a catastrophic failure.[46]

Largest failures[edit]

The following list focuses on the largest tailings dam failures:

Name Released volume [103 m3] Date of failure Country Environmental consequences Reservoir volume [103 m3] Dam type Notes
Padcal No. 2 80,000[47]
32,000[48]
1992
January 2
Philippines Damaged "large tracts of prime agricultural land"; mine paid penalties to provincial treasury of Pangasinan.[49] 80,000[50]   Copper mine. Dam wall collapsed.[51]
Mariana dam disaster
(Bento Rodrigues, Samarco)[52]
60,000
32,000[51]
2015
November 5
Brazil Significant contamination of Rio Doce and Atlantic Ocean. 55,000[51]   Iron ore tailings[53] Flávio Fonseca de Carmo, Luciana Hiromi et. al say 43x106 m3 of tailings released, which was 80% of the stored volume.[48]
Brumadinho dam disaster 12,000 2019 January 25 Brazil Metals in tailings to be incorporated into rivers' soil. Earth Iron ore tailings.
Ajka alumina plant accident 1000 2010 October 4 Hungary The waste extinguished all life in the Marcal river, alkaline mud reached the Danube     Red mud
Sipalay 30,000[54][55] 1982
Nov. 8[56]
Philippines "Widespread inundation of agricultural land up to 1.5 m high" 37,000[51]   Dam failure, due to slippage of foundation[57]
Mount Polley 15,000[58]
23,600[51]
2014
August 4
Canada   74,000[59]   4.5 Mm3 water, 10 Mm3 metals-laden tailings, plus interstitial water in tailings.
American Cyanamid 11,400[60] 1962 U.S.A. Acidic water flowed into a wetland called Hooker's Prairie. It was contained there and limed before discharge into South Prong of Alafia River. Phosphate, Florida.[51]
Padcal No. 3 5,000-10,000 2012
August 3
Philippines Balog and Agno Rivers heavily polluted. 250,000[61]
102,000[51]
  Copper mine[51]
Pinchi Lake 6,000-8,000 2004
Nov. 30
Canada Tlatzen First Nation alleges mercury has destroyed fishery in the lake.     Mercury mine waste containment dam collapses.[62][51]
Payne Creek Mine 6,800 1994
Oct 2
U.S.A.       Water from a clay settling pond. Majority of release contained on adjacent mining area; 500,000 m3 escaped into a creek[57]
Doñana disaster 4,500
6,800[51]
1998
April 25
Spain   15,000[51]   Acidic tailings containing heavy metals
Omai mine 4,200 1995
August 19
Guyana   5,250[51]   Gold mine. Tailings release contained cyanide.
Kingston power plant 4,100 2008
Dec. 22
U.S.A. Heavy metals; large fish kill; town inundated;     Fly ash slurry from a coal-fired power plant.
Balka Cuficheva 3,500 1981
January 20
Soviet Union   27,000[51]   Iron.[57]
Los Cedros 1,500-3,000[63] 1937
May 27
Mexico > 300 human fatalities 25,000 (estimate)[64]   Silver and gold mine.[63]
Quinette, Maemot 2,500[51] 1985 Canada River valley filled with waste for 2.5 km.[51]     Coal mine.
Rio Pomba Cataguases 2,000 2007
10 January
Brazil       Bauxite (Aluminum) mine[51]
Tyrone, New Mexico 2,000 1980
Oct. 13
U.S.A. Tailings flow 8 km downstream and inundate farmland.     Copper mine.[57]
Hopewell Mine 1,900 1994
Nov 19
U.S.A. Spill into wetlands and Alafia River     Water from a clay settling pond[57]
Merriespruit 690[65] 1994
February 22
South Africa Slurry travelled 2 km, covering about ​12 km2. 17 fatalities. 7,040[51]   Gold mine.[66]
2008 Shanxi mudslide 2008 China

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morgenstern, Norbert R. (19–20 September 2001). "Geotechnics and Mine Waste Management – Update" (PDF). Swedish Mining Association, Natur Vards Verket, European Commission. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  2. ^ "Tailings Dams: Where Mining Waste is Stored Forever". FRONTLINE. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  3. ^ Culbert, Lori (24 November 2001). "Story of a shattered life: A single childhood incident pushed Dawn Crey into a downward spiral - Vancouver Sun". Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  4. ^ Martin, T.E.; Davies, M.P. "Trends in the stewardship of tailings dams" (PDF). www.infomine.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  5. ^ a b Azam, Shahad; Li, Qiren (December 2010). "Tailings Dam Failures: A Review of the Last One Hundred Years" (PDF). www.infomine.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  6. ^ Blight, Geoffrey E. (1998). "Construction of Tailings Dams". Case studies on tailings management. Paris, France: International Council on Metals and the Environment. pp. 9–10. ISBN 1-895720-29-X. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  7. ^ "Properties of Tailings Dams" (PDF). NBK Institute of Mining Engineering. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.http://mining.ubc.ca/files/2013/03/Dirk-van-Zyl.pdf
  8. ^ Raj K. Singhal, ed. (2000). Environmental issues and management of waste in energy and mineral production: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Environmental Issues and Management of Waste in Energy and Mineral Production: SWEMP 2000; Calgary, Alberta, Canada, May 30 – June 2, 2000. Rotterdam: Balkema. pp. 257–260. ISBN 90-5809-085-X. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  9. ^ Talk:List of largest dams in the world#Phantom Dams
  10. ^ Talk:List of largest dams in the world#Structure Volume
  11. ^ D. Nicol (1994) "The Syncrude Mildred Lake Tailings Dyke Redesign", 18th Int. Congr. Large Dams.
  12. ^ a b c Estimate based on height, dimensions from Google Earth and, where available, cross section. Accuracy ±15%
  13. ^ "Microsoft Word - Baseline Report on Fluid Deposits revE" (PDF). Retrieved 16 February 2011.
  14. ^ Estimate based on structure volume and dimensions from Google Earth
  15. ^ Zero reservoir size because full of tailings
  16. ^ David M Chambers, "Long Term Risk of Releasing Potentially Acid Producing Waste Due to Tailings Dam Failure". Center for Science in Public Participation. Page 3 of 12. CSP2.org
  17. ^ Lindsay Newland Bowker and David M Chambers, 2015. csp2.org
  18. ^ http://www.csp2.org/tailings-dam-failures-1915-2014
  19. ^ Honrubia, Mario (3 April 2019). "3 Ways of Making Mine Tailing Dams more Sustainable". Ennomotive. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  20. ^ Franks, DM, Boger, DV, Côte, CM, Mulligan, DR. 2011. Sustainable Development Principles for the Disposal of Mining and Mineral Processing Wastes. Resources Policy. Vol. 36. No. 2. pp 114-122
  21. ^ Schvartsman, Fabio (25 January 2019). "Announcement about Brumadinho breach dam" (in Portuguese). Vale. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  22. ^ "Firefighters confirm 40 dead, Vale announces list of non-contact employees". Isto é. 26 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  23. ^ Schipani, Andres (26 January 2019). "Vale mining dam failure leaves 7 dead in Brazil". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  24. ^ Broadle, Anthony (26 January 2019). "Vale confirms tailings dam break at Feijao mine, echoing 2015 Samarco disaster". The Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  25. ^ "Boechat: Mariana é a maior tragédia ambiental do Brasil". TV UOL. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  26. ^ Joao. "É a maior tragédia ambiental do Brasil. Mas tem solução". www.ihu.unisinos.br. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  27. ^ "Brazil dam burst: Six months on, the marks left by sea of sludge". BBC. 5 May 2016.
  28. ^ CBC News, August 2014. cbc.ca
  29. ^ Mineral Policy Institute, August 2014, Chronology of Major Tailings Dam Failures
  30. ^ "Death of a river", BBC, February 15, 2000
  31. ^ Quinones, Manuel (December 13, 2011). "URANIUM: As Cold War abuses linger, Navajo Nation faces new mining push". www.eenews.net. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  32. ^ I. Torgoev, A.T. Jakubick, quoted in Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy, eds. (6 October 2011). The New Uranium Mining Boom: Challenge and lessons learned. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 232. ISBN 9783642221224. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  33. ^ Schramm, Manuel. "Uranium Mining and the Environment in East and West Germany," (PDF). Rachel Carson Center Perspectives. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  34. ^ Watson, Ivan (5 February 2008). "Kyrgyz Town Lives with Radioactive Soviet Legacy". National Public Radio. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  35. ^ "Environmental Aspects of Uranium Mining: WNA - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  36. ^ Jared Diamond (2005). Collapse. Penguin., page 452-458
  37. ^ The present situation and prospects for safety online-monitoring system of tailings pond (sic), by ZHOU Hanmin, YUAN Ziqing, SU Jun, YANG Xiaocong and ZHANG Da1, paper presented for the 3rd International Conference on Mechatronics, Robotics and Automation (ICMRA 2015)
  38. ^ "Introduction tailings dam-Alibaba Trade Forums". resources.alibaba.com. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  39. ^ "Трагедията в село Згориград (община Враца, България)". Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  40. ^ "Certej 1971, tragedia uitată a 89 de vieţi îngropate sub 300 de mii de metri cubi de nămol". Adevărul. 31 August 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  41. ^ "Tailings.info ▪ Mufulira mine tailings breach, Zambia". www.tailings.info. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  42. ^ "Nearly 100 dead in Myanmar jade mine collapse". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  43. ^ "Tailings.info ▪ Merriespruit tailings dam failure". www.tailings.info. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  44. ^ AsiaNews.it. "Taoshi landslide: hundreds dead, mine owner and government accused". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  45. ^ https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/cotidiano/2020/01/promotoria-de-mg-denuncia-ex-presidente-da-vale-e-15-pessoas-por-homicidio-doloso-em-brumadinho.shtml
  46. ^ "Brumadinho dam collapse in Brazil: Vale mine chief resigns". Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  47. ^ AGHAM – Advocates of Science and Technology for the People, Center for Environmental Concerns (CEC), and Kalikasan People's Network for the Environment (Kalikasan-PNE) "Environmental Investigation Mission on the Impacts of the Philex Mining Corporation (PMC) Mine Tailings Pond 3 Failure TECHNICAL REPORT" ,  2013. Page 2 (7/28). Accessed June 2018.
    Harvey Wood, 2012. Disasters and Minewater. IWA Publishing. Page 36. Accessed via EbscoHost e-book publisher.
    Wise Uranium, 2018. "Chronology of Major Tailings Dam Failures"   gives outflow as 80 million tonnes.
  48. ^ a b Flávio Fonseca de Carmo, Luciana Hiromi, and others, 2017. "Fundão tailings dam failures: the environment tragedy of the largest technological disaster of Brazilian mining in global context"   Perspectives in Ecology and ConservationVolume 15, Issue 3, July–September 2017, Pages 145-151
  49. ^ Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines and others, September 2012. "The Philex Mine Tailings Spill Of 2012: An Independent Fact Finding Mission Report" , p 18/26. Accessed July 2018.
  50. ^ International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), 2001 Tailings Dams Risk of Dangerous Occurrences   P 95. Gives storage and released amounts both as 80 million tonnes. Accessed July 2018.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Center for Science in Public Participation, "Tailings Dam Failures, 1915-2016"   Accessed June 2018.
  52. ^ United Nations, Mine Tailings Storage: Safety Is No Accident "Report Summary"   Accessed June 2018.
  53. ^ United Nations. No date. "Mine Tailings Storage: Safety Is No Accident", pp 6-7. amazonaws.com
  54. ^ Wise Uranium, "Chronology of Major Tailings Dam Failures"   (2018) gives release size as 28 million tonnes. Thus the volume would be 28 million cubic metres if it was all water, and more if the release included tailings solids, which is likely.
  55. ^ Source gives amount as 28 million tonnes. See also the CSP2 table of tailings dam failures ,   lines 375-6, which gives a conversion factor of 1.6 (volume/mass).
  56. ^ Bulatlat.com
  57. ^ a b c d e Mineral Policy Institute Chronology of major tailings dam failures
  58. ^ Jennni Sheppard, "Imperial Metals was warned about height of wastewater in tailings pond most recently in May" CBC News, August 5, 2014
  59. ^ Center for Science in Public Participation, "Tailings Dam Failures, 1915-2016"
    Adam, NASA Earth Observatory, 17 August 2014."Dam Breach at Mount Polley Mine in British Columbia"   Both articles accessed June 2018.
  60. ^ Hi Tech Solutions, 2000. "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Neutralizing Accidental Spills of Acidic Waste From Holding Ponds"  , p. 5. Accessed June 2018.
  61. ^ Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines and others, September 2012. "The Philex Mine Tailings Spill Of 2012: An Independent Fact Finding Mission Report" , p 18/26, cites Philippines DENR as estimating the stored tailings mass as 163 million tonnes. Specific gravity of tailings is typically about 1.6 according to Centre for Science in Public Participation, "Tailings Dam Failures, 1915-2016", op. cit. Accessed July 2018.
  62. ^ Mining Watch "We Want to Make Cominco Responsible: Tlatzen Nation"
  63. ^ a b J L Macias, P Corona-Chavez, and others, 2015. "The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpjahua, Michoacán, Mexico", Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 15, pp 1069-1085. Abstract Full pdf   The document is open source. Retrieved June 2018.
  64. ^ The source gives an estimate of 14.7 million tons. Multiplying this by a typical specific gravity for tailings of 1.6, as suggestd by the Center for Science in Public Participation, "Tailings Dam Failures, 1915-2016" (op. cit.) gives approximately 25 million cubic metres of volume.
  65. ^ May have been more like 2,000 Mm3. See ICOLD 2001, op cit.
  66. ^ Michael P Davies, "Tailings Impoundment Failures: Are Geotechnical Engineers Listening?" Geotechnical News, September 2002. http://www.pebblescience.org/pdfs/Dam_failuresDavies2002.pdf

Further reading[edit]