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Mechanism for toxicity[edit]

" (+)anatoxin-a, is 150 fold more potent than the synthetic negative enantiomer, (−)anatoxin-a.[8] This is thought to be the case because (+)anatoxin-a, the s-cis enone conformation, has a distance a 6.0 Ao between its nitrogen and carbonyl group, which corresponds well to the 5.9 Ao distance that separate the nitrogen and oxygen in acetylcholine". Well, and now guess what's that distance in the (-)-enantiomer... :D --FK1954 (talk) 21:14, 4 September 2013 (UTC)

Enantioselective enolization[edit]

This method for anatoxin-a production was one of the first used that does not utilize a chimerically analogous starting substance for anatoxin formation

What's a chimeric analogue? Sounds like some molecule from hell combined with another molecule from hell. Do they start with a non-chiral (racemic) compound, or an achiral compound here? I am not sure if this is a typo or if it is right, I have not been able to read the reference.

MorbidFlorist (talk) 21:34, 13 April 2015 (UTC)


That LD50 claim seems wrong. The NIH lists the LD50 in mice as 250-375 μg/kg, 100 times less than the 25 mg/kg in the article.[1] ~~ — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 17:33, 15 May 2015 (UTC)

Genera of cyanobacteria that produce anatoxin-a[edit]

I don't think Microcystis should be listed as producer of anatoxin-a. The Washington Department of Ecology lists Microcystis as a producer of microcystin, but makes no mention of anatoxin-a. [2] (It's a little confusing since Anabaena can produce microcystin, but Microcystis can't produce anatoxin-a.) A 2008 report by the WA Department of Health on recreational microcystin and anatoxin-a exposure lists the genera producing anatoxin-A as Anabaena, Planktothrix (Oscillatoria), and Aphanizomenon. [3] The WA Department of of Health's reference is WHO 1999 [4], and there have since been other algae identified which produce anatoxin-a. A 2013 paper in Harmful Algae [5] lists eight anatoxin-a producing cyanobacteria genera with citations: Anabaena (Dolichospermum), [6] Aphanizomenon, [7] Cylindrospermum, [8] Cuspidothrix, [9] Oscillatoria, [10] Phormidium, [11] [12] Planktothrix, [13] and Raphidiopsis [14].

We should be able to remove Microcystis from the list and add Cuspidothrix and Phormidium. Jeff Mintz 21:12, 20 August 2015 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Mintzj (talkcontribs)

What's with the name?[edit]

Explaining why this chemical is called Very Fast Death Factor would be great. I'm sure that 99% of the non-chemist public comes here for just that, but it's nowhere to be found. (talk) 04:04, 22 May 2016 (UTC)

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ WHO. 1999. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. Edited by Ingrid Chorus and Jamie Bartram. E & FN Spon. London and New York.
  5. ^ Y Hodoki, K Ohbayashi, Y Kobayashi, H Takasu, N Okuda, S Nakano. 2013. Anatoxin-a-producing Raphidiopsis mediterranea Skuja var. grandis Hill is one ecotype of non-heterocytous Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi (Usačev) Rajaniemi et al in Japanese lakes. Harmful Algae
  6. ^ M Bruno, DA Barbini, E Pierdominici, AP Serse, A Ioppolo. 1994. Anatoxin-a and a previously unknown toxin in Anabaena planctonica from blooms found in Lake Mulargia (Italy). Toxicon, 32 (1994), pp 369–373
  7. ^ J Rapala, K Sivonen, R Luukkainen, SI Niemela. 1993. Anatoxin-a concentration in Anabaena and Aphanizomenon under different environmental conditions and comparison of growth by toxic and nontoxic Anabaena strains – a laboratory study. Journal of Applied Phycology, 5 (1993), pp. 581–591
  8. ^ K Sivonen, K Himberg, R Luukkainen, SI Niemela, GK Poon, GA Codd. 1989. Preliminary characterization of neurotoxic cyanobacteria blooms and strains from Finland. Toxicity Assessment, 4 (1989), pp. 339–352
  9. ^ SA Wood, JP Rasmussen, PT Holland, R Campbell, ALM Crowe. 2007. First report of the cyanotoxin anatoxin-a from Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (cyanobacteria). Journal of Phycology, 43 (2007), pp 356–365
  10. ^ S Cadel-Six, I Iteman, C Peyraud-Thomas, S Mann, O Ploux, A Mejean. 2009. Identification of a polyketide synthase coding sequence specific for anatoxin-a-producing Oscillatoria cyanobacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75 (2009), pp 4909–4912
  11. ^ SA Wood, MWJ Heath, J Kuhajek, KG Ryan. 2010. Fine-scale spatial variability in anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a concentrations in benthic cyanobacterial mats: implication for monitoring and management. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109 (2010), pp 2011–2018
  12. ^ M Gugger, S Lenoir, C Berger, A Ledreux, JC Druart, JF Humbert, C Guette, C Bernard. 2005. First report in a river in France of the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium favosum producing anatoxin-a associated with dog neurotoxicosis. Toxicon, 45 (2005), pp 919–928
  13. ^ E Viaggiu, S Melchiorre, F Volpi, A Di Corcia, R Mancini, L Garibaldi, G Crichigno, M Bruno. 2004. Anatoxin-a toxin in the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens from a fishing pond in northern Italy. Environmental Toxicology, 19 (2004), pp 191–197
  14. ^ MF Watanabe, S Tsujimura, S Oishi, T Niki, M Namikoshi. 2003. Isolation and identification of homoanatoxin-a from a toxic strain of the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis mediterranea Skuja isolated from Lake Biwa, Japan. Phycologia, 42 (2003), pp 364–369