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reference for mechanism of NSAID action[edit]

FN Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge VR 1.0 PT J AU Tulunay, FC AF Tulunay, FC TI NSAIDs: Behind the mechanisms of action SO FUNCTIONAL NEUROLOGY CT Conference on Migraine and Other Head Pain CY JUN 27-29, 1999 CL PAVIA, ITALY SP Minist Sanita, Minist Univ Ricerca Sci, Soc Italiana Studio Cafalee, Soc Italiana Neurol, European Headache Federat, Int Headache Soc AB Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a heterogeneous group

  of compounds. These heterogeneous agents have a similar therapeutic
  action for the treatment of pain. fever and inflammation. The major
  mechanism of action of NSAIDs is the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX).
  the enzyme catalysing the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs).
  Appropriate and effective treatment for migraine depends upon an
  accurate diagnosis. The goals of treatment are amelioration of the
  symptoms of an acute attack and prevention of further attacks.


Needs one or more references for the content, added tag.--FloNight 21:26, 25 November 2005 (UTC)

  • Returning tag to top of talk page. Category:Articles lacking sources states that talk page is an appropriate place for the tag. This is the place tags are placed on medical articles that are undergoing work by various projects related to medicine]]--FloNight 18:26, 30 November 2005 (UTC)

Psychological effects[edit]

Can anyone add information about the psychological effects of stimulation-induced analgesia, stress-induced analgesia, and belief-induced analgesia? These are natural effects that, I assume, are simulated by analgesic drugs. My psych prof is saying something about it, and I just missed it. Experts, can you help with this? - 17:35, 7 Feb 2005 (UTC)

Wikipedia does not answer questions. You'd better go to the reference desk. I wish there were more "experts" on Wikipedia :-) JFW | T@lk 17:49, 7 Feb 2005 (UTC)
A lot of the things you mention may be mediated by endorphins, which are the natural ligands for the opioid receptors in the brain. Stimulation, stress and belief may lead to a release of these substances. JFW | T@lk 17:51, 7 Feb 2005 (UTC)


Alcohol doesn't count as a painkiller, does it? The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk • contribs) .

Technically alcohol is an "outdated" painkiller, but it certainly does numb the perception of pain. --Thoric 15:48, 14 June 2006 (UTC)


Needs one or more references for the content, added tag.--FloNight 21:26, 25 November 2005 (UTC)

The tag belongs on the article, not here. As a general rule, talk pages don't need to cite sources :-) (See Category:Articles lacking sources.)
chocolateboy 11:35, 30 November 2005 (UTC)


Doctors over-prescribing narcotics? There have been exceedingly few cases of such a thing. By far the problem is under-prescribing. Most doctors are afraid to prescribe anything stronger than Tylenol No. 3 (which contains codeine). Under-prescribing of narcotics to patients in severe pain (cancer, back/neck injury, major surgery) has become a far more serious problem than prescription narcotic addiction could ever be. It seems that the powers that be would far prefer a patient to suffer intense pain for the rest of their lives, and/or to suffer complications from over-use of NSAIDs (ulcers, internal bleeding, heart attacks, death) than to take a chance they might become addicted to a narcotic. In what sane world is suffering and death preferable to the chance of addiction? --Thoric 15:57, 14 June 2006 (UTC) Edit note -- pure narcotic formulations (namely Oxycontin) were the only narcotics that were specifically over-prescribed, and primarily to people who were already addicted to narcotics. I would go so far as to say that reduction in heroin use was proportional to increase in Oxycontin use. Most doctors under-prescribe narcotics, and instead over-prescribe NSAIDs. --Thoric 22:21, 14 June 2006 (UTC)

Thoric, I have no idea what you are basing your edits on. They contain value judgements (who says there is over- or underprescription?) At the moment they gloriously fail both WP:NPOV and WP:RS, and I have removed them until these policies can be satisfied.
You also reintroduced a weird little misplaced paragraph that wants us to know certain NSAIDs may increase risk for coronary artery disease. This fact should me mentioned in the relevant articles, not here, and with an academic reference (as opposed to a poorly researched news article). JFW | T@lk 22:55, 14 June 2006 (UTC)
I didn't add the paragraph blaming doctors for over-prescription. I only toned it down and pointed out that under-prescription has been a growing problem. The reintroduction of the news article link was an oversight. --Thoric 13:48, 15 June 2006 (UTC)

Just a comment on the part of the article that talks about addiction to "pure" narcotics. It says that Lortab and Vicodin are hydrocodone only. I don't think thats true. I know at least those two are hydrocodone/acetaminophen(APAP). 17:42, 2 November 2006 (UTC)Matt

A response to the last comment: Lortab and Vicodin are both (traditionally) 5/500 (5mg Hydrocodone, the narcotic, 500mg Tylenol). Whatever "blend" (or whatever) they are, they're still Hydrocodone "blends"... Hope this helps a bit...  :-) --JeffF


Somebody dumped this from the "Harvard Magazine" site. I cannot disagree with some points raised in that material, though. For example, physiotherapy, behavioral/relaxation techniques and surgery may be used to achieve analgesia. Perhaps we should expand the article to reflect this. JFW | T@lk 14:31, 17 July 2006 (UTC)

Atypical and/or adjuvant analgesics[edit]

I did some minor copyedits, but this section needs more edits relying upon subject-matter knowledge that I lack. Here are some suggestions.

Section heading. The section heading is awkward (see WP:MOS#Slashes and its subordinate section on "and/or"), and might not even need to use both adjectives. If "atypical analgesics" and "adjuvant analgesics" are synonyms, as the body text seems to imply, then use one of those terms in the heading and explain the alternate name in the body text. Thus, the section heading could be, simply, Adjuvant analgesics, and the body text could begin with "Adjuvant analgesics, also called atypical analgesics, ...". If those terms are not synonyms, then the heading could be, Atypical and adjuvant analgesics; however, there is no explicit reference to atypical analgesics in that section now, so additional editing would be needed to identify those drugs that are already included from that category, or to add them to the section, or to drop that adjective from the heading.

Run-on sentence. The first sentence is overly complex and appears to be serving two purposes: a list of drugs in one or both categories; and a description of their usage. So, it should be split up. For example, the revised wording could be, Adjuvant analgesics, also called atypical analgesics, include orphenadrine, cyclobenzaprine, scopolamine, atropine, gabapentin, first-generation antidepressants and other drugs possessing anticholinergic and/or antispasmodic properties. These drugs are used in many cases along with analgesics to potentiate centrally acting analgesics such as opioids when used against pain--especially of neuropathic origin--and to modulate the effects of many other types of analgesics by action in the parasympathetic nervous system.

Inconsistency. The first sentence about THC ascribes to it an "indisputably true benefit" that "may be" its superior anti-nauseant action. If we can say only "may be", then we can hardly describe that benefit as indisputable. Also, "indisputably true benefit" is redundant; "indisputable benefit" is sufficient.

I think there may be a couple of problems in the logic of the sentence structure in the Addiction section, too, but I'll stop here for now.

My 2¢ worth. --rich<Rich Janis 02:04, 27 July 2007 (UTC)>


There are a number of fact tags in the NSAID/Paracetamol section regarding potential side-effects. These should all be listed, per FDA regulations in the US, on the product inserts. How does one cite these, specifically? siafu 22:51, 7 September 2007 (UTC)


What is the difference between an analgesic, and an anesthetic (especially a local anesthetic where consciousness is not impaired)? Would drugs such as the well known -caines (lidocaine, novacaine) count as anesthetics, alagesics, or both?

FT2 (Talk | email) 00:54, 20 November 2008 (UTC)

Pain-reliever versus Pain-killer[edit]

Isn't there enough usage to putatively show a perfunctory fiat upon the current idiom where Pain relievers are NSAIDs (prodrugs to cannabinoid receptor agonists and cannabinoids as direct agonists too) and such, whereas Pain killers are opiate or opioid narcotics a la mu-receptor agonists? (talk) 04:57, 9 September 2010 (UTC)

No history of analgesics?[edit]

I came here looking for the history of analgesics and didn't find what I was looking for after a quick glance at the article. Why is there not a section on it? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 15:00, 18 November 2010 (UTC)

No section on why people are addicted to painkillers[edit] (talk) 05:33, 2 November 2011 (UTC)

Adjuvant, Atypical, Potentiators[edit]

Perhaps this section can be copied and used as the core of a new separate article on the use of other drugs to help with analgesia. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 04:41, 12 January 2012 (UTC)

BCAA has been chosen to relieve pain and increase effectiveness of other analgesics such as morphine. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:51, 10 July 2012 (UTC)

No Section on Radio-Based Painkillers[edit]

There is nothing on shortwave diathermy or RF analgesics in general. Could someone correct this? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:03, 5 August 2012 (UTC)

Analgesic vs Anesthetic[edit]

SO I came to this article fro another Wiki article to find what out what an "analgesic" is. From the article: "Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which reversibly eliminate sensation,". From this sentence it seems to me that analgesics and anesthetics do the exact same thing unless anesthetics act *only* locally. Even if that is the case, aren't pain nerves part of the peripheral nervous system? I know absolutely nothing about biology and I am not getting a clear definition from the article so if someone could clear that up, I think it would help out the article (and the ignorant like me) a lot. Thank you. (talk) 10:54, 25 July 2013 (UTC)BeeCier

Review of opioids[edit]

doi:10.7326/M14-2559 JFW | T@lk 13:23, 13 January 2015 (UTC)