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Why are you deleting references to Kappa Sigma...? This fraternal order in the United States has a lot of heritage from this city... many visit this city every year because they are themselves Kappa Sigmas.

hey? gratian and irmenius???

in original please... i could know sth but not from latin or english (sorry) Zisa

Gratian probably is Graziano, as reported in (italian only)
Irnerius is called Irnerio in Italy, and he is one of the founders of the University of Bologna.
When i have little time, I'll write some articles about them. Giuseppe

Why the former mayor is in the famous people list? Giuseppe 07:41, 21 Sep 2004 (UTC)

Festival vs events[edit]

i removed the internatioen guite festiva cose is it an event and not a festival. Consider to start a differet section for events. ghedo 09:38, 16 May 2010 (UTC) —Preceding unsigned comment added by Ghedo (talkcontribs)

Bolognese sauce[edit]

I added an item on Bolognese sauce, and it was removed with a comment on my talk page The problem is that this sauce is not from Bologna... If you go there, they'll look at you as you were crazy if speaking about "Bolognese sauce". Well, this may be true, but if so, the article on Bolognese sauce needs to be corrected, as it says "Bolognese sauce (ragù alla bolognese in Italian, also known by its French name sauce bolognaise) is a meat based pasta sauce originating in Bologna, Italy...The people of Bologna traditionally serve their famous ragù with freshly made tagliatelle". One of these views is wrong. I propose putting back my text, unless or until the Bolognese sauce article is changed. In effect, the text has a reference, back to the other article. Notinasnaid 11:49, 18 July 2006 (UTC)

Footnote: it seems clear that it is indeed called ragù alla bolognese in Italy. It is very likely that (just as the London Times is really called the Times, in London) it will just be called ragù locally, the alla bolognese going without saying. But the derivation of the dish seems relevant; you wouldn't necessarily expect the inhabitants of Bologna to understand the English name of their native dish. Notinasnaid 12:02, 18 July 2006 (UTC)
I confirm it. In Bologna (and most part of Italy) you simply speak of ragù. And Boulogne (France) is not Bologna (Italy, called Bologne in french). --Biopresto 16:08, 4 October 2006 (UTC)

For what it's worth, I agree that the term "Bolognese sauce" needs to be included. I live in Florence, Italy, and we refer to "Bolognese", meaning meat sauce as is popular in Bologna, more than we say "Ragu", although we use that term, too. Foreverfreebird2 12:51, 1 January 2007 (UTC)foreverfreebird2

Bologna cheese and bread[edit]

One thing after visiting bologna this summer and touring multiple restaurants is the heavy milanese influence using special cheeses (i cant recall their name for the life of me) in the risottos. Possibly the most shocking thing is that the bread in this part of italy is simply terrible. Restaurants do not typically serve fresh, dark breads, but rather things that taste of a complement between elmers glue and white superfine flour. I know that might not be scholarly, but I hope real world experience counts for something.

Probably you simply went in the wrong restaurant. If you eat a risotto it is obsiously "a milanese influence" since it is a milanese dish. What special chees are you talking about? I live in Bologna and I agree that it is not easy to find a very good restaurant, or putting it in a different way it is easy for a tourist to step in the wrong place. Regarding the bread, the comment could be the same, or maybe you just expect to eat the same things your are used to. In any case I don't think it is the case to put on the article personal impressions of a tourist. Ciao (next time you come over I'll take you to a good restaurant and to a good bakery). --Biopresto 16:03, 4 October 2006 (UTC)

Bologna is also called "the City of Letters"

Is it? I didn't know. In Italy not. --Biopresto 16:05, 1 November 2006 (UTC)

Linking to a category[edit]

Apparhently some particular people believe that editting to link to something else mentioned within another article is wrong. Stated clearly in the article Kappa Sigma Fraternity is the fact that Bologna, Italy is the birthplace of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity, therefore, I chose to link it to the category: Kappa Sigma Fraternity. I was told that I still feel it should be in an article, I should mention it in each pages discussion and thus, I am. Thanks a bunch Egil for correcting my "mistake" even though the article clearly applies to the category I placed it in. Richard.longstreth 21:28, 12 December 2006 (UTC)

Do any of your links have any content in any way helpful to people seeking information on Bologna? Fan-1967 21:30, 12 December 2006 (UTC)
Agree with Fan-1967. Additionally Kappa Sigmas claim of a connection to Bologna, antipopes and who knows what is obviously bogus, and can in no way be substantiated. Egil 21:38, 12 December 2006 (UTC)
Links should be added only when they are absolutely relevant to the material, and would be genuinely helpful to readers of the article, not just because you can claim some tenuous relationship. Fan-1967 21:49, 12 December 2006 (UTC)
Unfortunately I lost connection when I last tried to reply, but here is the deal. Bologna is absolutely relevant to Kappa Sigma, thus being placed inthe Kappa Sigma category. Kappa Sigma, is easily argued as being important to Bologna because of the number of people that visit the city just to view the sites associated with the fraternity and spend money there. There are merchants that sell only Kappa Sigma merchandise at the base of the Torre San Petronio and Torre Degli Asinelli. Why? Because of the impact the organization has on the city. What's more is, the fraternity is clearly mentioned within the article of Bologna and as such should be allowed to be placed within a category whose purpose is to provide links to articles related to Kappa Sigma.Richard.longstreth 22:13, 12 December 2006 (UTC)
You didn't answer the question. I didn't ask if it was "relevant"? I asked if your site provides information about Bologna. That's what people come to this article to find. Fan-1967 22:14, 12 December 2006 (UTC)
My "site" isn't a "site". It is a category that provides any person interested in Kappa Sigma more information about topics related to the fraternity. So, no on providing more information about Bologna, but yes on providing more information about places and items related to the founding of Kappa Sigma.Richard.longstreth 22:18, 12 December 2006 (UTC)

It is not appropriate to put categories relating to articles that mention Bologna into the Bologna article, that would have been totally chaotic, since all these articles may have some relevance to Bologna. Please read Wikipedia:Categorization for further enligthenment. Egil 22:40, 12 December 2006 (UTC)

Ok, so the fact that those interested in Bologna may be intrested in a secret organization strongly associated with the city, tells me a tag to Kappa Sigma is appropriate, right?Richard.longstreth 22:42, 12 December 2006 (UTC)
There is no such fact - you are just making things up. There is no reason to believe that any person reading about Bologna would be particularly interested in Kappa Sigma. If they wanted to know about Kappa Sigma, they would read the Kappa Sigma article instead. If they wanted to know about all articles mentioning Bologna, they would use the what-links-here feature. Egil 07:08, 13 December 2006 (UTC)
I'm not making things up. I'm tired of you not listening. Is there another moderator out there perhaps with some class? The purpose of the categories is to give people something else to look at related to the subject they are reading on. Kappa Sigma IS related to Bologna and visa versa. If you want to debate the facts and history, go ahead. If not, then logically you must agree with me that the two are at least related historically and as such a category might be appropriate.Richard.longstreth 07:42, 13 December 2006 (UTC)
I'm not a moderator, but many, many Kappa Sigmas want to know more about the city of Bologna. The fact that this article has been edited multiple times by different people in reference to Kappa Sigma is a testament to that fact. To imply that Kappa Sigma has no connection to Bologna is quite ignorant - their history is well documented in Bononia Docet (Bologna Teaches). jgladding

I'd hate to reopen a discussion that seems to have ended some time ago, but I came across this article and found the Kappa Sigma reference downright strange. I just don't see how or why this is notable enough to merit its own section in the article, especially for a city of Bologna's size. To repeat what has been said, I don't think 99% or more of people looking for information on Bologna are interested in information on Kappa Sigma. Tsk070 (talk) 03:35, 10 March 2008 (UTC)

I've noticed that some of the references to Kappa Sigma have been restored. Although they are much more appropriate than those from before, they remain unsourced. If they continue to be unsourced, they will be removed. --Tsk070 (talk) 03:01, 23 June 2009 (UTC)


Okay, a few questions. I just copy-edited this article, as I found quite a few grammatical errors. First, there were two sections labeled "transport." I changed the first to "Importance" because only the first line had anything to do with transport, and the section is really about the notable things about the city. So, unless someone can think of a better title for that section...

Also, there are many instances in this article where something is referred to as the "first" in Italy or the world (for example, the first sentence in the "Importance" section). I use "first" to mean the earliest-begun of something; however, in several cases, it seems that it is used to mean "most important." This is quite ambiguous and rather confusing. Perhaps this is a dialect issue; but for someone who speaks American English from the south-east, it is confusing. I changed a few where it seemed obvious which meaning was intended, but there are many more that I left alone because I wasn't entirely sure which meaning was true. So, if whoever wrote it that way could clarify which is true? Are things first in time or of the most importance?

Another common phrase in this article is "is considered." Considered by whom? This is bordering on weasel-words. If whoever wrote this knows who is doing the considering, please include that information. If not, it needs to be reworded in places because this phrase is quite prevalent.

One last question/comment: in the "main sights" section, in the part discussing the arcades, there is "289 m/o.l.s." What is the world does that mean? I just wanted to point out that this does not need to be abbreviated as the abbreviation is not globally recognizable.

Anyhow, I don't mean to start out with all complaints, but I wanted to bring up some things that need to be considered. Foreverfreebird2 13:03, 1 January 2007 (UTC)foreverfreebird2

I agree with you. "289 m/o.l.s." comes from the Italian abbreviation for: "meters on (above?) sea level". I have just written the extended expression, because I don't know the correct abbreviation. Can you complete it? --Broletto (talk) 17:48, 22 May 2008 (UTC)

Strage di Bologna[edit]

Hi i cancelled a sentence from section "transport" in which responsibility for the strage di bologna was attributed to Brigate Rosse; I have added a sentence stating that far right extremists and P2 were accused of it (as it is widely accepted in Italy, and as it is stated in the article on Strage di Bologna). Bye ivan (ivanbcn on wikipedia Italiano)


The IPA pronunciation is listed as [boˈloɲɲa], however the character ɲ does not appear on the IPA chart. I'm not familiar with the pronunciation (which is why I came here) -- should the character be ŋ as in singer and ring? Is it pronounced like "boh-lone-yah" (American accent)? —Preceding unsigned comment added by Patik (talkcontribs) 14:04, 4 September 2007 (UTC)

"gn" in Italian is pronounced like "ny": "Bo" like "Boston", "lon" like "London", "ya" like "yacht". --Wikipeder 20:54, 4 September 2007 (UTC)
Wikipeder, your pronunciation guide is wrong. Are you Italian? The correct pronounciation is "bo" like in "board", "lo" like in "lonely", "gna" is more or less "nyah"--Gspinoza (talk) 18:03, 27 January 2008 (UTC)
Well, that would be how Bologna is pronounced in (American) English. I was trying to simulate the Italian pronounciation, using words as pronounced in standard UK English. It's a short, open first "o" and definitely no diphtong ("ou") in the second syllable – don't say "lonely" with an Italian accent :) ! --Wikipeder (talk) 19:59, 27 January 2008 (UTC)
No, my pronounciation is closer as possible to Italian's. Yours is wrong: first, "Boston" is pronounced with the first "o" like Italian "ò", while "Bologna" is pronounced with "ó"; English pronounced "London" in Italian sounds "Landon", while "lo" has another "ó"; then the correct pronounciation of "yacht" in Italian sounds like "yott". According to you, in Italian Bologna is pronounced "Balanio". As soon as I get a microphone I'll record the correct pronounciation and add the file to the page. By the way, I am Italian and I live in Bologna since 10 years. --Gspinoza (talk) 15:43, 28 January 2008 (UTC)
Yes, that is exactly my point: You seem to assume an Italian accent in an English speaker. We are not getting anywhere like this, let's just stick to the international transcription: [boˈloɲa], not [bɔːˈlouɲa], no "oa", no "ou", no diphtong anywhere. --Wikipeder (talk) 07:23, 30 January 2008 (UTC)
Ok, so let's spread a wrong pronounciation instead of the right one. --Gspinoza (talk) 11:39, 30 January 2008 (UTC)
Well, your first suggestion has been [bə lō′nyə], something like "Be Loníe" with the stress on the "i", you are now suggesting [bɔːˈlouɲa] ("Boaloneya"). I don't quite see how this could be any better than the original. --Wikipeder (talk) 00:21, 31 January 2008 (UTC)
I must admit I am not familiar with phonetic alphabet: I took [bə lō′nyə] from an online italian dictionary, but it is obviously wrong. I don't see where I said "Boaloneya", that's complete nonsense. What I say is: the two "o" in "Bologna" are prononuced the same way, a closed "o" like the "o" in the English pronounciation of "lonely" or "most" or "so". "Gna" is pronounced "nya", not "neya". --Gspinoza (talk) 11:30, 31 January 2008 (UTC)


It's not that known in Italy too, but it's too important for me to underline that Maserati car company was born, grew and became important in the city of Bologna. It was subsequently moved to Modena for productive reasons. Maserati's logo is decorated with a trident... it's Nettuno's trident, taken form the Nettuno Fountain in Nettuno square. Due to these reasons, I feel myself authorized to add Maserati in "famous companies" section. Thank you. Ah, just to clear things up: Ragù is known all over Italy as a Bolognese sauce. Nevertheless it's true that it's also called Ragù alla Bognese (Bolognese Ragù). It depends :-D The Bologna massacre was attributed to far right extremists. P2 involvement wasn't proofed, nor taken in consideration during the trial. --Ilvespa (talk) 01:45, 10 February 2008 (UTC)


I must ask something about the history section. As it is written, it seems that Modena's the cause of a not better specified decay of Bologna in the XIV century. Facts are a bit different. Bologna user tu rule Modena for a long time, due to the battle of Fossalta in the XIII century. Despite this, Modena was able to recover itself and donate the "signoria", feudal ownership of the city, to the Este family. A short time and a lot of internecine struggle later, the battle of Zappolino occured, for a vast amount of reasons (Modena was for the Emperor, Bologna for the Pope and not under the Pope; border definement complications and not least the fact that Bologna invaded the modenese land af Bazzano and Savignano, and devastated and plundered the countryside). It is a fact that Zappolino was a complete defeat (a massacre, almost) for Bologna, but no politic or historic relevant happenings came out from the battle. As a result, it was signed a peace in which Bologna gained control of Bazzano and Savignano, and the modenese were donated some gold. Bologna did not "ask" help to the Pope. It was the "warrior pope" Julius II to invade and subjugate Bologna in the early years of XVI century (don't remember tha date). This was largely because of the struggle that occured in Bologna after the "Bentivoglio" rule. Sorry if I seem pedantic... but I am pedantic. You couldn't find a Bolognese not being pedantic about the battles against Modena :-D --Ilvespa (talk) 02:18, 10 February 2008 (UTC)

I wouldn't take the "facts" in this encyclopedia too seriously. We'd all like to open up the Internet and see there a factual exposition of the topic of interest. It doesn't work that way. People have to put it here for it to be here. Man is by nature at war with the truth. As J. Edgar Hoover once said (often I understand), society values seeming good, but not being good. Never apologize for wanting to see the truth, which is what you are NOT likely to see on here. If you really have a bee in your bonnet about it, why don't you work the section over yourself? You will need references, books and articles you can cite. Maybe they will allow you to write it, maybe not. It might be fun to try, but don't be too badly disappointed if it doesn't work out. Put your eggs in another basket, one that values the truth more.Dave (talk) 20:10, 13 January 2011 (UTC)

Importance section[edit]

I've never seen this before on a locality article. It is obvious that Bologna is important and notable and this info can easily be merged into other sections. I'm proposing deletion of this entire section. Michellecrisp (talk) 02:59, 20 May 2008 (UTC)

I wish to correct some historical mistakes. 1) Bononia was not founded in 189 BC as a Roman colony, but as a Latin colony. There was a remarkable differerence: people living in a Roman colony were roman citizens, those living in a Latin colony had only latin citizenship. 2) Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Marcus Atilius Serranus and Lucius Valerius Tappo were not consuls, but triumviri coloniae deducendae, i.e. special magistrates appointed to found the colony. Only the first of them had been consul in 195 BC 3) The University of Bologna was not founded in 1088. There is no official act of foundation, as it began as a free association of teachers and students. The date of 1088 is a symbolic date taken as a reference in 1888, when the 8th centennial was solemny celebrated, because at the time that was the date of the oldest known document of the "studium". The celebration was renewed in 1988, even if older document were discovered meanwhile (in 1063 some Poppo was teaching roman law).˜˜˜˜ —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:02, 28 February 2009 (UTC)

That's very nice, 79. You are a good boy. But, don't you mean you want someone else to correct these errors (if they are that)? You don't really want to correct them yourself; nevertheless, that is what I would suggest. The main problem is, there are no references on this section. That probably means it is being copied from somewhere else or someone is cleaning up a machine translation. Once someone starts going through finding references the errors will be disclosed, and also whether this is plagiarism. Try it if you feel up to it. I doubt if anyone else will do it, and I got to warn you, once you start working you may be viciously attacked. Or, you may be allowed to fix it.Dave (talk) 04:08, 13 January 2011 (UTC)

Politics or government?[edit]

Most cities of comparable size or importance have sections on the city's politics, elected officials, dominant parties, etc. Why is this information missing from this article?Dogru144 (talk) 00:45, 7 July 2009 (UTC)

Lettered Luchetto Gattilusio[edit]

the lettered Luchetto Gattilusio

Any idea what "the lettered" means? Can someone clarify, alter or eliminate please. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:54, 25 August 2010 (UTC)


The article says: "Bologna experiences a Humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) characteristic of Northern Italy's inland plains, with some continental characteristics like very hot summers and cold, humid winters." The words "subtropical climate" are clearly wrong and should be removed. The Italian Wikipedia rightly says: "Bologna has a continental climate, uninfluenced by the sea; the Climate Classification is Zone E, 2259 GR/G." I would prefer someone else to change the text as I am not very good at inserting footnotes, but if no one volunteers in a few days I'll do it. (talk) 19:16, 27 August 2010 (UTC) Campolongo

In Bologna snowed in April also in 2003 (April, 7, 2003), and a big snowfall occurred also in 2009 (18-19-20 December 2009, and temperatures slowed down to -5/-13°C (source:weatherunderground) the 20th of December, 2009. The 26th August 2011 the temperature peaked to 39,0°C (source:weatherunderground). — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:41, 19 October 2011 (UTC)
Humid subtropical climate (Cfa) is correct, because it has moderate rainfall in each season, its hottest month averages over 22C and its coldest month is between 0 and 18C. To be a continental climate, at least one month must average below freezing. Jim Michael (talk) 23:04, 23 December 2012 (UTC)

please changhe the climatic data. Instead the 1961-1990 data, should be right to update with the 1981-2010 like the other parts of the world.


JAN: -0.5/6.2...2.8°; FEB: 0.5/9.2....4.8°; MAR: 4.2/14.5....9.3°; APR: 8.1/18.4....13.2°; MAY: 12.8/23.9....18.3°; JUN: 16.7/28.2....22.4°; JUL: 19.1/31.0....25.0°; AUG 19.0/30.7....24.8°; SEP: 15.1/25.7....20.4°; OCT: 10.7/19.2....14.9°; NOV: 5.2/11.9....8.5°; DEC: 0.8/7.2....4.0°; YEAR: 9.32/18.84...14.08°

Those data are almost high like these of richmond,virginia, or nashville,tennessee, bologna is only 1 to 2 degrees less hotter in the hottest half of the year, and 0 to 1 degrees more colder in the coldest half of the year. Those cities have an average low temperature of the winters months 1 to 2 degrees colder than bologna. So if you consider those cities experience a humid sub-tropical (CFA) climate, bologna climate too falls in this category. (talk) 01:06, 5 December 2014 (UTC)

However, Servizio Meteorologico has not released the 1981–2010 normals (don't know why it is taking so long for them) yet so I cannot change it yet and would have to use the older 1971–2000 data until they released it. However, from looking at the data, it clearly has a humid subtropical climate. The mean in the coldest month is more than -3,0°C while in the warmest month, the mean is more than 22,0°C and precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. That term humid "subtropical climate" is a misnomer since it doesn't mean that the climate is subtropical. Those cities that theymentioned are indeed humid subtropical. It would make sense to consider Bologna to have a humid subtropical climate then. Ssbbplayer (talk) 19:05, 5 January 2015 (UTC)

Suggestions for improvement[edit]

The article was obviously written by Italians with varying skill in English. Great! Practice your English. I'm trying to learn Italian myself. You are bold; I would never try writing an Italian article. But, to avoid the stigma of being broken English, it should be worked over by an English speaker. Too bad more don't take an interest. Bologna has so much more than baloney to offer. First suggestion: an English speaker should fix the English and the Italians should let him do it. Second suggestion: the whole history section is without references. They need to be added. Third suggestion: the refs that are there are nicely formatted. I applaud. Very unusual. They are all "cite web" though; how about some books and articles? Fourth. Etruscan Bologna; that is, Felsina, seems to be pretty much absent. It needs a prehistory and foundation section. Maybe it should be a different article, Felsina. Something should be said there of the Villanovan Culture. Fifth. More could be said on geography. What about the circumferential viale and the Roman gates? Why is Bologna there in the first place and not on the top of an Alp? Sixth. The article contains numerous lists which seem to me to be trivia. How about working that material into write-ups? Well, you are privileged to know information about two worlds, the English and the Italian. How you choose to use this information is up to you.Dave (talk) 03:54, 13 January 2011 (UTC)

I'd second all of this and would be willing to take it up provided I can find some good, focused history books, haha. Apolloae (talk) 09:40, 8 February 2011 (UTC)
With the help of La Storia di Bologna (Antonio Ferri, Giancarlo Roversi), I intend to add a prehistory section. I don't think that Felsina should be its own article until there is enough information to warrant it - perhaps after this section is built, a redirect could work just fine. Apolloae (talk) 17:38, 8 February 2011 (UTC)

Monuments of Bologna template?[edit]

What are your thoughts regarding putting an overarching template at the bottom along the lines of the Monuments of Rome one,

This would help many other pages out of orphanage and would link many of the Bologna pages more cohesively. The problem is that it is (arguably) similar to the categories page... that's not how I personally feel, but I've seen the argument made.Apolloae (talk) 09:43, 8 February 2011 (UTC)


La Rossa, la dotta, la grassa — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:09, 4 July 2011 (UTC)

Orphaned references in Bologna[edit]

I check pages listed in Category:Pages with incorrect ref formatting to try to fix reference errors. One of the things I do is look for content for orphaned references in wikilinked articles. I have found content for some of Bologna's orphans, the problem is that I found more than one version. I can't determine which (if any) is correct for this article, so I am asking for a sentient editor to look it over and copy the correct ref content into this article.

Reference named "":

I apologize if any of the above are effectively identical; I am just a simple computer program, so I can't determine whether minor differences are significant or not. AnomieBOT 19:49, 14 November 2012 (UTC)

Size of photo in Infobox[edit]

I couldnt incrase size of it, dont know what is wring with Template... if one can increase for some 50 px. Thanx --PetarM (talk) 22:23, 16 February 2015 (UTC)

Timeline of Bologna[edit]

What is missing from the recently created city timeline article? Please add relevant content! Contributions welcome. Thank you. -- M2545 (talk) 07:49, 17 June 2015 (UTC)

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