Talian dialect

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Talian
Taliàn
Native toBrazil (co-official language in Serafina Corrêa and Flores da Cunha)
Native speakers
possibly 1 million (2006)[1]
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone

Talian (or Brazilian Venetian[2], Venetian pronunciation: [taˈljaŋ], Italian: [taˈljan], Portuguese: [tɐliˈɐ̃] but locally [taliˈɐŋ]) is a dialect of the Venetian language, spoken primarily in the Serra Gaúcha region in the northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It is also spoken in other parts of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as in parts of Espirito Santo[3][4][5][6][7] and of Santa Catarina.

Despite the similar names, Talian is not derived from standard Italian (usually called italiano gramático or "grammatical Italian" in Brazil), but is mainly a mix of Venetian dialects influenced by other Gallo-Italian languages as well as local Portuguese.

History[edit]

Italian settlers first began arriving into these regions in a wave of immigration lasting from approximately 1875 to 1914.[8][9] These settlers were mainly from Veneto, a region in Northern Italy, where Venetian was spoken, but also from Trentino and Friuli-Venezia Giulia.[8][9] In the south of Brazil these immigrants settled as smallholders in the region of Encosta da Serra. There they created three settlements: Conde D'Eu (now, Garibaldi, Rio Grande do Sul), Dona Isabel (now Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul), and Campo dos Bugres (now Caxias do Sul).[10] As more people arrived, the Italian settlement expanded beyond these localities.[10] Approximately 100,000 immigrants from Northern Italy arrived between 1875 and 1910. As time went by, a uniquely southern Brazilian dialect emerged. Veneto became the basis for Italian-Brazilian regionalism.

Talian was very much influenced not only by other Italian languages but by Portuguese, the national language of Brazil. However, because its grammar and lexicon remain predominantly Venetian, Talian is not considered a creole language, despite the preponderance of non-Venetian loanwords. It has been estimated that there have been 130 books published in Talian, including works of both poetry and prose.[11]

Like Riograndenser Hunsrückisch (hunsriqueano riograndense), the main German dialect spoken by southern Brazilians of German origin, Talian has suffered great deprecation since the 1940s. At that time, then-President Getúlio Vargas started a campaign of nationalization (similar to the Nacionalismo of neighboring Argentina) to try to force non-Portuguese speakers of Brazil to "better integrate" into the national mainstream culture. Speaking Talian or German in public, especially in education and press, was forbidden.

Current status[edit]

Municipalities that the Talian is co-official in Rio Grande do Sul.

Talian is mainly spoken in the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, as well as in Espirito Santo.[3][4][5][6][7] Nowadays, there are approximately 3 million people of Italian ancestry in Rio Grande do Sul, about 30% of the local population,[10] and approximately 1.7 million people in Espirito Santo, which accounts for 65% of the local population.[12] According to some estimates, there are up to one million speakers of Talian today; Ethnologue reported 4,000,000 speakers in the year 2006.[1] During the "Estado Novo" period of the government of Getúlio Vargas, the use of Talian was declared illegal.[13] As a result of the traumas of Vargas' policies, there is, even to this day, a stigma attached to speaking these languages.

In 2009, the legislative assemblies of the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina approved laws declaring the Talian dialect to be an integral part of the historical heritage of their respective states.[10][14][15] In 2009, the city of Serafina Corrêa, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, elected Talian as co-official language, alongside Portuguese.[16][17] Finally, in 2014 Talian was declared to be part of the cultural heritage of Brazil (Língua e referência cultural brasileira) by the National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage. According to the figure given at this time, there would be about 500,000 active speakers in 133 towns.[13][18]

Newspapers in the Talian-speaking region feature articles written in the language. There are approximately 500 radio programs broadcast in Talian.[11]

Municipalities in Brazil that have co-official Talian language[edit]

Brazilian states with Talian as linguistic heritage officially approved statewide[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Venetian at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ "Lingua portoghese e cultura brasiliana".
  3. ^ a b "Talian Brasil - Intervista con casal Benjamim Falqueto - Venda Nova del Imigrante - ES". Archived from the original on 2014-12-01.
  4. ^ a b "I dessendenti taliani che parla el talian Venda Nova do Imigrante – Espírito Santo – Brasil". Archived from the original on 2014-11-29.
  5. ^ a b "Chico Zandonadi, Radialista del talian – Ràdio FMZ, Venda Nova do Imigrante – ES". Archived from the original on 2014-11-29.
  6. ^ a b "Dialeto falado por imigrantes italianos é reconhecido como patrimônio nacional".
  7. ^ a b "Brasil Talian documentado em filme".
  8. ^ a b "Approvato il progetto che dichiara il 'Talian' come patrimonio del Rio Grande del Sud - Brasile". Sitoveneto. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  9. ^ a b "ESPIRITO SANTO, LO STATO PIU' VENETO DEL BRASILE". Archived from the original on 2004-03-16.
  10. ^ a b c d Losekann, Silvana (June 13, 2009). "Sancionada lei que declara o Talian dialeto integrante do patrimônio do RS". Defender - Defesa Civil do Patrimônio Histórico. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  11. ^ a b Alves, Ozias (2013). Parlons Talian: Dialecte vénitien du Brésil. Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-343-01576-7.
  12. ^ "Estatísticas ítalo-brasileiras".
  13. ^ a b Bolson, Bibiana (2014-11-20). "Dialeto de imigrantes italianos se torna patrimônio brasileiro" [Italian immigrants' dialect becomes Brazilian patrimony]. Jornal Hoje (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  14. ^ Law No. 13.178, of 10 June 2009. "Declaring the Talian dialect as historical and cultural patrimony of the State, originating from Italians and descendants living in Rio Grande do Sul". DOE No. 109, of 12 June 2009
  15. ^ Law No. 14.951, of 11 November 2009. "Declaring the Talian dialect as historical and cultural patrimony of the State, originating from Italians and descendants living in Santa Catarina". DO No. 18.728, of 11 November 2009
  16. ^ "Vereadores aprovam o talian como língua co-oficial do município" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  17. ^ "Talian em busca de mais reconhecimento" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  18. ^ "Língua Talian" (in Portuguese). National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage.
  19. ^ Lei municipal Nº 3017, de 28 de setembro de 2016
  20. ^ Aprovada em primeira votação projeto que torna o Talian segunda língua oficial de Bento Gonçalves
  21. ^ Co-oficialização do Talian é oficializada pela câmara de Bento Golçalves
  22. ^ "Câmara Bento – Projeto do Executivo é aprovado e Talian se torna a língua co-oficial". Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  23. ^ a b c d Línguas cooficializadas nos municípios brasileiros, Instituto de Investigação e Desenvolvimento em Política Linguística (IPOL)
  24. ^ "Lei confirma o Talian como segunda língua oficial de Caxias do Sul". Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  25. ^ Lei de Instituição do Talian - Lei Nº 1.922 de 10 de junho de 2016
  26. ^ Talian pode ser língua cooficial de Flores da Cunha
  27. ^ "Talian é língua cooficial de Flores da Cunha". Archived from the original on 15 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  28. ^ "Flores da Cunha (RS) - Projeto pretende instituir o "Talian" como língua co oficial no Município". Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  29. ^ Cooficialização do Talian - Nova Erechim, SC
  30. ^ Lei Nº 1310 de 16 de outubro de 2015 - Dispõe sobre a cooficialização da língua do "talian", à língua portuguesa, no município de Nova Roma do Sul"
  31. ^ O Talian agora é a língua co-oficial de Nova Roma do Sul, município de Nova Roma do Sul
  32. ^ Talian: protagonismo na luta pelo reconhecimento cultural e fortalecimento pela lei de cooficialização
  33. ^ "Vereadores aprovam o talian como língua co-oficial do município" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  34. ^ "Talian em busca de mais reconhecimento" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  35. ^ Aprovado projeto que declara o Talian como patrimônio do RS Archived 27 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, accessed on 21 August 2011
  36. ^ LEI Nº 14.951, 11 November 2009
  37. ^ Rotary apresenta ações na Câmara. FEIBEMO divulga cultura italiana
  38. ^ Fóruns sobre o Talian - Eventos comemoram os 134 anos da imigração italiana

External links[edit]