|Area||2.12 km2 (0.82 sq mi)|
|Population||3,570 (mid-2020 est.)|
|• Density||1,684/km2 (4,360/sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|• Edinburgh||133 mi (214 km)|
|• London||463 mi (745 km)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
The name derives from the nearby River Tain, the name of which comes from an Indo-European root meaning 'flow'. The Gaelic name, Baile Dubhthaich, means 'Duthac's town', after a local saint also known as Duthus.
Tain was granted its first royal charter in 1066, making it Scotland's oldest royal burgh, commemorated in 1966 with the opening of the Rose Garden by Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother. The 1066 charter, granted by King Malcolm III, confirmed Tain as a sanctuary, where people could claim the protection of the church, and an immunity, in which resident merchants and traders were exempt from certain taxes.
Little is known of earlier history although the town owed much of its importance to Duthac. He was an early Christian figure, perhaps 8th or 9th century, whose shrine had become so important by 1066 that it resulted in the royal charter. The ruined chapel near the mouth of the river was said to have been built on the site of his birth. Duthac became an official saint in 1419 and by the late Middle Ages his shrine was an important place of pilgrimage in Scotland. King James IV came at least once a year throughout his reign to achieve both spiritual and political aims.
The early Duthac Chapel was the centre of a sanctuary. Fugitives were by tradition given sanctuary in several square miles marked by boundary stones. During the First War of Scottish Independence, Robert the Bruce sent his wife and daughter to the sanctuary for safety. The sanctuary was violated and they were captured by forces loyal to William II, Earl of Ross who handed them over to Edward I of England.
Tain railway station is on the Far North Line. The station is unmanned; in its heyday it had 30 staff. The station was opened by the Highland Railway on 1 January 1864. From 1 January 1923, the station was owned by the London Midland and Scottish Railway. Then in 1948 the British railways were nationalised as British Railways. After the railways were privatised, the station was served by ScotRail.
Tain has two primary schools; Craighill (274 pupils as of April 2011) and Knockbreck (just under 120 pupils as of April 2011). There is also a secondary school, Tain Royal Academy, with 590 pupils as of January 2017.
With conflict looming in the 1930s, an aerodrome large enough for bombers was built next to the town on low alluvial land known as the Fendom bordering the Dornoch Firth. It was home to British, Czech (311 Sqn) and Polish airmen during the Second World War.
It was abandoned as a flying location after the war and converted to a bombing range for the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy. When British naval aviation moved from large fleet aircraft carriers, the role was taken over by the RAF. In 1939 RAF Station Lossiemouth opened and was used until 1946 when the airfield was transferred to the Admiralty and becoming Royal Naval Air Station (RNAS) Lossiemouth then returning to the RAF in 1972 as a RAF airfield and the Tain range reverted to the RAF. Large parts of the original aerodrome were returned to civilian use after the Second World War and some are still accessible.
Sport & recreation
Local geographical and visitor features
The Gizzen Briggs are sandbars at the entrance to the Dornoch Firth, and with the right wind, they can be heard at low tide. The so-called "million dollar view" to the north-west of Tain, accessible via the A836 westward towards Bonar Bridge and then the B9176 Struie Road, gives a panoramic view of Dornoch Firth and Sutherland.
Five important castles are in the vicinity – Carbisdale Castle, built for the Dowager Duchess of Sutherland and now a youth hostel; Skibo Castle, once home of the industrialist Andrew Carnegie and now a hotel; Dunrobin Castle, ancestral seat of the Duke of Sutherland (castle and gardens open to the public); Balnagown Castle, ancestral seat of the Clan Ross, restored and owned by Mohammed Al Fayed; and Ballone Castle, restored by the owners of a local crafts business.
Tain was a parliamentary burgh, combined with Dingwall, Dornoch, Kirkwall and Wick in the Northern Burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918. The constituency was a district of burghs known also as Tain Burghs until 1832, and then as Wick Burghs. It was represented by one Member of Parliament (MP). In 1918 the constituency was abolished, and Tain was merged into Ross and Cromarty.
- Saint Duthac (1000–1065), 11th century saint
- Sir John Fraser (1885–1947), surgeon
- Peter Fraser (1884–1950), 24th prime minister of New Zealand, was born in Hill of Fearn, near Tain.
- George MacKenzie FRSE (1886–1957), president of the Institute of Banking, 1941–45
- Rev John Munro of Tain, 17th-century religious dissenter, was a minister here.
- Rev David Robertson (born 1962), former Free Church of Scotland moderator and Christian commentator, grew up in Portmahomack.
- Elizabeth Ness MacBean Ross (1878–1915), physician who was raised here and attended Tain Royal Academy.
- John Ross (1726–1800), merchant during the American Revolution
- Very Rev Walter Ross Taylor (1805–1896), served as Moderator of the General Assembly to the Free Church of Scotland in 1884.
- Professor Thomas Summers West, CBE, FRS (1927–2010), an internationally acclaimed analytical chemist, went to school at Tain Royal Academy.
|Climate data for Tain Range (4 m or 13 ft asl, averages 1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4
|Average low °C (°F)||0.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||59.5
|Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||13.0||11.0||12.9||9.5||11.1||10.8||10.9||11.3||10.3||14.3||12.3||13.6||140.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||40||70||102||138||184||152||143||133||112||83||49||31||1,237|
|Source 1: Met Office|
|Source 2: Scottish Places|
Freedom of the Royal Burgh
The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the Royal Burgh of Tain.
- Sir Arthur Bignold: 1907.
- Colonel James Alexander Francis Humberston Stewart Mackenzie of Seaforth: 1907 
- Sir John Fraser : 1925.
- "Mid-2020 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland". National Records of Scotland. 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
- Taylor, Iain. Place-names of Scotland. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-78027-005-0.
- Iain Mac an Tailleir. "Placenames" (PDF). Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2007.
- "Tain Community Website – History & Heritage". www.tain.org.uk. Archived from the original on 19 February 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- "The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland: 1604-1607". The Privy Council of Scotland. 1885. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
- Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland, by G.W.S. Barrow, published Edinburgh, 1965
- "Tain Station". ScotRail. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
- "St Duthus Collegiate Church". Ross and Cromarty Heritage. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
- Moore, Charlotte (22 October 2004). "Family sells Glenmorangie to cognac maker". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- "Tain Royal Academy". education.gov.scot. Education Scotland. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
- "The Fendom". Ross and Cromarty Heritage. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
- War Detectives. "Royal Air Force Tain". Retrieved 1 April 2008.
- "Home Page". Tain Golf Club. Retrieved 11 Apr 2011.
- Club, St Duthus Football. "St Duthus accepted into the North Caledonian FA | St Duthus Football Club - Tain, Highland, Scotland". www.stduthusfc.co.uk. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- "Million Dollar View (Struie)". Easter Ross Peninsula. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
- Historic Environment Scotland. "Ballone Castle (15632)". Canmore. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
- "Our Story". Highland Fine Cheeses. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- MacGibbon, David; Ross, Thomas (1896). The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland. Edinburgh. p. 2:543–44. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "R" (part 2)
- Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.
- "Obituary, Thomas Summers West" (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Tain Range (Highland) UK climate averages". Met Office. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "Climate information for Tain". Scottish Places. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Tain Museum Image Library – Freedom of the Burgh, Sir Arthur Bignold". www.tainmuseum.org.uk.
- "Ross and Cromarty Heritage – History".
- "Sir John Fraser Dead". The Glasgow Herald. 2 December 1947. p. 4. Retrieved 1 April 2018.