Talk:Adipose tissue

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x hours per week[edit]

"At least 10 METs x hours per week in aerobic exercise is required for visceral fat reduction." What does this mean? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:55, 14 October 2010 (UTC)


can this page be edited —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 23:20, 25 September 2007 (UTC)

Original discussion[edit]

A the request of someone on the Spanish-language wikipedia, I did my best here to translate the more extensive material on this topic from the Spanish-language wikipedia. This really needs review now by a competent biologist, because I am a total layman attempting translation of technical material.

Also, in searching for vocabulary I came across, which looks to my layman's eyes to be very solid and informative. I suspect it is a good mine of information and that one or more articles should include it in their external links. However, since it's totally outside my field, I can't judge it, so I'm leaving the linking to someone with a clue.

-- Jmabel 07:45, 28 Jan 2004 (UTC)

The article looks good to me; I am not a biologist, having taken only college biology courses, but I have some familiarity with the terminology. So if someone else reads the article and thinks it's okay, it's probably worth taking out the notice. Andrew 09:50, Apr 14, 2004 (UTC)

The article is a nice concise overview. I am removing the notice and making a few small edits. E.g, zootomy means cutting up animals; zoology is doubtless intended. alteripse 29 apr 04

This was already pretty good, but I had a further play before checking the talk page - i must stop doing that!! fixed a few links and hopefully clarified and emphasised the main points. the only thing I'm unsure of ist the adipose panniculus, which i've never heard. it'd be great if somebody could check my changes for typos! --Erich gasboy 05:46, 2 May 2004 (UTC)

Pannus and panniculus refer to the "apron" of fat hanging from the abdomen downwards in severe obesity. I am not aware of any difference in the two words and they are used interchangably (although etymologically the one is the diminutive of the other and they are rarely diminutive when worth discussing in a medical context). A large pannus or panniculus complicates surgery of the morbidly obese, and may remain as a literal "apron of skin" if a severely obese person loses most of the excess weight (as after a bypass). Maybe I'll add this to the article. Alteripse 13:29, 2 May 2004 (UTC)
I fail to see what the para about the panniculus has to do with actual definition or description of fat on the human body, nor why it should be described in full on this article when it has its own Pannus Panniculus. Suggest rewording, or list as additional reading. (talk) 14:07, 1 January 2010 (UTC)
looks good! so what do you do for a day job Alteripse? --Erich gasboy 13:46, 2 May 2004 (UTC) Can't you guess? I teach Latin (and sometimes other things) to our residents. Alteripse 14:31, 2 May 2004 (UTC) ..mmm that makes you an ?old Indianna endrocrinologist??? :-) --Erich gasboy 14:38, 2 May 2004 (UTC) ?old=!ouch but reasonable deducing Alteripse 14:45, 2 May 2004 (UTC) he he. sorry us aussies aren't big on decorum... have you dropped by the Wiki doctors mess? --Erich gasboy 14:53, 2 May 2004 (UTC)

Should social use include ancient English sacrifices?[edit]

Thanks to Prometheus, the god's portion of a typical Ancient Greek animal sacrifice consisted of bones and internal organs covered with adipose tissue. Perhaps a link should be in the mythology section and not here. I'm not familiar enough with the wiki to attempt an addition, so I'm just commenting here. No--Awesome19800 (talk) 12:53, 20 March 2017 (UTC)--Awesome19800 (talk) 12:53, 20 March 2017 (UTC)--Awesome19800 (talk) 12:53, 20 March 2017 (UTC)--Awesome19800 (talk) 12:53, 20 March 2017 (UTC)no it should not°°°°°°°°°°°°≠≠≠≠≠≠≠≠§§§§§§


Why does cellulite redirect here? There's nothing in this article about cellulite. -- Kimiko 21:01, 11 Jun 2004 (UTC)

good point. I'll make a stubb ;-) Erich 01:56, 12 Jun 2004 (UTC)

How about adding a stub to the "Adipocyte" entry. Because a tissue is something cpmpletely different than a certain type of cells? --Frosty 21:24, 16 Jun 2004 (UTC)

Improvement drive[edit]

Obesity has been nominated to be improved on Wikipedia:This week's improvement drive. Vote for it there to support the article.--Fenice 20:15, 12 August 2005 (UTC)

Social and Cultural significance[edit]

This section should be exclusively about the social and cultural significance of adipose tissue. Issues about body shape should be (and are) on the obesity page. Zargulon 15:40, 20 September 2005 (UTC)

I don't think this article needs to mention social and cultural significance of adipose tissue. Most people wouldn't even know what it is. JFW | T@lk 16:19, 20 September 2005 (UTC)

I agree. I didn't want to completely rock the boat, since I guess someone put it there for a reason. But I personally would agree with changing the title of that section , or getting rid of it altogether. Zargulon 16:27, 20 September 2005 (UTC)

I also agree. I jumped straight down to the social and cultural section, and there was two lines that linked to other pages. This section should be cut. (talk) 19:18, 4 March 2012 (UTC)



On the Dieting page(the exact quote is at the end of this post) it states that body fat has a large amount of carbon mass. I was wondering if it is possible for a picture of the body fat molecules to be drawn, like was done for Hydrogen_peroxide and Lipid?

I did see the molecule picture on triglyceride and lipid, but is there one for regular fat?

"The exhalation of carbon in carbon dioxide comes from carbon mass in the body, a substantial amount of which in turn comes from fat. Essentially the greater part of body fat, the long carbon chains, is lost from the body by breathing."

Bryan 11:15, 24 December 2005 (UTC)

body fats (and vegetable fats) consist mostly of triglycerides. The exact chain lengths are highly variable. Han-Kwang 20:07, 6 June 2006 (UTC)

Adrenergicand andronergic receptors[edit]

From the article:

In humans, lipolysis is controlled though the balanced control of lipolytic B-adrenergic receptors and a2A-andronergic receptor mediated antilioplysis

I think I understand about half of these words. Does this belong in Wikipedia? Han-Kwang 20:07, 6 June 2006 (UTC)


So when someone gets fatter do new adipose cells get created or are the old ones growing?--Energman 19:13, 3 January 2007 (UTC)

Mostly the cells enlarge. But mammals turn over their fat cells all the time. Old ones die (by apoptosis) and new ones are formed from precursors - so new cells are being created all the time. I am not aware of a good literature on absolute adipocyte turnover rates although some drugs (thiazolidinediones) seem to have big effects on this process. However the issue in obesity is mostly increased cell volume. S.w.coppack 18:23, 7 August 2007 (UTC)

Merge proposal[edit]

I can't see why these three terms need their own articles; I can't see them being developed much further and they could easily be accommodated within this one (or another more appropriate?) - any thoughts? Madmedea 19:20, 6 January 2007 (UTC)

Merge - I can see them growing to deserve their own articles eventually—especially Visceral fat. But I'd STANK agree for right now, when the three subarticles are just stubs, it makes sense to merge them.David.Throop 22:15, 30 January 2007 (UTC)
No Merge - I vote for allowing the other articles to grow. They are distinct enough physiologically to warrant the independent articles. Intramuscular fat is longer than this article!Mabris 21:35, 1 March 2007 (UTC)

There is an important distinction. Subcutaneous fat and visceral fat are clearly adipose tissue. They should be merged. Intramuscular fat is different. Sometimes, when there is a lot of intramuscular fat, one gets identifiable adipose tissue in the muscle. However in lean animals (and people) there will be just triglyceride stores in the myocytes (muscle cells) plus or minus a few isolated adipocytes between the muscle fibres. Intramuscular fat should not be merged - it should be referenced. Caroline Pond's citation explains all this. S.w.coppack 18:28, 7 August 2007 (UTC)

Sources for lipid content[edit]

I have a few questions about the statement "Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids." Can anyone point to a scientific source that states that particular number? Also, I am wondering what the remaining 13% are. Enclosed water? Proteins? It would be great if someone could clarify and corroborate that statement. Mirko Raner 23:24, 16 February 2007 (UTC)

--> Also, it would be great to know which lipids (ie which fatty acids are stored, or make up the triglycerides stored in adipose). —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 09:37, 24 October 2009 (UTC)

Cells making up Adipose Tissue[edit]

This article currently does not mention whether obesity (or excess adipose tissue) is caused by an increased number of adipose cells, or from enlarged adipose cells, or both. It is an important point to clarify in this article. Does anyone have access to a source for this?Mehrshad123 01:40, 14 April 2007 (UTC)

I asked a similar thing in "Growth" above and I got no answer --Energman 14:26, 15 April 2007 (UTC)

Most models of obesity are mostly due to cellular enlargement, although slightly increased numbers are also seen. For example very obese humans might have 10 fold increased fat mass compared to skinny people. Most of this will be from cellular expansion. The adipocyte volumes might increase 4-5 fold, with a 2 fold increase in number. The Cinti reference cited covers this. S.w.coppack 18:17, 7 August 2007 (UTC)

Merging Visceral fat[edit]

No Merge - I think that merging visceral fat article into the main Adipose is a bad idea; there are some important distinctions, and a lot of new research being currently done in this area. More content should be added. 20:57, 25 May 2007 (UTC) Caterina Pryde 5/25/07

No Merge - Agreed - viceral fat is being blamed for many medical conditions. Reports in the media suggest that viceral fat cells give off substances that negatively affect the heart and other organs in ways that subcutaneous fat does not. From a public health perspective, I think it deserves to be separate, even if it is just a subset of fatty tissues in general. MarkinBoston 21:43, 26 June 2007 (UTC)

Merge - Agreed. Visceral fat is a sort of adipose tissue. To exclude it suggests that it is not. Until the Adipose tissue topic becomes unweildy, I would include visceral fat. S.w.coppack 18:10, 7 August 2007 (UTC)

I believe this post was intend to be a vote for merging. Based on the content his/her post, I believe S.w.coppack intended to agreed with merging, rather that the post above him/her. I am placing a bold merge/no merge in from of each post for clarity.Bpage 08:46, 21 September 2007 (UTC)

Merge - I think both visceral fat and subcutaneous fat should be merged here. They are types of adipose tissue. None of the three articles are particularly long. Merging them would result in a more clear understand of any of the three subjects.Bpage 08:46, 21 September 2007 (UTC)

No Merge – While I think that both subcutaneous fat and visceral fat should be subsections under adipose tissue in their current state, they should have their own articles eventually, as they are rather distinct. Merging them into Adipose tissue would lessen the imperative to expand the stubs as they now exist, which I think would be a step in the wrong direction. I have linked them in the current article to emphasize the connection, but maintain that they should not be merged. ~XarBioGeek (talk) 01:33, 18 June 2008 (UTC)

Human Examples[edit]

Another comment. I think readers are more interested in the distribution of Adipose Tissue in Humans rather than in Mice. [E. A.] 16 August 2007

definitely. i just was reading this and was unclear why one example of distribution is there and it was not for humans. i would expect one example to be a human example and several examples to be those of studied animals, which of course would unnecessarily lengthen the article. had i the expertise i would change it. i hope someone does. thank you. - Lambajan 20:33, 17 February 2009 (UTC)

Request: How many usable Joules per kilogram of fat? Same as food energy amount?[edit]

How efficient is the human body in storing energy? How much is effectively used after storing and re-burning? --Sigmundur (talk) 20:36, 5 June 2008 (UTC)

Fat tissue is made up mostly of triglycerides, which store 9 kilocalories (kcal) per gram. However, since adipose tissue also contains some water, proteins, and other substances, total energy storage per gram of adipose tissue is about 8 kcal, or 1.9 kilojoules. This much can be found and cited all over the web.
(I know in Europe it's common to speak of food and fat energy in terms of joules, but in the US we use calories. My kcal numbers are correct, but you might want to double-check my conversion into joules.)
Keep in mind that adipose makes up only one third of weight gained or lost by energy imbalance. In other words, for every kg of adipose tissue gained or lost by overeating or food restriction, an additional 1 kg of supporting muscle tissue and 1 kg of water is also gained or lost along with the adipose. However, when beginning a calorie-restricted weight loss diet, a disproportionate amount of the weight initially lost is water because we first burn off glycogen stores (a dissolved carbohydrate), which yields 4 kcal per gram but must be dissolved in water equaling 3 times its weight. I learned this stuff in college (got a PhD in nutrition), but it was in the mid 1990s, and we had no textbook for that class. Finding a citation for this would require some effort.
Dietary fat (triglyceride) yields 9 kilocalories, or about 2.2 kilojoules per gram. Should this info be in the article? Dcs002 (talk) 04:37, 9 July 2010 (UTC)

Abdominal fat vs visceral fat[edit]

Titling the section Visceral fat makes it clearer because

  1. ) that is where Visceral fat directs.
  2. ) Abdominal fat (MeSH A10.165.114.160) includes both visceral/intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat, abdominal) So calling it just abdominal fat (unless it covers both visceral and subcutaneous fat in the abdominal area) is confusing. Zodon (talk) 07:02, 13 April 2009 (UTC)

As an obesity researcher in the US (1997-2002), the term I heard most often (by far) in professional circles was "central," not abdominal or visceral. Dcs002 (talk) 04:03, 9 July 2010 (UTC)

Adipose-derived hormones[edit]

I removed angiotensin from this list because angiotensinogen is made in the liver and converted to angiotensin in the blood. I looked around for a source that says it's derived from fat tissue and couldn't find one.

Also, I have to say that I'm uncomfortable with cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL-6 being in this list. Hormones are endocrine by definition, meaning they are released into the blood and act at a remote location. Cytokines are generally paracrine, meaning they are released from the cell and act locally (on nearby cells), or autocrine, meaning they are released from the cell and act on surface receptors on the cell that just released them. Does anyone know of a true endocrine function of adipose-derived TNF-alpha and IL-6, and if so, do you have a source?

I'm sorry if I'm mistaken about these issues -- I'm a teacher, and I used to be an obesity researcher (used angiotensin II and leptin in my work), but I'm getting older... Dcs002 (talk) 09:19, 9 July 2010 (UTC)


References should follow wikipedia guideline ( and not contain advertisment. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 15:18, 13 October 2010 (UTC)

Adipose disambig instead of redirect?[edit]

I don't remember the conventions about disambiguation pages. Should adipose be a disambiguation page instead of a redirect to here? Few readers really needed to see the hatnote about the Dr. Who monster, and there's also adipose fin and adipose gene. --Dan Wylie-Sears 2 (talk) 05:32, 30 May 2011 (UTC)

I don't think Adipose should be a disambiguation page, but I think instead of the hatnote we should link to Adipose (disambiguation) which can list other uses, as well. ~rezecib (talk) 07:30, 30 May 2011 (UTC)

More needed[edit]

Please upload more images for this article. Pdiddyjr (talk) 16:33, 31 October 2011 (UTC)

What's with the section on mice fat?[edit]

How exactly does this contribute to this article? I understand that research on mice is important in scientific research, but isn't the point of Wikipedia to further the knowledge of most readers, not scientists? Granted, like many pages in biology, this encyclopaedia talks about more than humans (animals too) but it just seems out of place to me. Am I missing something? meteor_sandwich_yum (talk) 23:07, 2 December 2013 (UTC)

Possible contradiction on subcutaneous fat as adipose tissue[edit]

On section "Anatomical features" is is stated that "In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat)". Nevertheless, in the "Abdominal fat" sub-section the last sentence of the first paragraph states "Visceral fat is considered adipose tissue whereas subcutaneous fat is not considered as such".

I hope this helps LaFiebre (talk) 06:56, 3 May 2014 (UTC)

What is the name of brain-fat and low-priority-energy-usage-fat?[edit]

I know that both Brain fat and sometime other fats like Lipomastic fat aren't beta-oxidised easily for energy, either by a natural mechanism (to preserve the brain) or by a metabolic problem (Lipomastia in Men).

What is the name of such Adipose tissue? Thanks. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Ben-Yeudith (talkcontribs) 10:52, 11 August 2016 (UTC)