Talk:122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19)
The following text is taken from the Blitzkrieg database:
Before WW1, heavy artillery was usually used to siege or defend a fortress. Because of its immobility it was considered useless for field battles. Light field cannons with higher rates of fire were more efficient against enemy infantry, cavalry and artillery. At the dawn of the 20th century only the Germans were focused on designing heavy field artillery, and WWI proved their approach to be far-sighted. Light field cannon were powerless against entrenched infantry, while German heavy artillery positioned far from the front line were able to destroy, not only entrenchments, but also shorter-range British, French and Russian cannons with impunity.
For quite some time after the First World War, artillery of this type was not a priority, but the lessons had not been forgotten. When the Soviet Union began to rebuild its military in the early '30's, the A-19 heavy field cannon was one of the first weapons to emerge. The design was truly innovative and it was the first of its kind to have expandable supports and a rotating mount that provided a wide firing arc. The A-19 also had the best range of any other cannon in its class and it was used successfully in the Winter War against the Finns to destroy artillery batteries and field fortifications as well as disrupting command and supply lines and preventing reinforcements from mobilizing to the front lines.
When WWII began, however, the A-19 became known for it's superior ability to destroy tanks, something that its designers didn't foresee. By 1943, the Red Army didn't really have any anti-tank artillery that was capable of knocking out the newer heavy tanks that the Germans were producing. Mass production of more powerful anti-tank cannons took time, so the A-19 turned out to be the only weapon that was readily available and could counter the new Tigers and Elephants. The gun proved so successful in its anti-tank role that modifications of the A-19 were routinely mounted on Russian tanks and self-propelled artillery units, and it was an A-19 that fired the first shot on Berlin.
Caliber - 122 mm Rate of fire - 3-4 shots/min Range - 20.5 km Weight - 7117 kg Towing force: 0 Turn radius: 5 Passability: 1 Rotate (Uninstall): 3.97 Transport (Uninstall): 19.09
The following text is from Nival Interactive:
The IS-1 and IS-2 heavy tank designs were based on the KV-1 and KV-13 medium to heavy tanks. They were the first major project for the Experimental Tank Factory in Chelyabinsk that was constructed by March, 1942. The experimental KV-13, armed with a 76 mm cannon, was already considered insufficient, so the design was abondoned and work began on designing a new tank on that base with an 85 mm main gun. They decided to name the tank the IS, after Ioseph Stalin (Russian pronunciation).
The new design was much smaller than the KV, which let the Soviets add additional armor and heavier weaponry without adding more weight. When the Germans began using Heavy Tiger tanks in late '42, the design process significantly sped up, but by that time they also realized that even the 85 mm cannon would be insufficient.
Kotin, the chief designer of Factory #100, was the first to suggest that the IS should be armed with a more powerful gun. In August of '43, after analyzing the results of the Battle of Kursk, he noticed that the 122 mm A-19 cannon had been more successful countering the Tiger than any other artillery system. Mounting a cannon that large on the IS would require redesigning it to allow for a barrel brake. The new tank armed with this gun was called the IS-122, and after preliminary testing, it was sent to Moscow for inspection. There its cannon was tested against a captured Tiger tank and it managed to blow it apart at 1,500 meters. During this test the A-19 cannon's barrel brake blew up, and Marshall Voroshilov, who was in attendance, was nearly killed, leading to the installation of a different model of the barrel brake.
The final design was named the IS-2. The strong armor and powerful main gun allowed it to go up against the latest German tanks and destroy them even from a mile away, as well as take out bunkers and other defensive positions. Although it had a small ammunition reserve and a low rate of fire, the IS tanks were vital when going against the German's strongest defenses and The IS-2's were instrumental in breaking through into the suburbs of Berlin
IS-2 Main Properties: Weight - 46.5 tons; Armour - up to 120 mm; Weapons - long-barrel 122 mm cannon and two 7.62 machine-guns; Engine - 520 hp; Speed - 37 kp/h (23 mph).
- "2,926 guns eventually made"
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WikiProject Military history/Assessment/Tag & Assess 2008
A-19 in Cuban service
The A-19 122mm gun was also exported to Cuba and it was used with great success to repel the Bay of Pigs invasion on 1961.