From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Good article Antimony has been listed as one of the Natural sciences good articles under the good article criteria. If you can improve it further, please do so. If it no longer meets these criteria, you can reassess it.
April 6, 2012 Good article nominee Listed
WikiProject Elements (Rated GA-class, High-importance)
WikiProject icon This article is supported by WikiProject Elements, which gives a central approach to the chemical elements and their isotopes on Wikipedia. Please participate by editing this article, or visit the project page for more details.
 GA  This article has been rated as GA-Class on the quality scale.
 High  This article has been rated as High-importance on the importance scale.
WikiProject Occupational Safety and Health (Rated GA-class, Low-importance)
WikiProject icon This article is within the scope of WikiProject Occupational Safety and Health, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of articles related to occupational safety and health on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.
 GA  This article has been rated as GA-Class on the project's quality scale.
 Low  This article has been rated as Low-importance on the project's importance scale.
Wikipedia Version 1.0 Editorial Team / v0.5 (Rated GA-class)
WikiProject icon This article has been reviewed by the Version 1.0 Editorial Team.
 GA  This article has been rated as GA-Class on the quality scale.
 ???  This article has not yet received a rating on the importance scale.


Article changed over to new Wikipedia:WikiProject Elements format by maveric149. Elementbox converted 15:35, 5 July 2005 by Femto (previous revision was that of 16:09, 15 June 2005). 15 June 2005

Information Sources[edit]

Some of the text in this entry was rewritten from Los Alamos National Laboratory - Antimony. Additional text was taken directly from USGS Antimony Statistics and Information, from the Elements database 20001107 (via, Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (via and WordNet (r) 1.7 (via Data for the table was obtained from the sources listed on the main page and Wikipedia:WikiProject Elements but was reformatted and converted into SI units.


please get rid of the donation ads wikipedia! i cancelled my account when i started seeing "you can help wikipedia change the world!" it really annoyed me! gat rid of the ads —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 22:04, 5 December 2007 (UTC) I have something to comment about this article in history article it was said that

"or from the Arabian expression "Antos Ammon", which could be translated as "bloom of the god Ammon"."

Correct me if I'm wrong but (Antos Ammon) isn't arabic(no offence), because i speak arabic...

Thank you.

Is it possible this is really Arabic as it was a couple thousand years ago?

People, please log in to make these contributions. Response to previous response: no, because standard Arabic hasn't changed appreciably in that time -- although the regional vernaculars have diverged considerably from standard Arabic. Response to the Arabic speaker -- the author you have cited is writing nonsense, because the notion that "antimony" means "bloom" refers to Greek, not to Arabic. The claim was made by Edmund O. von Lippmann in a book he published in 1919. See my contribution to the article, "Etymology". Hurmata 08:31, 2 December 2006 (UTC)


What would antimatter antimony be called? Antiantimony? Mony? ;) MrHumperdink 17:49, September 10, 2005 (UTC)

How about Promony? (
Not bad, either that or antiantimony, if there'll ever be a use for it. :) Probably not mony though, since one anti is Greek and one anti is of unknown origin (conjectured to be a corruption of some Arabic word), they wouldn't annihilate each other anyway. Femto 15:11, 23 December 2005 (UTC)


I would like to know if Antimony bioaccumulates (like Lead or Mercury).

Yes, it does. Napoleon's hair was analyzed in recent years for antimony and is why poisoning is his suspected cause of death. --Photonical 15:34, 11 July 2006 (UTC)

I believe it was arsenic that was found in his hair. Damp conditions produced a mould that grew on his wallpaper, subsequently metabolising the aresenic-based green dye into a much more volatile form, that he took into his body. --FullMetalJacket 12:47, 29 August 2006 (UTC)

To be clear, however, it does bioaccumulate though. No one is quite sure what killed Napoleon, arsenic is strongly suspected but antimony could also be a culperit, the two being in the same period on the periodic table they are difficult to tell apart. Many sources have been suggested from the one above, to the use of arsenic in repelling moths from clothing, (by direct application), even the use of both the elements in wigs and beds to repel lice, to outright poisoning.

The article currently states: "antimony being poisonous", but there's not another word about it. No discussion of whether the bare metal or the compounds are more toxic, no mention of the LD50, no discussion of any notable poisonings. This is a significant gap in an otherwise good article. --Piledhigheranddeeper (talk) 20:24, 12 April 2017 (UTC)

There is some talk in the last section, but you are right that it needs work: I shall try to get it done this week. I can answer your first question immediately: the compounds are more toxic. Sb is pretty noble and is not that easy to oxidise (look at the electrode potentials), so it just passes through you without being absorbed that much. Double sharp (talk) 22:23, 12 April 2017 (UTC)

Antimony thin film as a superlens[edit]

Antimony is used in superlensing applications as a thin film, allowing optical storage media to be more densely written. Could this be an appropriate note for a contemporary application? I may write it up if interest is shown. --Photonical 15:31, 11 July 2006 (UTC)


The 'History' section says

The word Antimony is a Latin corruption of Arabic انتيمون ([al-]ithmīd), which is derived from Latin Stibium, which came from Greek στιβι [stibi] = a cosmetic powder (Sb2S3 was used for cosmetic purposes). The relationship between antimony's modern name and its symbol is complex; the Coptic name for the cosmetic powder antimony sulfide was borrowed by the Greeks, which was in turn borrowed by Latin, resulting in stibium.

I have three comments on this.

  1. The Arabic quoted says 'Antimun' not 'al-ithmid'. I can edit it, but I think there are bigger issues
  2. This derivation is given in the original Oxford English Dictionary as doubly speculative - both 'antimony' from 'al-uthmud' and 'ithmid' from Greek 'stimmid' are there hedged about with 'possibly' and 'suggestion'. Unless somebody has some more recent, authoritative support for the etymology, it should be shown as speculative.
  3. On the other hand, the well-known derivation of 'alcohol' from the Arabic name 'al-kohl' for the black pigment should be mentioned somewhere.

--ColinFine 00:40, 28 November 2006 (UTC)

Hi, Colin. See my extensive addition, "Etymology of the Name", in which among other things I debunk this "Arabic loanword" claim in detail. The lesson of this OED etymology and others having to do with Arabic loanwords: don't trust OED etymologies. Hurmata 08:31, 2 December 2006 (UTC)

While the OED is not perfect, I would rather give their etymology, which you misstate, than the guesses and prejudices of a Wikipedian. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 04:24, 11 April 2007 (UTC)
Anderson, you have carelessly worded your remark such that one has to reread it to see that "you" refers to ColinFine rather than to the immediate preceding poster (who is me). Now, on to the merits of your position. (1) *Affirmation* or *acceptance* by OED do not per se constitute *substantiation*. (2) An OED entry is received scholarship which is no more reliable than the weighing of sources by a Wikipedian. You are the prejudiced one for trusting a venerable reference work merely on the strength of its venerability. (3) You are the prejudiced one also because you do not accept that much of the body of received etymology in English lexicography is unreliable. I have had occasion to confirm this by trying to verify the etymologies of entries in the List of Arabic loanwords in English. It is also true of history generally that much received belief is propagations of false suppositions. Take all these DNA driven exonerations of prisoners in America. Men who spent 20 years for rape or murder turn out to have been innocent. Hurmata 08:25, 12 April 2007 (UTC)
The OED is a source; feel free to give others. Until I supplied this, there were none. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 23:15, 12 April 2007 (UTC)
The preceding statement is false. Before Septentrionalis/PMAnderson supplied OED, Al-Ghafiqi -- ca. 1100 AD -- had been cited as a source for the *al-ithmid* claim. Beyond that, three claimed etymologies in all had been described and sourced. Hurmata 07:38, 14 April 2007 (UTC)
P.S. In truth, Pmanderson believes that OED is more than just a source, since he insists on writing, "OED *accepts* that antimony could come from Arabic al-ithmid". Hurmata 08:35, 14 April 2007 (UTC)
Since I referred to an etymology from the OED, and Hurmata did not, I agree that Septentrionalis must be referring to me; but I cannot see how I can be said to have 'misstated' it. The portions of the OED etymology to which I referred are: "... perhaps, as has been suggested, of the Arabic name إثمد, uthmud, othmod .. The earlier form of the Arab. is ithmid, in which Littré suggests an adaptation ... of Gk. στίμμιδ-α, variant of στίμμι".
I am quite content with Hurmata's contribution. --ColinFine 20:57, 12 April 2007 (UTC)
The OED does not, as the former phrasing suggested, derive the syllable ant- from al-, but from uth-/oth-, with the inclusion of n and the change of th to t. Both are widely parallelled in Medieval Latin. The first is a routine scribal error, interchanging ãt (the shorthand for ant) with at; the second is close to regular; for example, hypotesis is quite common. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 23:15, 12 April 2007 (UTC)
So it was the 'al-' you were objecting to. You are right, that was my mistake. It would have been more helpful if you had said so, rather than simply saying 'misstate'. I agree that the derivation is possible (there is also the vocalisation and the final -n- against -d-, but these are not impossible. The OED quotes intermediate forms athimodium, atimodium, atimonium and antimonium, but I do not know whether they are recorded examples or hypothetical forms), but if even the OED says 'perhaps, as has been suggested' it can scarcely be regarded as authoritative. --ColinFine 11:15, 13 April 2007 (UTC)
I read the OED 's phrasing as hypothetical; it does not use the asterisk convention so it's hard to tell. I do not mean to claim the derivation in Wikipedia's voice; that's one reason I attribute it to the OED, as one theory among several. Other theories could well be added in more detail. ("Misstate" was a parenthetical note; I regret any misunderstanding. Is the point clear with the OED open before you?) Septentrionalis PMAnderson 16:05, 13 April 2007 (UTC)

The following sentences are unsourced advocacy; the second is the more serious flaw, but if they had a source, at least the argument could be attributed to the secondary source from which it comes.

The latter claim is unsubstantiated and moreover it is highly dubious for two reasons. Firstly, as noted above, the term antimonium is said to have been used by Constantine the African (1020-1087 AD), and he was an Arabic speaker, a native of Carthage. Secondly, the etymology asserted by Al-Ghâfiqî the oculist would entail an extreme degree of phonetic corruption not manifested in dozens of other Arabic loanwords in Medieval Latin and Spanish.

By and large, Wikipedia should not make such arguments at all; as WP:NPOV says, describe the controversy, don't take part in it. If it does, it should say who says this. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 23:07, 12 April 2007 (UTC)

Responding to the preceding two new paragraphs from Pmanderson on 12 April 2007. You mention "secondary source" as if you were concerned to distinguish between primary and secondary sources. The truth is that you have considered the "acceptance" of a claim by the OED -- a secondary source -- as having great weight, while you have in two places here explicitly claimed not to have noticed the fresher sources I cited. I cited a scholar who made the *al-ithmid* claim ca. 1100. This may actually be a secondary source, but it's much fresher than the OED.

At last, you provide elaboration on what it is you object to. I disagree with your above stated opinion. I hold that is not a violation of the NPOV principle to evaluate to a limited extent what I am writing about. Good encyclopedia articles often contain some assessments on the writer's own part. In this case, these various etymological claims have been disseminated long and wide and have achieved uninformed acceptance on the part of some people. Hence the need for the article to announce the fact they are actually unproven, and moreover dubious. It is appropriate for me to point out the implausibility of *ithmid* becoming a-N-timo-N- + -ium. The vowel changes are plausible (although perhaps unlikely), but the two changes [t] > [nt] and [d] > [n] are not plausible, even singly, and the occurrence of both in a single word is especially implausible. The assertion of implausibility is neither so innovative nor so substantial that it constitutes "original research". Moreover, we contributors are not meant to be mere scribes. We are meant to make ourselves well informed on what we write about. For me to have found Al-Ghafiqi and to have read Lippmann and the others, and for me to allude to what typically happened when Arabic words were borrowed into European languages, *enhance* the article's depth and its reliability. In adding those admonitions of mine, I did not declare that them sufficient to disprove any of the three claims. As someone who is well informed about historical linguistics, I know that the OED of the 19th century (or even the mid 20th) is not to be regarded as an expert authority as to the etymology of academic loanwords from obscure languages 1,000 years ago. (The OED *is* expert when it comes to English words of Anglo-Saxon, Norman French, and Latin origin.)

What Hurmata proposes to do here is Original Research; that he proposes to phrase it as a polemic is also violation of Neutrality. Both are deprecated here. If he wishes to add to the literature on antimony, there are journals for that. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 17:20, 14 April 2007 (UTC)

By the way, in an earlier paragraph, this claim of yours is mysterious:

The first is a routine scribal error, interchanging ãt (the shorthand for ant) with at

We supposedly start out with Arabic [iθmiːd] (using IPA spelling). Where does the [n] before [t] come from in the first place? When you say that the change [θ] > [t] was commonplace in "Medieval Latin", that is correct, yet somehow overlooks something: this sound change is typical of *any* stage of Latin since Latin never had [θ]. Back in 200 BC, that sound in Greek loanwords would become [t]. For English speakers to pronounce the 'th' in Catholic as [θ] is an example of what is known as "spelling pronunciation". Hurmata 08:35, 14 April 2007 (UTC)

Why does Hurmata suppose any of this evolution is phonetic? Medieval alchemy is a written tradition, and the scribal errors of the Middle Ages are all too well known to any Latinist; he may wish to consult one. We start with some such form as athmidium representing [iθmiːd], or rather, the Arabic written form of it; from there the formation of antimonium is straightforward and almost predictable corruption in dealing with an unknown word with no recognizable roots. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 17:20, 14 April 2007 (UTC)
From aTHmiDium to aNTimoNium is anything but "straightforward", including scribally. Your skills at mockery and insinuation (for which septentrional culture is renowned) rather exceed your skill at logical reasoning. 20:24, 14 April 2007 (UTC)
The immediate preceding edit from was done by me. Hurmata 20:28, 14 April 2007 (UTC)

Can anyone comment on this claim that I found: The Arabic designation, انتيمون ("uthmud" or "othmod" or, with the article, "al-ithmīd") is probably a loan word from the Latin Stibium. (talk) 04:53, 8 April 2010 (UTC)

If you look at my contribution bove dated 12 April 2007, I quote from the OED thus: "The earlier form of the Arab. is ithmid, in which Littré suggests an adaptation ... of Gk. στίμμιδ-α, variant of στίμμι". I have not looked further than this. --ColinFine (talk) 07:24, 8 April 2010 (UTC)

OK, then the claim that I found is contrary to the OED, which supposes Greek instead of Latin (unless a reference to Latin was in the part indicated by the ellipsis), thanks. (talk) 08:57, 10 April 2010 (UTC)

It is not entirely consistent with it, but I wouldn't call it "contrary". The full sentence from the OED is " Prob., like other terms of alchemy, a corruption of some Arabic word, refashioned so as to wear a Gr. or L. aspectperhaps, as has been suggested, of the Arabic name uthmud, othmod, itself, latinized as athimodium, atimodium, atimonium, antimonium. The earlier form of the Arab. is ithmid, in which Littré suggests an adaptation (quasi isthimmid) of Gr. - variant of , whence also L. stibium".
As I said, this is hedged about with expressions of uncertainty, and as you said Littré derives both the Arabic and the Latin from the Greek. --ColinFine (talk) 19:36, 10 April 2010 (UTC)

An alternate theory: The modern word has no basis in the latin form. Antimony is directly derived from the French "Antimoine", or "Anti Monk". The concept comes from the 15th century monk/alchemist known as Basil Valentine who was testing the substance on his pigs, which grew fat and healthy. Based on his success with his livestock, he extolled the health benefits to his fellow monks and encouraged them to partake the substance, some of whom died of poisoning. His shame can be evidenced by the defense of his "Medicine" in Currus Triumphalis Antimonii, indirectly blaming the poisoning of his fellows on incorrect preperation and lack of faith. His use of "Antimonii" is a latinization of the term he was being insulted with, perhaps turning it around a bit with a play on words, given that "Antimonii" could be loosely translated as "if it were opened". WiltonPyle (talk) 04:23, 1 April 2012 (UTC)

As several editors above point out, we can come up with 'alternative theories' til the cows come home, but we can only use the ones that find some citation in a source... Til Eulenspiegel (talk) 11:47, 1 April 2012 (UTC)

The Egyptian hieroglyphs provided for "msdmt" are (according to Faulkner's dictionary) nowhere near to the correct form and should be amended (there is no sDm sign, for one). — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2001:14BA:3F2:DE00:748B:11C5:6185:4931 (talk) 20:40, 10 August 2015 (UTC)

Alchemical symbol[edit]

A google image search for the words "antimony" and "symbol" suggests that there is more than one symbol for antimony. Should the page have a representation of both symbols, or acknowledge that the symbol included on the page isn't the sole contender? Mang 03:11, 23 December 2006 (UTC)

  • If there *are* multiple symbols, both should be presented if one is being presented. Of course, perhaps neither should be presented because by now they are exceedingly trivial pieces of information. But at a practical level, it does no harm to let them take up the space they take up.

Of course, it is crucial that whoever would post such information first confirm it: rely only an authoritative sources. Also crucial to add a footnote or something documenting the fact of the multiplicity.

One source of a list of alchemical symbols the work I cited, Priesner and Figala. (In America, this sort of book is almost certainly to be found only in university or business enterprise libraries. Hurmata 20:28, 23 December 2006 (UTC)

Amazon has two copies of the Spanish translation. I haven't checked ABEbooks. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 05:53, 13 April 2007 (UTC)


All the dictionaries I checked, as well as Web Elements, list the pronunciation as /'æntəməʊni/, not /anˈtɪməni/ as the article says. What is the correct pronunciation? --Schzmo 20:05, 5 February 2007 (UTC)


no longer, I should think, the most authoritative source on the history of chemistry; methodology has improved. What does Lynn Thorndyke say? Septentrionalis PMAnderson 22:56, 12 April 2007 (UTC)

"Methods have improved"? Good, why don't you apply that insight to your advocacy of OED etymologies from 125 years ago? By the way, why don't you also create an article on Lynn Thorndyke, since you have tried to link to one.
Because time is the one limited WP resource; as for the etymology, it is reprinted, and so endorsed, in the second edition of 1989, from which I cite it; if it is revised in the current revision, our text can change. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 16:10, 13 April 2007 (UTC)
I'm inclined to agree with your remark about Leibniz. If you find a good counterargument to Leibniz's verdict, why don't you add it to the article? Just don't delete the existing remark on Leibniz. Hurmata 08:26, 13 April 2007 (UTC)
It is very likely that Leibnitz's view is now consensus; I certainly find the claim that Valentine is a pseudonym quite plausible. All it needs is a modern endorsement and I have no problem with it; the fact that Leibnitz researched this is itself notable. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 16:10, 13 April 2007 (UTC)

PMAnderson accepts that . . .[edit]

"Oxford English Dictionary accepts that "antimony" is the corruption of some Arabic word, . . . ." So what? Priesner and Figala, Lippmann, and Kirk-Othmer don't accept it. PMAnderson faults me for "unsourced advocacy". This criticism is a doubly insincere one: PMA himself/herself is full of advocacy, *his* conclusions are unsourced, and *my* contributions are sourced. Note the advocacy in saying "accepts" rather than "claims" or "states". To arrive at an assessment on the etymology of an alchemical term whose origins involve Latin and possibly Arabic from nearly 1,000 years ago, PMA cites NO HISTORICAL SOURCES, just a dictionary of the English language. I have cited two histories of alchemy and an Arabist. Through these, I cite two Islamic sources from before 1200 AD. I conscientiously survey all major stories you'll find in between engineering encyclopedias, histories of alchemy, and Web sites, and I conscientiously cite historians and try to identify primary sources.

  • At last, names. Make these into proper citations and include them in the article by all means. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 16:19, 13 April 2007 (UTC)
The names and citations have been there all along. entries. For some reason, you suggest the opposite. The names and citations have been there as footnotes and as bibliographic entries. Hurmata 07:38, 14 April 2007 (UTC)
Curious; when I removed the above paragraph, it had no citations at all. But Hurmata clearly has access to a world of private facts. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 23:49, 15 April 2007 (UTC)

The weakness of PMA's approach is confirmed from elsewhere within the Antimony article itself. Just this week! For a century, it has been accepted that there had been a vase discovered that was made of elemental antimony and dated back to 3,000 AD. This week, a contributor to Wikipedia reported that archaeologists have long known that the find had to do with a fragment and that the fragment might not have been a vase. Minor point, but a superb demonstration of how a conclusion can be jumped to, or a detail misreported, and then the mistake propagated down centuries from one dictionary or encyclopedia to another.

PMA is naive about the Oxford English Dictionary and about historiography. PMA's OED 2nd 1989 is just an augmentation of OED 1st, with no systematic revision of existing content. The A-Ant section was published circa 1884, PMA! (See Oxford English Dictionary.) By contrast, Moorey, the work contradicting the vase claim, was published in 1994, and I cite a work from 1998.

Again, I cite an encyclopedia of engineering (not an authority on etymology, but just as reliable as OED) and two histories of alchemy (the name 'antimony' arose in the Middle Ages) and I enable readers to pursue further search and come to their own conclusions. Purpose of Wikipedia, which credulous, unsophisticated people ought not tamper with. Hurmata 08:18, 13 April 2007 (UTC)

One purpose of Wikipedia is to install a certain humility in the arrogant and sophomoric; see WP:OWN and WP:NPOV. It doesn't seem to be working very well; but neither do any of our efforts to present all sides of an issue.
I trust that in the course of Humata's academic career he will outgrow the provincial attitude that a historian of engineering is the only, or even the best, guide to a linguistic question. But I have placed the offending text in the footnote, which I hope will calm this agitation. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 16:19, 13 April 2007 (UTC)
PMAnderson's latest reply misrepresents the significance of something I said -- I will return to this. PMA also ignores refutations. PMA only stubbornly persists in imposing changes. Since he does not see the need to refute objections, this renders his contributions even more unworthy.
It is deceitful to have attributed to me the attitude that "a historian of engineering is the 'only', or even the best, guide to a linguistic question". This is another aspect of PMA's interventions: repeated bad faith. He never really defends his views; and when he criticizes mine, he introduces inaccuracies. To correct PMA's distortion: I explicitly discounted the notion advanced by the engineering encyclopedia. I wrote that no purported etymology has been substantiated. That would include the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia's "anti-monos" claim.
In my previous post, I explained why it is naive to suppose, as PMA supposes, that the Oxford English Dictionary must be a superior authority on any and all etymologies of English words; I explained that the etymology of 'antimony' is in fact *not purely a "linguistic issue"*.
I emphasize that PMA only snipes and "arrogantly" contributes flawed edits. PMA "arrogantly" disdains to engage with detailed, sophisticated explanations that he is misinformed on specifics and on theory. PMA disdains to acknowledge well informed, comprehensive edits that have alrady been made. Hurmata 06:17, 14 April 2007 (UTC)
I regret infringing upon Hurmata's strong sense of ownership of this article. I have no views, except that the OED says what it actually does. I will leave him to the warm comforts of his self-praise; but I will continue to watch the article. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 17:07, 14 April 2007 (UTC)
Just deleted another reinsertion of the POV citation of an unreliable source. PManderson insists on writing "OED accepts" a certain etymology. The etymology in question is already part of the article and a source has been provided for it. For PManderson to insist on "OED *accepts*" and then just now claim "I have no views" is dishonest. PManderson refuses to defend the inclusion of the OED claim and to refute arguments against the inclusion. Arguments against stating "OED accepts" have been presented on this page under this subheading and "Etymology". In general, it has been like pulling teeth to get PManderson to discuss the *merits* of claims, his claims and other peoples'. He has preferred just to allege wrongdoing and to craft insulting replies. Hurmata 20:16, 15 April 2007 (UTC)
  • Does Hurmata really claim that his aspersions are not insulting?
  • Besides these aspersions, and the ungrounded suggestion that the OED does not have an expert on Medieval Latin, Hurmata has done no discussion of sources at all.
  • The OED is a reliable source for what the OED asserts.
  • I suggest mediation. Septentrionalis PMAnderson 22:42, 15 April 2007 (UTC)
Septentrionalis has responded to specific arguments about the content of the section, Etymology of the Name. This seems to demonstrate readiness to engage in further discussion on this Talk page. I believe it is too soon in the dispute to call for mediation (which is a routinized procedure at Wikipedia, with several eligibility requirements). I hereby request that editors including PMAnderson examine the points of dispute. I hope that includes responding to the arguments that have already been made. If this discussion I am requesting does not take place or if it does not settle the disagreements, then I am willing to move up to the next recommended step in dispute resolution at Wikipedia: soliciting third party opinions, WP:RF30. Should that not prove effective, then I would be willing to move up to the next recommended step: making a Request for Comment (RfC), WP:RFC. (For a bigger perspective on Wikipedia dispute resolution, see Wikipedia:Resolving disputes, WP:DR) Hurmata 23:22, 15 April 2007 (UTC)


  • Sarton derives from ithmid ("or athmoud")
    • Raphael Patai's Jewish Alchemists (Appendix) quotes a manuscript from Djerba which transcribes this word as atmad.
  • Kirk-Othmer is not a historical or linguistic text, and derives from Gk. anti+monos, to which they give the meaning "not found alone".
    • They attribute stibium to Pliny, which is in error; he transliterates stibi and stimi , and has two names not yet in the article. Pliny's female antimony is conjectured to be the native metal. (33, 33)
  • Priesner and Figala, citing Lippmann, derive from Gk. anthemonion.
    • Neither Greek word occurs in Liddell, Scott, and Jones. Of the two anthemonion is more plausible as a Greek form, in meaning, and in the required derivation within Latin.
    • None of these sources mentions Constantinus Afer.
  • I expect to see Lippmann in a few days.
    • He does have Constantine (p.642); he also cites "The Triumph of Antimony" as edited by Thoelde, p. 641). (Also a Byzantine use of antimonos, among several other Greek forms of antimonium from 1300.) Septentrionalis PMAnderson 18:27, 25 April 2007 (UTC)

Therefore, since P and F mention Constantine the African neither in the article on antimony or their index, this sentence

Reportedly, the first person to use it in a text<:ref>Priesner and Figala, entry "Antimon"<:/ref> (as antimonium) was Constantine the African, renowned for translating Arabic medical treatises into Latin.

requires a source. (Since stimmi is recorded from the fifth century BC, the meaning could also use work. Constantine may well have been the first to use antimonium, but that is a somewhat different claim.) Septentrionalis PMAnderson 04:16, 16 April 2007 (UTC)


I have rewritten, to express what the sources seem to me to say.

I have left out

An Arab-Spanish oculist, Muḥammad ibn Qassûm ibn Aslam Al-Ghâfiqî, writing some time between the 11th and 12th centuries, claimed that the names for antimony sulfide in Arabic, Latin, and Greek all derived from a Coptic word, mesdemet. He claimed as well that the term "antimony" was a fallacious rendering of the Arabic name, al-iθmid (where al- means "the")...Sarton, p. 541. Sarton's book review notes (p. 540) that the oculist Al-Ghâfiqî is not to be confused with the herbalist Abu Ja'far Ahmad ibn Muḥammad Al-Ghâfiqî. Sarton further warns that -- despite the work's subtitle -- we still cannot be sure of which century this Al-Ghâfiqî the oculist was writing in, whether 11th or 12th;

I do not see why any reader of this article would care whether Al-Ghâfiqî's book was written by himself or another man of the same name.

I have also left out the assertion that the th in ithmid is the fricative /θ/; most readers will assume this, the rest won't care. It is a difficulty in the origin of antimonium; but it is an equal objection to Lippmann's anthemonion; see theta, which has more on the Greek sound-shift. (Some would date it as late as the Roman empire, but that is still about the time of this alleged anthemonion.) Septentrionalis PMAnderson 18:27, 25 April 2007 (UTC)

Leaching Source[edit]

The leaching source seems to be partially from this source: although the URL does not mention the results that are currently in this article.


Could you please state who discovered this element? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:09, 24 September 2007 (UTC)

I don't think this is known as it is one of those elements known before recorded history. There is some discussion of this in the article, but is not conclusive. The references give a date of about 3000BC for an artifact made of it. Jokem (talk) 19:24, 15 April 2008 (UTC)

excuse me[edit]

would you be so kind to go more into the reactions that antimony has with different substances instead of going into detail in the history. In my opinion i think that would be much more helpful for wiki users such as myself trying to research different uses of it and what would dissolve it. Thanks for reading this.
chris gonzalez  —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 19:25, 19 August 2008 (UTC) 

Density and freezing[edit]

This article says that it is disputed that antimony expands on freezing (or equivalentely, contracts on melting): doi:10.1007/BF02680594. However, I don't have access to it, other than the first page. This is just a note until I can find the full text or I can find something better. --Itub (talk) 12:44, 10 September 2008 (UTC) Also this one: doi:10.1002/ange.19600722412. --Itub (talk) 12:46, 10 September 2008 (UTC)

Antimony: historical utilization[edit] 3,22 MB, 99 pages —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:21, 27 November 2008 (UTC)

"Antimony-based drugs such as allopurinol and Meglumine..."?[edit]

There is no antimony in these drugs, though meglumine may be bound to antimony as a salt in some formulations. This should be rewritten because it's somewhat misleading. T.R. (talk) —Preceding undated comment was added at 19:42, 12 February 2009 (UTC).

Pronunciation II[edit]

Currently the article provides /ˈæntɨmɵnɪ/ as the IPA pronunciation. I do not agree with this. My primary issue is the /ɵ/, as well as its pairing with the /ɪ/. All the online dictionaries I can access—of varying degrees of reliability: MW, YourDictionary, Infoplease, Ultralingua, Mnemonic Dictionary,, American Heritage, Encarta and Cambridge give /i/, or close, as the last sound of the word. The OED, which I cannot link, stands alone in listing an /ɪ/ sound. None mention the distinction being an AE/BE dispute. So from where I'm standing, the weight of dictionaries supports /i/.

The ɵ is next. None of the dictionaries listed above which provide IPA rather than house transcriptions use this symbol, and according to our IPA pages, this sound does not exist in English; so I am curious why kwami insists it is correct. ÷seresin 05:56, 16 October 2009 (UTC)

/i/ is fine for the final vowel. It is an RP/GA distinction, but we've chosen /i/ to cover it, so no argument there. /ɵ/ is not used in any dictionary that I am aware of (though I remember others finding some), but it is found in some phonological descriptions of English, as it is distinctive is some dialects, and reflective of allophonic alternation in others. See the discussion on the WP:IPA for English talk page. If the [ə]~[oʊ] allophony isn't a RP~GA distinction, it is clear that some people have [ə] and some have [oʊ], as is typically the case for /ɵ/. The second vowel is /ɨ/; it is only reduced to /ə/ in some dialects. There is no stress on the mon. kwami (talk) 06:15, 16 October 2009 (UTC)

Drugs Allopurinol and Meglumine[edit]

In the article it is stated that thes 2 drugs are antimony based, wich is in error. I tried correcting this but was overruled. I think the original intention was to present thes drugs as an alternative to the the antimony based medications.

E.L. MD —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:40, 16 November 2009 (UTC)

Sorry you are 100% right! --Stone (talk) 10:24, 1 December 2009 (UTC)

"Stibium" and "mark": authoritative source?[edit]

The first line of the article has symbol Sb (Latin: stibium, meaning "mark"). That bit had me puzzled, as I had consulted dictionaries about the etymology of antimony and stibium, and the word mark wasn't mentioned. I next looked through a few online Latin-English dictionaries for translations involving stibium and mark. I could not find a single reference that linked the two. The only thing that came close was that looking up mark gave Antonium (not Antimonium), a reference to the name Mark Antony -- but still, that had no mention of stibium. I Googled the set of words stibium, Latin, and mark, and browsing through three pages of results, the only kinds of web pages showing were related to the element antimony in some way. I would like it verified that the idea of stibium meaning mark appears elsewhere than educational material for chemistry students, preferably from language-related authority. My briefer versions of the OED that I have access to do have an entry for stibium (separate from the entry for antimony), but nothing about it meaning mark. I am curious about the full OED's take. (talk) 04:29, 14 April 2010 (UTC)

Good catch. I've just checked various Latin and Greek dictionaries (e.g., the OLD and Lewis & Short for the Latin, and the LSJ for the Greek source) and none give any meaning other than Antinomy. There is some mention of a Coptic source for the word, and that may have had some other meaning, but for the moment I will delete the comment about "mark".
All the best. –Syncategoremata (talk) 08:20, 14 April 2010 (UTC)
I learned it as "stibnium", and s.o. just commented that they learned it as "stibnum". The latter would seem to be the pre-"ium" form. A Google Books search turns up plenty of refs for all three. Anyone know where that N comes from, or where it went? Could it be a difference of Latin stibnum and Greek stibi? — kwami (talk) 22:03, 27 May 2010 (UTC)
I'm not convinced about "stibnum" being valid, as I couldn't find it in Latin language dictionary sources. It may be an error that was introduced into chemistry educational material at some point, much like the stibium=mark idea. Perhaps it relates to introducing an "n" for the existing word stibnite, the mineral. By the way, the Wikipedia article List_of_chemical_element_name_etymologies contains a claim that the meaning "the mark" is associated with arabic words involved in the origin, but I am not equiped to verify that. Nicknicknickandnick (talk) 20:21, 22 June 2010 (UTC)

Microelectronics use[edit]

The article indicates that antimony is used in tiny amounts in the semiconductor industry. As a dopant perhaps, but it is roughly 50% by weight of the semiconductor indium antimonide (InSb) used in infrared detectors.


  • Filella, Montserrat; Williams, Peter A.; Belzile, Nelson (2009). "Antimony in the environment: Knowns and unknowns". Environmental Chemistry. 6 (2): 95. doi:10.1071/EN09007. 
  • Bradley, William R.; Fredrick, William G. (1941). "The Toxicity of Antimony:—Animal Studies—". American Industrial Hygiene Association Quarterly. 2 (2): 15. doi:10.1080/00968204109343800. 
  • Winship, KA (1987). "Toxicity of antimony and its compounds". Adverse drug reactions and acute poisoning reviews. 6 (2): 67–90. PMID 3307336. 
  • Dill, Kilian; McGown, Evelyn L. (1994). "The Chemistry of Organic Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth Compounds". The Chemistry of Functional Groups: 695. doi:10.1002/0470023473.ch17. ISBN 047193044X.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  • Gebel, T (1997). "Arsenic and antimony: Comparative approach on mechanistic toxicology". Chemico-Biological Interactions. 107 (3): 131–44. doi:10.1016/S0009-2797(97)00087-2. PMID 9448748. 

--Stone (talk) 15:22, 23 January 2012 (UTC)

GA Review[edit]

This review is transcluded from Talk:Antimony/GA1. The edit link for this section can be used to add comments to the review.

Reviewer: StringTheory11 (talk · contribs) 22:30, 25 March 2012 (UTC)

So, seeing as this article has not been reviewed yet, I am here to do it! I will go through section-by-section and hope to pass/fail/put on hold within a week. StringTheory11 22:30, 25 March 2012 (UTC)

You can get Freywa for 1a. He'll do a very thorough prose check and find all the small errors we won't notice. Double sharp (talk) 11:34, 30 March 2012 (UTC)
On the double! Parcly is on the research labs. FreywaParcly Taxel
or else...
02:44, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
All the prose errors listed. FreywaParcly Taxel
20% Cooler
05:03, 31 March 2012 (UTC)

GA review – see WP:WIAGA for criteria

  1. Is it reasonably well written?
    A. Prose quality: FreywaParcly Taxel
    20% Cooler
    05:03, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
    FreywaParcly Taxel
    20% Cooler
    23:40, 3 April 2012 (UTC)
    B. MoS compliance for lead, layout, words to watch, fiction, and lists:
    The lead should be longer and include more details. Oxygen and germanium are good models for this article.
    Expanded a little. --Stone (talk) 12:47, 29 March 2012 (UTC)
    Now a +. StringTheory11 00:08, 30 March 2012 (UTC)
  2. Is it factually accurate and verifiable?
    A. References to sources:
    B. Citation of reliable sources where necessary:
    C. No original research:
  3. Is it broad in its coverage?
    A. Major aspects:
    B. Focused:
  4. Is it neutral?
    Fair representation without bias:
  5. Is it stable?
    No edit wars, etc:
    I have put in a request at WP:RFPP due to repeated vandalism.
  6. Does it contain images to illustrate the topic?
    A. Images are copyright tagged, and non-free images have fair use rationales:
    File:Antimony (mined)2.PNG does not have author info. Will need to be fixed.
    Changed to self made PD chart .--Stone (talk) 09:32, 26 March 2012 (UTC)
    Now this criteria is a check. StringTheory11 01:16, 27 March 2012 (UTC)
    B. Images are provided where possible and appropriate, with suitable captions:
  7. Overall:
    Pass or Fail:


Prose quality[edit]

  • Lead  Done FreywaParcly Taxel
    20% Cooler
    03:37, 1 April 2012 (UTC)
    • Antimony... is a toxic chemical element with the symbol Sb and an atomic number of 51. Move precautions to the end of the lead.
    • Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but mostly identified as lead. Rewrite "...particularly metallic antimony, which was erroneously identified as lead."
    • It was established to be a element not before 16th and 17th century. Rewrite " element around the 17th century."
    • Antimony occurs mostly as the sulfide mineral stibnite. This is a repeat of a sentence in the earlier paragraph.
    • Roasting and subsequent carbothermal reduction or direct reduction of stibnite with iron are the industrial methods to produce antimony. Twilight Sparkle, up in the party, saying "move that to the beginning!"
    • Antimony compounds are prominent additives for chlorine- and bromine-containing fire retardants found in many commercial and domestic products. (1) The largest application for metallic antimony is as alloying material for lead and tin. (2) It improves the properties of the alloys which are used as in solders, bullets and ball bearings. (3) The largest application is the lead antimony plates in lead–acid batteries. (4) An emerging application is the use of antimony in microelectronics. (5) The organisation of this is ridiculous. The order I want is (2)+(4), (1)+(3), (5), where + denotes sentence merging.
  • Other stuff that would make the article 20% cooler
    • The section organisation should be Characteristics, Compounds, History, Production, Applications, Precautions.
    • Once the fixes have been implemented, it would be prudent to merge and split paragraphs such that no one is 1 or 2 sentences long.
  • History  Done FreywaParcly Taxel
    20% Cooler
    03:37, 1 April 2012 (UTC)
    • Antimony's sulfide compound... was recognized in predynastic Egypt as an eye cosmetic (kohl), at least as early as about 3100 BC, when the cosmetic palette was invented. Remove the words in bold.
    • deleted everything bold.--Stone (talk) 14:00, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
    • One contemporary (Austen, at a lecture by Herbert Gladstone, published in 1892) was reported to comment that "we only know of antimony at the present day as a highly brittle and crystalline metal, which could hardly be fashioned into a useful vase, and therefore this remarkable 'find' must represent the lost art of rendering antimony malleable." Replace first bold expression with "Austen, at a lecture by Herbert Gladstone in 1892" and second with "commented". It would be nice to have a reference. In addition, make it clear this relates to the first artifact mentioned in the paragraph.
    • Added (artifact mentioned above).--Stone (talk) 14:00, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
    • However, Moorey was unconvinced the artefact was indeed a vase, mentioning that Selimkhanov, after his analysis of the Telloh object (published in 1975), "attempted to relate the metal to Transcaucasian natural antimony" (i.e. native metal) and that "the antimony objects from Transcaucasia are all small personal ornaments." Wasn't it said to be Tello earlier?
    • Corrected the typo.--Stone (talk) 14:00, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
    • The first European description of a procedure for isolating antimony is in the book De la pirotechnia of 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio. This book predates the more famous 1556 book by Agricola, De re metallica, though Agricola has been often incorrectly credited with the discovery of metallic antimony. The first "book" can be removed, and the two sentences can be merged. The sentence part regarding the incorrect attribution to Agricola can be shortened.
    • Tried to fix this.--Stone (talk) 14:00, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
    • A text describing the preparation of metallic antimony published in Germany in 1604 purported to date from the early 15th century, and if authentic, it would predate Biringuccio. The book, written in Latin, was called Currus Triumphalis Antimonii (The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony), and its putative author was a certain Benedictine monk, writing under the name Basilius Valentinus. Do fixes, please.
    • Pure antimony was well known to Jābir ibn Hayyān, sometimes called "the Father of Chemistry", in the 8th century. Remove!
    • Here there is still an open controversy: Marcellin Berthelot, who translated a number of Jābir's books... Replace with "There is a controversy, with translator Marcellin Berthelot stating antimony was never found in Jābir's books, but others claiming..." I'll leave this to you.
    • Tried to fix this.--Stone (talk) 14:00, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
    • The first natural occurrence of pure antimony ('native antimony') in the Earth's crust was described by the Swedish scientist and local mine district engineer Anton von Swab in 1783. The type-sample was collected from the Sala Silver Mine in the Bergslagen mining district of Sala, Västmanland, Sweden. The bold section can be removed. The sentences can be merged as well.
    • Tried to fix this, but did not merge.--Stone (talk) 14:00, 31 March 2012 (UTC)

FreywaParcly Taxel
20% Cooler
03:24, 31 March 2012 (UTC)

    • Etymology
      • Pliny the Elder, however, distinguishes between male and female forms of antimony; his male form is probably the sulfide, while the female form, which is superior, heavier, and less friable, is probably native metallic antimony. Replace with "the" and "has been suspected" respectively.
      • The Greek word, στίμμι stimmi, is probably a loan word from Arabic or Egyptian sdm [hieroglyphics here], and is used by the Attic tragic poets of the 5th century BC; later Greeks also used 'στἰβι stibi, as did Celsus and Pliny, writing in Latin, in the first century AD. The Greek words are normally not italicised (which they are in the article). The comma after the hieroglyphics is in a rather awkward position.
      • Littré suggests the first form, which is the earliest, derives from stimmida, (one) accusative for stimmi. Replace with "an".
      • The use of Sb as the standard chemical symbol for antimony is due to the 18th-century chemical pioneer, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who used this abbreviation of the name stibium. Remove.
      • The medieval Latin form, from which the modern languages and late Byzantine Greek, take their names, is antimonium. Remove the second comma.
      • The popular etymology, from ἀντίμοναχός anti-monachos or French antimoine, still has adherents... Replace with "the most common interpretation".
      • So does the hypothetical Greek word ἀντίμόνος antimonos, "against aloneness", explained as "not found as metal", or "not found unalloyed". Replace with "another interpretation".
      • Lippmann conjectured a Greek word, ανθήμόνιον anthemonion, which would mean "floret", and he cites several examples of related Greek words (but not that one) which describe chemical or biological efflorescence. Remove THESE two as well.
      • Several authorities believe antimonium is a scribal corruption of some Arabic form; Meyerhof derives it from ithmid; other possibilities include athimar, the Arabic name of the metalloid, and a hypothetical as-stimmi, derived from or parallel to the Greek. Replace with "..., with Meyerhof deriving it from ithmid and other possibilities..."
        • Not done The other possibilities might not have been used by Meyerhof, and since only two are listed, it should be OK to leave them in the article. Double sharp (talk) 12:20, 3 April 2012 (UTC)
  • Characteristics
    • Properties
      • Antimony is stable in air at room temperature but reacts with oxygen if heated to form antimony trioxide, Sb2O3. Insert comma.
      • Therefore, antimony by itself is not used to make hard objects: coins made of antimony were issued in China's Guizhou province in 1931, but because of their rapid wear their minting was discontinued. Insert comma again.
      • Four allotropes of antimony are known: a stable metallic form, and three metastable forms: explosive, black and yellow. The colons need to be replaced with commas. The comma, on the other hand, needs to be removed.
      • When scratched with a sharp implement, an exothermic reaction occurs and white fumes given off as metallic antimony is formed; alternatively, when rubbed with a pestle in a mortar, a strong detonation occurs. Insert an "and" in that first expression. The second part of the sentence could be integrated into the first.
      • Metallic antimony adopts a layered structure (space group R3m No. 166) in which layers consist of fused ruffled six-membered rings. It doesn't matter whether I can put macrons in, remove this!
        • Not done IMHO we shouldn't simply remove technical notes like this. Those who don't understand what it means are probably not looking for this information, while those who do understand what it means would benefit from its inclusion. Double sharp (talk) 12:20, 3 April 2012 (UTC)
      • Nearest and next-nearest neighbors form a distorted octahedral complex, with the three atoms in the same double-layer being slightly closer than the three atoms in the next. Add a "the".
      • This relatively close packing leads to a high density of 6.697 g/cm3 whereas the low hardness and brittleness of antimony originate from the weak bonding between the layers. Split sentences.
        • Rephrased to make the connection between the two sentences clearer; the previous sentence says "the three atoms in the same double layer being slightly closer than the three atoms in the next", implying that the bonding within a layer is stronger than the bonding between layers. Double sharp (talk) 12:20, 3 April 2012 (UTC)
    • Isotopes
      • The most stable of these is 124Sb with a half-life of 60.20 days, this isotope has also an application in some neutron sources. Split this into two.
    • Occurence
      • Antimony is sometimes found native, but more frequently it is found in the sulfide stibnite (Sb2S3) which is the predominant ore mineral. Rewrite to "Antimony is sometimes found natively, but more often in stibnite, the predominant ore mineral." FreywaParcly Taxel
        20% Cooler
        03:53, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
  • Production
    • In 2005, the People's Republic of China was the top producer of antimony with about 84% world share followed at a distance by South Africa, Bolivia and Tajikistan, reports the British Geological Survey. Again, Twilight Sparkle says "move that to the beginning" and Rainbow Dash adds "do it in ten seconds flat".
    • The mine with the largest deposits in China is Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan province with an estimated deposit of 2.1 million metric tons. Is this the largest in the world, or only in China?
    • In October 2011 a deposit of antimony was found in a shallow seabed about 50 km off Amami-Oshima Island in Kagoshima Prefecture. The discovery was the first time that antimony had been found at such shallow depths (480 meters), with this type of mineral deposit only ever having been found in depths in excess of 1000 meters. Uh... I don't know what to make of this. It sounds like a news report or something, so I would suggest this to be removed.
    • Most of the antimony is mined as sulfide. Lower grade ores are concentrated by froth flotation while higher grade ores are heated to 500–600°C, at this temperature stibnite melts and is separated from the gangue minerals. First one, remove. Second, insert comma. Third, replace with "which". Fourth, merge the two sentences.
  • Compounds
    • The sentences here can be merged wholesale. At present, they seem isolated.
    • Oxides and hydroxides
      • Antimony pentoxide, (Sb4O10) can only be formed by oxidation by concentrated nitric acid. Remove comma.
      • Unlike phosphorus and arsenic, these various oxides are amphoteric and do not form well-defined oxoacids and react with acids to form antimony salts. Replace with comma.
      • Antimonous acid Sb(OH)3 is unknown but the conjugate base sodium antimonite ([Na3SbO3]4) forms upon fusing sodium oxide and Sb4O6. Insert comma.
      • Several thioantimonides are known such as [Sb6S10]2− and [Sb8S13]2−. Insert comma again.
    • Halides
      • Antimony trioxide dissolves in concentrated acid to form antimony oxo- (antimonyl) compounds such as SbOCl and (SbO)2SO4. Replace with "oxoantimonyl".
    • Antimonides, hydrides, and organoantimony compounds
      • Antimony forms antimonides with metals, such as indium antimonide (InSb), and silver antimonide (Ag3Sb). Remove second comma.
      • The alkali metal and zinc antimonides, e.g. Na3Sb and Zn3Sb2, are more reactive. Replace with "such as".
      • A large variety of compounds are known with both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers including mixed chloro-organic derivatives, anions, and cations. Since "both" refers to both oxidation states, "Sb(III) and Sb(V)" can be removed. Insert a comma there as well. FreywaParcly Taxel
        20% Cooler
        04:21, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
        • yellow tickY Partly done I've inserted the comma, but I've left "Sb(III) and Sb(V)" in the article because it might not be sufficiently clear from the context IMHO. Double sharp (talk) 12:20, 3 April 2012 (UTC)
  • Applications
    • The largest application world wide for antimony is the use as flame retardants with 60% while the use in alloys for batteries, bearings and solders accounts for 20% of the produced antimony. Rewrite "60% of antimony produced is used as a flame retardant, while 20% is used in alloys for batteries, bearings and solders."
    • The last two sections can be merged.
    • Flame retardants
      • The main use of antimony is in the form of antimony trioxide is used in the making of flame-proofing compounds. Rewrite "Antimony is mainly used as its trioxide in making flame-proofing compounds."
      • It is nearly always used in combination with halogenated flame retardants only exception is in halogen containing polymers. Insert a comma and "with the" in the first expression, and replace the second with "being".
      • It improves Markets for these flame-retardant applications include children's clothing, toys, aircraft and automobile seat covers. What is this? Remove!
      • It is also used in the fiberglass composites industry as an additive to polyester resins for such items as light aircraft engine covers. The resin will burn while a flame is held to it but will extinguish itself as soon as the flame is removed. Rewrite "In the fiberglass industry, antimony is an additive to polyester resins, its effect being self-extinguishment with the removal of a flame."
      • Fireproofing consumes about half of the annual production of antimony. This is a repeat.
    • Alloys
      • For most of the application where lead is used varying amounts of antimony are use as alloying metal. Rewrite "For most applications of lead, varying amounts of antimony are used."
      • The Sb–Pb alloy is used in lead–acid batteries. The antimony improves the charging characteristics and reduces the amount of hydrogen generated during charging. Rewrite "In lead-acid batteries, this addition improves charging characteristics and reduces generation of unwanted hydrogen."
      • It is used in antifriction alloys, such as Babbitt metal. It is used as an alloy in bullets and lead shot, cable sheathing, type metal (e.g. for linotype printing machines), solder – some "lead-free" solders contain 5% Sb, in pewter, and in hardening alloys with low tin content in the manufacturing of organ pipes. Can somepony merge and integrate all this into one coherent sentence?
    • Other main applications
      • Three other application make up nearly the complete rest of the consumption. Pluralise this, please.
      • one use is in polymers. Antimony compounds are used as stabilizer and it is as a catalyst for the production of the polymer polyethyleneterephthalate. Rewrite "One of these uses is as a stabiliser and a catalyst for the production of polyethyleneterephthalate."
      • Another application is as an additive in some glasses. In the latter application, antimony oxides serve as fining agents, aiding in the removal of microscopic bubbles. This application is mainly used for TV screens. The third large application is the use as pigment." Rewrite "Another application is to serve as a fining agent to remove bubbles in glass, mostly for TV screens; the third one is as a pigment."
    • Other applications
      • In tiny amounts, antimony is increasingly being used in the semiconductor industry as a dopant for ultra-high conductivity n-type silicon wafers in the production of diodes, infrared detectors, and Hall-effect devices. Remove.
      • In the heads of some safety matches antimony(III) sulfide is used. Insert comma.
      • Antimony-124 together with beryllium is used in neutron sources. The gamma rays emitted by antimony-124 initiate a photodisintegration of beryllium. The emmited neutrons have an average of 24 keV. Rewrite "Antimony-124 is used as a neutron source, which has an indirect mechanism of operation by photodisintegrating beryllium."
      • This element is also used in traditional cosmetics and event paint and glass art crafts. Replace with comma.
      • The use in enamel as opacifiers was reduced since the 1930s after several intoxications happened. Rewrite "An application as an opacifier declined in use after the 1930s, after several intoxications were reported." FreywaParcly Taxel
        20% Cooler
        04:48, 31 March 2012 (UTC)
  • Precautions
    • Antimony(V) is not quantitative reduced to antimony(III) in the cell. It's "quantitatively" here.
    • Methylation of antimony does not occur and therefore the excretion of antimony(V) in the urine is the main way of elimination. First one, add "since" behind. Second, replace with comma. Third, delete.
    • Reported cases of intoxication by antimony equivalent to 90 mg antimony potassium tartrate dissolved from enamel showed only short term effects. An intoxication with 6 g of antimony potassium tartrate was deadly after 3 days. Rewrite "90 mg of antimony as the potassium tartrate has been reported to show short-term effects; 6 g of the tartrate has been reported to result in death after three days."
    • Inhalation of antimony dust is harmful and in certain cases may be fatal; in small doses, antimony causes headaches, dizziness, and depression. Larger doses such as prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis; otherwise it can damage the kidneys and the liver, causing violent and frequent vomiting, and will lead to death in a few days. The second part of the first sentence is better off with the second sentence. First bold expression, replace with a comma and "or". Second one, replace with "leading".
    • Antimony is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, halogen acids, chlorine, or fluorine. It should be kept away from heat. Merge these two.
    • The list detailing the antimony limits in water can be integrated into the paragraph.

Well, that's all the errors I found in the article. FIX THEM! FreywaParcly Taxel
20% Cooler
04:58, 31 March 2012 (UTC)

 Done unless otherwise stated. Double sharp (talk) 12:20, 3 April 2012 (UTC)

Metallic properties[edit]

Is Sb malleable or ductile in high temperatures? Does it contain metallic bond? Wht are properties of yellow allotrope? What is it conductivity of electricity or heat? What are electricl properties of less popular alotropes (conductivity, band gap). Sb looks more metallic than Ge because Sb is good conductor of electricity and Ge hs unusually low electrical conductivity at room temperature, even worse than graphite, and has a band gap 0.67 eV. (talk) 01:39, 27 October 2013 (UTC)

Production of stibine from salts[edit]

What salts of antimony are known? The reaction of the chloride with borohydride gives stibine in good yield( see Greenwood). By the way the sulfate is not really a salt - more a ternary covalent oxide of Sb O and S - structure is well known.Axiosaurus (talk) 08:44, 18 December 2013 (UTC)

External links modified[edit]

Hello fellow Wikipedians,

I have just modified one external link on Antimony. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQ for additional information. I made the following changes:

When you have finished reviewing my changes, please set the checked parameter below to true or failed to let others know (documentation at {{Sourcecheck}}).

You may set the |checked=, on this template, to true or failed to let other editors know you reviewed the change. If you find any errors, please use the tools below to fix them or call an editor by setting |needhelp= to your help request.

  • If you have discovered URLs which were erroneously considered dead by the bot, you can report them with this tool.
  • If you found an error with any archives or the URLs themselves, you can fix them with this tool.

If you are unable to use these tools, you may set |needhelp=<your help request> on this template to request help from an experienced user. Please include details about your problem, to help other editors.

Cheers.—InternetArchiveBot (Report bug) 17:12, 15 October 2016 (UTC)