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WikiProject Breakfast (Rated C-class, Top-importance)
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Health Benefits Section[edit]

This short section of the article seemes to be biased towards Monica Reinagel's ideas. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics would be a more reliable source, than the website of one particular nutritionist. If alternative viewpoints on breakfast are to be included, this should be in a separate paragraph.

I have edited the section in question, but only as a quick-fix. Someone more experienced should take a look! Also: metabolic benefits and childhood cognitive development are, while related, not the same thing. Adults would obviously not have the same neuro-developmental benefits, as their brains have finished growing. While I'm not versed in Reinagals' writings, I would question if that sentence accurate summarizes her opinion on the matter — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:13, 17 August 2015 (UTC)

Continental breakfast[edit]

Although this is the traditional breakfast of mainland Europe,

This is incorrect, even if it is partially undone at the end of the section, when it says that there is no unified breakfast culture on "Continental Europe". It may contain elements from many traditional breakfast cultures on "the continent", but it is very much a English term, referring to a English breakfast that is different from the traditional English one. Gerald Jarosch (talk) 20:52, 10 February 2013 (UTC)

In the States, we see it referring to a simple, cheap meal consisting of coffee, juice and some sort of pastry or bread. It's a free offering with a room at some hotels.
First Google hit:
Kortoso (talk) 20:00, 17 June 2016 (UTC)

The Middle East[edit]

I came to this page hoping it would help me straighten out what a common breakfast in The Middle East would consist of. Turkey is represented, which helps some, but the greater Mid-East and North Africa are unrepresented. Can anyone help fill this section in? Jmgariepy (talk) 08:59, 20 January 2013 (UTC)

Unreferenced sections removed[edit]

Again, this article has become bloated with unreferenced content, so I have removed all of it (since a large percentage has been unsourced for over two years). Please only add sourced material to this article. ···日本穣? · 投稿 · Talk to Nihonjoe · Join WP Japan! 09:35, 7 January 2012 (UTC)

Well done. Logical Cowboy (talk) 16:05, 7 January 2012 (UTC)

Added back in Oceania section. Hopefully there are enough citations to satisfy everybody. Also have lived in several cities in both countries most of my life. (talk) 22:22, 23 February 2012 (UTC)

Some of these unreferenced sections should be added back using the {{Section OR}} template. I added this template to the under-referenced and unreferenced sections remaining on this page. Unreferenced material violates Wikipedia's No Original Research policy. - ʈucoxn\talk 22:08, 4 January 2013 (UTC)

Recent Edits[edit]

However is holding this page's content hostage-- please bring it back. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:05, 21 January 2012 (UTC)

While I appreciate your strict adherence to sourcing dogma, this article has been shorn of 90% of its former usefulness.

It is also strange that most foreign sections were removed yet the sections concerning North America remain, even when most of those sections are completely unreferenced as well.

Well done. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:59, 15 January 2012 (UTC)

Every section remaining has at least one reference. If you want to add more, feel free to do so, but only if they are referenced. ···日本穣? · 投稿 · Talk to Nihonjoe · Join WP Japan! 09:56, 15 January 2012 (UTC)
What is useful about unreliable information? Logical Cowboy (talk) 03:11, 21 January 2012 (UTC)

Exactly how reliable does a page on breakfast options need to be? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 23:19, 27 January 2012 (UTC)

The single reference in the "Traditional" subsection under "United States and Canada" is a Salmon Croquettes Recipe. The website doesn't seem RS either. I've removed this subsection. El0i (talk) 03:44, 21 January 2012 (UTC)


I was a frequent visitor to the former "Breakfast" page. It was incredibly interesting and useful. Now, almost none of it is here anymore. What happened!!???? It is an extreme disservice. I don't even know how to post comments, I am just trying my best to get in contact with someone. Really horrible choice, extremely disappointing to see 2-3 countries up there, when there used to be good info on tens of countries. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs) 06:07, 5 February 2012‎ (UTC)

The problem with most of the entries was that they were unsourced. Anything that can be sourced can be added back, but unsourced information will not be allowed here as it gets too out of control to easily handle when we have no idea where people are pulling their "facts" from. ···日本穣? · 投稿 · Talk to Nihonjoe · Join WP Japan! 06:35, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
I see that. However, I'm going to throw my hat in the ring with the others and say this was excessive. Much of the info and photos seemed to be user-contributed, rather than from official sources. As others have said, how official does a page about cultural breakfast food have to be? People can serve as references in and of themselves. Though, why not give a 30-45 day waiting period to find sources for the existing information, rather than deleting everything and building it back from scratch? The bottom line is, the information here is deficient, and the page is much less informative than it was before.— Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 22:37, 6 February 2012 (UTC)
Please refer to WP:VERIFIABILITY and WP:RELIABLESOURCES. The editors can not be the sources of the articles. ···日本穣? · 投稿 · Talk to Nihonjoe · Join WP Japan! 08:31, 7 February 2012 (UTC)

Could you please be more specific about the parts which you found were useful, which appear to have gone now? This page has been edited many times since December 11 2011, so it would be helpful if you could be a little more specific and clarify WHICH of the article you thought was useful which now appears to have gone. ACEOREVIVED (talk) 16:44, 29 February 2012 (UTC)

As one example, "continental breakfast" redirects here, and there is no longer a single mention of "continental" on this page, despite "continental breakfast" being linked to from full breakfast.

If that is so I would have to agree with you that significant content has been lost. I can back to this discussion when I have perused the current article more thoroughly. ACEOREVIVED (talk) 16:12, 7 March 2012 (UTC)

OK, I have now added a little on the continental breakfast, but can some please help - that should have gone under the sub-heading "Europe" but I accidentally put in two many sub-headings. ACEOREVIVED (talk) 09:43, 8 March 2012 (UTC)

Fixed. Better refs needed, though; see WP:RS (and WP:CITE for the correct way to add them). Yunshui  10:17, 8 March 2012 (UTC)

What has happened here violates the basic idea of wikipedia, being a collection of knowledge where everybody can contribute. Whereas I have no doubt that information that can be backed up with reliable sources should be used above anything else, I strongly think that unsupported information is far better than no information, as far as it does not concern living people. Stubbornly sticking to citing guidelines for a topic like breakfast is certainly the wrong way to go with wikipedia articles, as can be easily seen by this example (compare an early December 2011 version of it to the current one - it practically became a stub which is directly the opposite of the initial idea of wikipedia which I understand is COLLECTING information (to be improved by anyone), not removing it). I suggest a more balanced approach in applying citing guidelines, particularly removing parts of the article, taking into account how controversial a topic is. In this case for instance, I would not force anyone to adhere to citing guidelines as breakfast is not controversial, but encourage modifications if someone went to a country and has experienced breakfast habits different from what was told by the article AND use citation to make information more solid. I will raise these concerns with the wikipedia team, as well, as I find this a dangerous development. People have spent their freetime and created a great article putting in much effort, just to observe how some months later a bureaucrat deletes most of it, leaving a really uninformative article that used to be almost completed. How motivating will that be to its authors to contribute more to wikipedia? Whereas wikipedia has grown big, I think having motivated writers is still far more essential than sticking to any citing rules. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 10:52, 2 May 2012 (UTC)

Some of these unreferenced sections should be added back using the {{Section OR}} template. I added this template to the under-referenced and unreferenced sections remaining on this page. Unreferenced material violates Wikipedia's No Original Research policy. - ʈucoxn\talk 22:08, 4 January 2013 (UTC)

Do you really think all this should be deleted? I am sitting in a library and trying to find references. Wikipedia being a collection of knowledge where everybody can contribute, as someboby said here, it is sad that all this work should vanish.

And it is not such a big difference from what this book: Breakfast Around the World IBSN 0941367460 is saying!

Extended content

The traditional Egyptian breakfast is ful medames served along with whole wheat bread, Falafel, known in Egypt as طعمية, and made with fava beans), and pickled vegetables. Fried or boiled eggs and various cheeses are also popular. The traditional breakfast is ful medames: slow cooked fava beans (sometimes with lentils) dressed in olive oil, lemon juice and garlic, gebna kareesh (cottage cheese with tomatoes, dill or parsley, hot green pepper and olive oil), ta'ameya (falafel), or pastirma with fried eggs, feteer, bosomaat (Egyptian pastries), eshta belasal (cream with honey), asal eswed we tehena (molasses with tahini), meraba belkeshta (jam with cream),mfta^a, shai belabn (tea with milk ).


The typical breakfast includes omelettes; a very sweet and dense breadnot known as sugar bread; and tea. Porridge is occasionally eaten at home, while many people purchase their breakfasts from street vendors. A porridge called Tom Brown (a light brown porridge made from roasted maize flour) is also eaten for breakfast. In contemporary times, a local meal called waakye (rice cooked in beans) is very common. People prefer to buy waakye from street vendors just as they do other small meals.


The Libyan breakfast is typically composed of an assortment of dishes, served with freshly baked bread. Tuna, scrambled or boiled eggs, harissa (blended chillies with garlic, lemon, olive oil and salt), olive oil, dates and Bseesa (a local dish made with powdered oats, barley, sugar and other grains blended with olive oil). Common beverages include green tea with mint, coffee, milk and fruit juice. A speciality breakfast can be in the form of a sweet dish called "Aseeda" which is made with a sweet boiled dough which is beaten and shaped till it becomes a soft round oval shape. It is dressed generously with warm honey or date syrup.


Breakfast typically includes Moroccan bread, local pastries, baguettes, and croissants with olive oil or argan oil, smen (or ghee), honey, jam and amlou (a dip made from toasted almonds, argan oil and honey). Also common are cheese, yogurt, harira, and bissara (a Moroccan fava bean puree). Common beverages include green tea with mint, coffee (including café au lait), warm milk, and fruit juice


Breakfasts vary by region. People often have a cup of tea with a variety of either warm or cold foods. In central Uganda, tea is prepared with milk and ginger, and it is served with a warm meal known locally as katogo. This is a combination of green cooking bananas (matooke) mixed either in a stew from beef or in sauce from vegetables such as beans. In some parts of northern Uganda, breakfast would consist of tea and boiled cassava.


A typical breakfast would be omelette or boiled eggs, cake or biscuits, buttered toast, rice with koft'a (meat) or sabzi (spinach). Drinks include black tea, or qaimaaq chai (green tea with milk and rose essence or cardamom seeds).


Breakfast in the country is called Nashta. There are moderate regional variations in its composition, but the most common would typically consist of roti/chapati, aloo/shabji bhaji or aloo dam (dishes made primarily of potatoes and vegetables), chicken curry, daal (lentil curry), spicy egg omelet, and cha (tea). A heavier variant of breakfast would go on to include paratha, special roti/chapati, chital peetha (similar to a rice flour and lentil-based pancake), poori/luchi, or bakarkhani. On some occasions, rice dishes substitute the flatbread. Beef curry or Nihari (spicy curry of beef or mutton shank) would be likely to accompany. A lighter (and also less spicy) variant of breakfast would comprise chital peetha, bhapa peetha (steamed cake made with rice flour and molasses), milk, molasses, khejur rosh (date syrup), coconut, khoi (puffed wheat), and muri (puffed rice). Sweet dishes like halwa, firni (similar to rice pudding), jarda (colourful, sweet rice-based dish), shemai (sweet vermicilli) and doi (thick yogurt) are popular during breakfast. Seasonal fruits, fresh or juiced, serve as a refreshing complement to a predominantly spicy breakfast. Semi-fermented rice, regular or dried fish curry, vegetable, herbs and chilies can constitute a breakfast in many rural areas. English-influenced breakfast of cereal, milk, toast with butter and jam spread, and fried egg is common in urban areas.

htamin jaw — leftover or cold rice fried with onions and boiled peas from a streethawker is quick and popular.
A traditional Burmese breakfast in town and country alike is htamin jaw, fried rice with boiled peas (pè byouk), and yei nway jan (green tea) especially among the poor. Glutinous rice or kao hnyin is a popular alternative, steamed wrapped in banana leaf often with peas as kao hnyin baung served with a sprinkle of crushed and salted toasted sesame. Equally popular is the purple variety known as nga cheik cooked the same way and called nga cheik paung. Si damin is sticky rice cooked with turmeric and onions in peanut oil and served with crushed and salted toasted sesame and crispfried onions. Assorted fritters such as baya jaw (urad dal) go with all of them. Nan bya or naan (Indian-style flatbreads) again with pè byouk or simply buttered is served with Indian tea or coffee. It also goes very well with hseiksoup (mutton soup). Fried chapati, blistered like nan bya but crisp, with pè byouk and crisp fried onions is a popular alternative. Htat ta ya, lit. "a hundred layers", is flaky multilayered fried paratha served with either pè byouk or a sprinkle of sugar. Eeja gway (Chinese-style fried breadsticks or youtiao) with Indian tea or coffee is another favourite. Mohinga often available as an "all-day breakfast" in towns and cities, is rice vermicelli in fish broth kept on the boil with chickpea flour and/or crushed toasted rice, lemon grass, sliced banana stem, onions, garlic, ginger, pepper and fish paste and served with crisp fried onions, crushed dried chilli, coriander, fish sauce and lime. Add fritters such as split chickpea (pè jan jaw), urad dal (baya jaw) or gourd (bu jaw), boiled egg and fried fish cake (nga hpè jaw). The Rakhine Mont-de, is a lighter variant of Mohinga. It consists of thin rice noodles eaten with clear soup, made from boiled ngapi and lemon grass. Toasted fish flakes, from snakefish and green and red chili paste are also added, with seasoning. Rakhine Mont-de is also called ar-pu-shar-pu (literally "hot throat", "hot tongue") because of its heavy use of spicy ingredients. A salad version also exists. It is now available in many cities and towns across Burma.

In Cambodia, rice congee (babaw) is widely eaten for breakfast. Plain congee is typically eaten with salted eggs, pickled vegetables, or dried fish. Chicken congee, pig's blood congee, and seafood congee are also commonly eaten. Cambodians also enjoy rice served with sliced pork or chicken with pickled vegetables or a noodle dish (usually a noodle soup called khtieau). Caw (a pork or fish soup dish made with caramelized sugar) is also eaten with congee or rice for breakfast.

Main article: Chinese cuisine
A typical rice porridge complete with dried minced pork; popular breakfast fare in China.

Breakfasts vary greatly between different regions.

  • Northern China breakfast fare typically includes steamed buns in different shapes (the stuffed ones are 'Bao Zi (buns)', the plain ones are called 'Man Tou' and those 'rolls' are sometimes called by those people living in a certain region as 'Hua (flower) Juan (roll)', grilled flat, round buns (Shao (grilled) Bing (biscuit)', with dòunǎi or dòujiāng (soya milk) or Chinese tea (served hot and plain, without lemon or milk).
  • Southeastern China, such as Fujian, breakfasts consist of rice porridge served with side dishes such as pickled vegetables and thousand-year eggs.
  • Southern China, represented by Guangdong, breakfasts include rice porridge/congee prepared to a thicker consistency than those sold in Shanghai. Side dishes may or may not be served. Congee can be eaten with fried dough (油條/油炸鬼) or other kinds of deep-fried bakery products (in Chinese style) if it is plain, or not, as far as you like. In many cases, however, congee is prepared with any kind of ingredients as you can or cannot imagine, such as beef slices, shredded salted pork, minced meat, thousand-year eggs, fish, or sliced pig's liver and kidney, meatballs, frog, chicken, or even abalone. You can find not less than one hundred combinations on the menus of such congee restaurants (usually these are food stalls selling mainly congee, noodles and those Chinese deep-fried bakery products alone). Other breakfast items include rice noodle rolls ('Cheong Fun' 腸粉), fried noodles (sauteed noodles with bean sprouts, spring onions, soya sauce and sometimes some shredded pork, or even ham, etc.), jiānbǐng (thin crisp omelettes with fillings folded in), lúobogāo (turnip puddings) and 'rice dumpling' (wrapped in bamboo leaves, usually as a festive food during Dragon Boat Festival at around June every year). For Cantonese, the typical breakfasts (apart from the home-made congees) are dim sum breakfasts. Dim sum is often eaten at Cantonese restaurants, while nowadays, with its growing popularity and the advancement of technology, many different kinds of deep-frozen dim sums are available in supermarket, with most can be ready to serve just by re-heating it in a microwave oven for a few minutes.
Hong Kong

Traditional Chinese breakfasts in Hong Kong follow those in Canton. Also found are local interpretations of English breakfast and eastern Chinese breakfast fare. The long periods of British colonial rule and the influx of many refugees from Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai around the end of the Chinese Civil War changed eating habits. In Hong Kong, cha chaan teng breakfasts might consist of Hong Kong-style milk tea, coffee, or yuan yang (half tea-coffee mix), served with bread (roll or toast), ham, and fried eggs (sunny-side up with 3 green peas on the side), and a bowl of macaroni in clear soup with shredded ham. The Taiwanese regard this local interpretation of the English breakfast as unique to Hong Kong. In upscale (upmarket) restaurants or hotels, however, standard English and Continental breakfasts are served.

A typical Hong Kong cha chaan teng breakfast, including a cup of "silk-sock" milk tea.
The South Indian staple breakfast item of idly, sambar, and vada served on a banana leaf.
Main article: Indian cuisine

India has a vast range of breakfast dishes with traditional fare varying widely by region:

  • In West Bengal breakfast may include luchi/kochuri (stuffed luchis), puffed rice crisps with milk, jaggery and fruits. The luchi/kochuri are served with a vegetable curry or something sauteed. Semifermented rice (panta bhaath), which has a mild pungent flavour, is also eaten, sometimes with dal and chili peppers.
  • South Indian states, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in rural areas and farming communities especially, rice porridge (known as congee, kanji kanyi or ganji) is a traditional breakfast item. In other areas Kanji is served with various condiments such as spicy pickles, coconut chutney or curry the most popular and common breakfast items are most often served with chutneys (coconut, onion, chana dal or peanut chutnies) and/or Sambar and somekind of spicy powder called podi. This is usually accompanied with a tumbler of filter coffee. They include:
    • Idli — Steamed rice and urad dal saucers
    • Vada — deep-fried urad dal or chana dal batter with spicy seasoning
    • Dosa — Rice and urad dal batter made into thin, round pancakes.There are several variations as well. While the most common is the plain dosa, it is not uncommon to come across variations such as Masala Dosa (stuffed with Potato), Rava dosa (the traditional dosa batter with onions, semolins, green chillies etc.), Uttapam (a spicier version) and so on. Some food critics claim there are tens of ways of making this dosa.
    • Upma — Mildly spicy porridge prepared with broken wheat, semolina or semiya
    • Pongal — Mildly spicy rice porridge, considered a very comforting morning meal
    • Chapati — flat bread prepared with durum wheat flour
    • Poori — Deepfried puffed rounds prepared with durum wheat flour or maida
    • Roti/Bhakri: Flat bread prepared with millet (sorghum) flour, commonly served in rural households.
    • Poha (batata poha , poha chutni): just flattened rice and coconut or a mixture of flattend rice and potato mixture, commonly served in mangalore area.
  • In Kerala the traditional breakfast, praatal പ്രാതല്‍) includes puttu (പുട്ടു്) (eaten with kadala (കടല) (black chana curry) or ripe bananas (നേന്ത്രപ്പഴം), porotta (പൊറോട്ട) / pathiri (പത്തിരി) or orotti (ഒറോട്ടി) (eaten with chicken, mutton or vegetable curry), appam (അപ്പം) — paalappam, vellayappam, kallappam, idiyappam (ഇടിയപ്പം) or noolappam (നൂലപ്പം) — with egg curry (മുട്ടക്കറി) or vegetarian stew, kappa (കപ്പ) (tapioca) and meencurry / meenvaruttathu (tapioca and fish) and other popular breakfast items like idli (ഇഡ്ഡലി) and dosa (ദോശ) or masala dosa (മസാല ദോശ). Other common dishes include ada (അട) — ilayada, ottada ariyappam, and uppumaavu (ഉപ്പുമാവു്).
  • North India. The breakfast consists of stuffed paratha breads or unstuffed parathas (very dense but thin, circularly shaped flat breads) with fresh butter, cooked tatse vegetables, especially aloo sabzi. Puri and chholey are also a popular breakfast,'. Traditional Muslim breakfast also consists of shermal (a heavy but very soft sweet naan-type bread) and taftan (slightly sweet and salty variant of naan). Sweets like jalebi, halwa, and sweetened milk are popular accompaniments. Samosas, and a combination of jalebi with yogurt (dahi-jalebi), comprise stand-alone breakfast items in Uttar Pradesh and its surrounding parts.
  • Gujarati breakfast items include haandvo, dhokla, sev-khamni, theplas (a form of paratha), bhaakhri and assorted hard and crisp masala puris with pickles. A dip for the theplas is also made by mixing pickle with yogurt. Tea is a staple item in breakfast.
  • In Maharashtra also called as नाश्ता, poha, upma, idli, thalipit, Vadapav, Misal and shira (similar to kesaribhat) is frequently eaten for breakfast.
Nasi goreng with shrimp and egg, a typical Indonesian breakfast

A popular Indonesian breakfast is lontong sayur, a dish made of compressed rice with a spicy curry sauce and cooked vegetables, typically jackfruit, as well as mie (noodles]), deep fried redskin peanuts, and kerupuk (prawn crackers). Optional accompaniments include boiled egg (sometimes in a spicy sambal) and perkedel (deep fried potato cakes). A quantity of the dish will be prepared prior to sale at a food cart or warung, and will be served at room temperature and not reheated during sale.

In homes, nasi goreng is the most popular breakfast dish. Unlike lontong however, nasi goreng is also eaten for lunch and dinner, making it the most reliable kind of dish. Lontong also needs far more preparation and would generally be eaten at a local warung or food cart, whereas nasi goreng is very easy to make, yet really tasty, and usually accompanied with shrimp and egg or any suitable accompaniment. Due to its popularity, nasi goreng is sold in many warungs throughout Indonesia and can be found in nearly all hotels in Indonesia.

Another popular breakfast is bubur ayam, which is rice porridge. It is usually served hot, with Cakwe (Chinese fried bread stick), spring onion leaves, pieces of chicken slices, some chilli sauce, and sweet soy sauce. Like nasi goreng, this dish can be served for lunch and dinner as well. It is also easy to make.

Among college students (especially for those who rent houses) mie instan (instant noodles) are popular, both the fried and soup variety. A popular brand is indomie, or its product, pop mie (instant noodles served in a cup). Its preparation is simple and takes around 5 to 10 minutes (especially pop mie, where only hot water is added). Such preparation makes it an easy breakfast for students because they need to attend college in the morning. Like the above, it can be served for lunch and dinner. In addition to these, Indonesians often simply eat the leftovers from the previous evening's dinner, such as curry, with plain rice. The high tropical temperatures, high degree of humidity and widespread lack of refrigeration make it prudent to eat food while it is still relatively fresh. If lacking such leftovers, a basic dish such as fried ikan teri (dried fish), or some kind of fried egg, again served with plain rice, would be common.


In Iran, varieties of Iranian flatbreads (naan), Iranian feta cheese (panir-e irani) or Persian feta cheese, butter (kareh), a variety of traditional marmalades or jams (morabba), honey (angebin or asal), cream (sar sheer (سرشیر)) and hot tea are essential breakfast items. Other items, such as heavy cream, walnuts, hard and soft boiled eggs, and omelettes are also popular for breakfast. Traditionally, a choice of butter and cheese, butter and marmalade, heavy cream and honey, butter and honey, or cheese and walnuts are rubbed on fresh bread and folded into bite-sized sandwiches and are to be consumed with hot tea. The tea is preferably sweetened with sugar. Another breakfast food, which is usually consumed between the hours of three to five in the morning, in winter, is called halim. Halim is a combination of wheat, cinnamon, butter and sugar cooked with either shredded turkey/chicken or shredded lamb in huge pots. It is served hot or cold, but preferably hot. Almost everywhere in the country, especially in colder regions, a lamb head stew (kale pache) is consumed, usually on the early hours of weekend (Friday mornings).

A typical Japanese breakfast.

A traditional Japanese breakfast is based on rice, seafood, and fermented foods, which do not differ substantially from dishes eaten at other meals in Japanese cuisine. An exception is nattō (a type of fermented soybeans), which is most popularly eaten for breakfast. A typical Japanese restaurant breakfast presentation would be[citation needed] miso soup, rice with nori or other garnishes, nattō, rice porridge, grilled fish, raw egg, and a pickled vegetable. The influence of Japanese travelers has made this traditional breakfast a standard option on the menus of many upscale hotels worldwide.[citation needed] It is common in Japanese households to include leftover items from the last evening's dinner in the next day's breakfast. Western breakfast foods such as toast and boiled or fried eggs are also common, and cereals are becoming popular. The typical[citation needed] breakfast beverage is green tea (traditional).


In South Korea, breakfast consists of components similar to other Korean meals:[1] a small plate of kimchi or several types of kimchi, a bowl of rice and a bowl of clear soup made with vegetables (radish, onion, seaweed green onion, cucumber, squash, any vegetable can be used) and enriched with stock made most commonly from meat, bones, shell fish or dried pollack or anchovies in the broth. Savory namul or vegetables cooked in a pan with oil and seasoned with salt and other flavorings can also be served as a nutritious alternative or acompaniment to fried or grilled fish. Western-style breakfasts consisting of sliced bread either plain or toasted in an electric toaster, jam and perhaps butter, coffee, washed and cut tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables, or eggs are also common.


In Laos, it is customary to eat soup for breakfast, as well as congee.

Malaysia and Singapore

In Malaysia, breakfast sometimes consists of a popular Malay food called nasi lemak. Other food such as roti canai (known as roti prata in Singapore), kaya toast, half boiled eggs and wonton noodles are also among the favorites. In East Malaysia, glutinous rice is eaten as breakfast. Malaysian Chinese from the town of Klang, which is famous for its bak kut teh, frequently eat this herbed pork rib soup dish for breakfast. In other parts of Malaysia and Singapore, however, it is more commonly eaten at other meals.

A typical Singapore breakfast can be relatively cosmopolitan, with a variety of food choices from various cultures. The traditional local breakfast is kaya toast with half-boiled eggs (served with soy sauce and pepper), and coffee/tea. Other common local breakfast foods include fried noodles or vermicelli (served with side dishes like fried eggs, vegetables, luncheon meat, hotdogs, meatballs, cheese, fish cake or tofu), mee goreng (Malay version of fried noodles, albeit spicier), nasi lemak, curry puffs, kueh-kueh (Malay cakes) or sandwiches for those on the move. There are other local favourites like bean curd, sweet soups like black glutinous rice porridge and green/red bean soup. North American and European-style breakfasts are also popular, such as breads and cereals, or breakfasts from fast-food or coffee chains.


Tea and milk are part of the daily breakfast routine, along with satu (powder of corn) or chiura (beaten rice) or some local cookies. The pattern of breakfast is different but bread, soup, vegetables, and chappati called puri tarkari are greatly included nowadays in most places. Dal, bhat and tarkari are the famous staple foods of Nepal.


Breakfast is called Nashta. The traditional breakfast in Pakistan is usually a heavy meal. There are several dishes:

  • Halva puri cholay or halva puri, for short, consists of two separate dishes, halva, a sweet made from semolina, and aloo cholay, a spicy chickpea-and-potato curry eaten with puri, a small circular deep-fried flat bread.
  • Egg khagina or Anday ka Khagina is a popular breakfast dish with families, particularly on weekends. Its preparation and appearance are similar to scrambled eggs, but includes the addition of vegetables, herbs and spices and is traditionally accompanied by Pakistani flat breads such as roti (chapatti) or paratha.
  • Siri paya is eaten with naan (siri paya is a stew made of cow, goat or lamb's brain and feet. "Siri" means the head of the animal and "paya" its feet. It is considered a delicacy.
  • Nihari is a stew made from beef or lamb shanks, and eaten with naan.
  • Lassi is a drink made from milk and yogurt, served in sweet, and rarely, in salty flavor.

Otherwise, parathas is often the default option eaten for breakfast; they may be stuffed with vegetables, chicken, beef or mutton mince. Tea is served with breakfast. In cities and other urban areas, eggs and toast with butter and jam are also popular. Another breakfast popular in urban areas in Pakistan is tea with buttered rusks and fresh orange juice. In Karachi and Hyderabad, where Urdu-speaking migrants from North India are in majority, Shermal and Taftan are a popular breakfast item.

Tapsilog is a staple Filipino breakfast.

Breakfast is known in the Philippines as agahan or almusal. Philippine breakfasts vary from moderate to very heavy, depending on tradition. In some areas, even leftover lechón (roast suckling pig) is eaten with fried rice.

Rice is a predominant staple in the Philippines. As such, a favourite traditional breakfast has fried rice called sinangag. Usually, this is made of leftover rice from the previous dinner (so nothing is wasted, as well as because this yields a firm and "tossed" texture, which is preferred over sticky), and fried with salt and garlic cloves. This is then combined with fried or scrambled eggs, and a choice of breakfast meat: beef tapa (pan-seared steak), pork tocino (sweet cured pork), longganisa (sausage), dried, smoked fish (such as tuyo), canned sardines, sauteed corned beef, or adobo, sometimes with Western-style baked beans, sliced tomatoes and a local pickled papaya shreds (achara) on the side. Alternatively, a cheese-topped breakfast pastry called an ensaymada (a colonial relative of the Mallorcan ensaimada; a brioche) is also eaten, usually with hot chocolate, as is pan de sal (Philippine breakfast roll) filled with a buffalo milk white cheese (kesong puti), and local barako coffee.

Western-style breakfasts such as pancakes, French toast, and porridge are also eaten at home, as are cold breakfast cereals which are popular with children. There is also a breakfast known as tapsilog, which is a combination of tapa, sinangag and itlog (egg). Finally, there is champorado, a local chocolate sticky rice porridge, often served with a side dish of crisp-fried sun-dried fish (danggit or tuyo) — an unusual, though authentically Filipino combination.

In the early mornings, hawkers also sell rice porridge (lugaw/goto), and noodle soups (such as mami, lomi, and batchoy) from stalls to those on their way to work. Bakeries also open early for those purchasing pandesal to eat at home, as well as for people who eat breakfast "on the go". Tahos are also a popular accompaniment to breakfast, especially with children, and these are bought from vendors who carry them.

Sri Lanka

The traditional breakfast includes usually fresh roti, pittu, string hoppers, hoppers, milk rice, appa, green gram or bread . These are usually eaten with sambol (coconut, maldive fish or seeni-onion fried with chili and sugar),with jaggery, plantains or curry (fish, meat or vegetable). Noodles and cereals such as cornflakes are relative newcomers in main cities. Sri Lankans also have a traditional soup-like drink called kanda. A typical everyday breakfast can simply consist of "brother bread" with dhal curry, sambol, butter and cheese or jam, plantain banana and tea.


The influx of mainland Chinese to the Taiwan in 1949 after the end of the Chinese Civil War changed breakfast habits. Breakfasts tend to be a mix of northern and eastern Chinese dishes and the traditional southeastern Chinese fare. This is more pronounced in cities with high proportions of people of mainland Han Chinese descent, such as Taipei. A typical Taiwan breakfast consists of you tiao (a fried breadstick), dou jiang (a warm, savory soybean soup), and dan bing (crisp scallion pancakes). The you tiao is dipped in the dou jiang, similar to how bread is dipped in soup.


In the case of Thailand, a variety of different foods are served for breakfast since the country has opened to the eating cultures from many countries. Thai-Chinese people typically have congee/jook, boil-rice with fishes, pickles, dried shredded pork; dim-sum is also popular in some provinces, particularly in the south of Thailand. During rush hours in big cities, particularly Bangkok, people would have a fast and simple Western style breakfast, for example, bread, cornflakes, omelet, coffee and milk. Street eateries in Bangkok offer a wide range of food, such as sandwiches, grilled or fried pork with sticky rice, noodles, rice and Thai curries. Since there are so many kinds of food for breakfast, Thai people usually say that they would eat whatever they want for their breakfast.


There are multiple breakfast menu options across Vietnam, and usually the urban household will buy this from vendors rather than make it (rural families usually have rice and leftovers warmed up for breakfast). Breakfast can be quite hearty, depending on whether one chooses to top their meal with a meat roll or pastries. Typical noodle breakfast dishes in Vietnam (which are usually served with a loaf of bread to dip in the soup) include phở (Vietnamese beef or chicken soup based rice noodle), hu tieu (rice noodles in a pork based soup), bún bò Huế (spicy Hue style beef soup based noodles), bún riêu (crab soup based vermicelli noodles) or Mì Quảng (prawn and pork rice noodles).

Bánh cuốn (crêpe-like roll made from thin, wide sheets of rice flour filled with ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and other ingredients, including meat loaves and sauce), bánh bao (savoury meat buns or sweet bean buns), bánh mì (Vietnamese cold cut meat loaf breads), bánh mì ốp la[2] (Vietnamese French bread with sunnyside-up eggs). The term ốp la is from the French oeuf au plat (which may be served with a hot meat ball soup)), xôi (or glutinous rice, either savoury or sweet), boiled eggs or congee (similar to the southern Chinese), are common breakfast meals in Vietnam.

Often, the Vietnamese will drink Vietnamese iced coffee, tea, juice, or soy milk to complete their breakfasts.

Australia and New Zealand

In New Zealand and Australia, the typical breakfast strongly resembles breakfast in other English-speaking countries. Owing to the warm weather in some parts of Australia, breakfast is generally light. The light breakfast consists of breakfast cereals, toast, fruit, and fruit juices, rather than cooked items. However, people in these countries may also enjoy a heavy breakfast with fried bacon, eggs, mushrooms, sausage, tomatoes and toast, with tea or coffee and juice (similar to the full English breakfast). Some other typical meals include pancakes (which are more common in Australia than crêpes), porridge, yogurt, and hash browns. A meal popular at gala horse racing events is a "chicken and champagne breakfast" typically consisting of roast chicken, an egg dish, fresh fruits, breads, condiments and a glass of champagne, often as a picnic. In summer, a New Zealand breakfast will typically consist of some variation on toast, cereal, juice and fruit. In winter, many New Zealanders prefer porridge or Weet-Bix with hot milk. Some New Zealanders will create a full cooked breakfast after the English tradition — generally bacon and eggs, fried tomatoes, fried mushrooms, and toast. American-type breakfasts (pancakes etc.) are becoming more common in New Zealand. These are usually purchased from a restaurant for weekend brunch.

Argentina and Uruguay

In Argentina and Uruguay, breakfast consists mainly of espresso coffee, café con leche (coffee with milk), tea (with or without milk) or yerba mate. Other drinks include orange juice (especially in summer) and chocolate milk (mostly for children).

These are usually accompanied with croissants(sometimes they are filled with hot or fresh cheese and ham), brioches, facturas (pastries of German origin), filled churros, French bread with jam or dulce de leche and butter, grilled sandwiches of ham and cheese known as tostados, cereals and sweet cookies or crackers.


Brazilians use the term café-da-manhã (morning coffee) or, less often, desjejum (des-, un + jejum, fast, fasting) to refer to breakfast. Black coffee, cow milk, yogurt and white cheese are quite popular, and so are fruit juices (especially orange, guava, mango, cashew and passion fruit). The coffee or juice accompanies bread rolls or sliced bread with jam or butter, grilled sandwiches of ham and cheese called misto-quente, slices of cake such as corn cake, orange cake and carrot cake. As for children, the most popular are sweet cookies or crackers with jam, toasts with fruit compote called tostadinha or torrada com geléia/compota accompanying chocolate milk or hot chocolate,"mingau", a hot porridge made with cow's milk, corn starch, sugar and vanilla with cinnamon sprinkled on top, as well as cornflakes or sucrilhos (frosted flakes) with milk. Morning meals are different in the various regions of Brazil. In the Northeastern states, it is common to find tapioca, a crêpe made of manioc flour, usually served with butter, cheese, coconut, or other fillings. It is also common to find cuscuz, a kind of bread made with corn flour and steam-cooked. In the Southern states, adults use to drink a steaming yerba mate infusion in a typical gourd, called chimarrão. The cold version is called tereré.


In Chile, breakfast is a light meal consisting of milk, coffee or tea, juice (typically orange), and two types of bread: marraqueta and hallulla, or toasts. They are accompanied with marmalade, manjar (dulce de leche), butter, cheese, ham, margerine, eggs, avocado, cream or jelly.

Costa Rica

In Costa Rica breakfast is traditionally Gallo Pinto which includes black beans and rice. Some people may add natilla (sour cream), Salsa Lizano (a sauce commonly used in Costa Rican cuisine) and a corn tortilla. Black coffee or coffee with milk are the preferred beverages, although orange juice is also common. Another traditional drink is "aguadulce", made from sugar cane panela which is boiled in water or milk. Side dishes may include avocado, fried ripe plantain, ham or some type of cold meat like sausages or salchichón, cheese, bread, eggs, etc.


In Colombia there are various breakfast staples. In the Cundinamarca region people eat changua: a soup of milk, scallions, and cheese. In the Tolima region, a tamal tolimense is eaten in the company of hot chocolate and arepas. Tamales tolimenses are made with rice, dry legumes, beef, chicken and pork, egg, potato, and seasonings, covered with a maize dough, cooked while wrapped in a banana leaf. In Antioquia the usual fare includes arepa (arepa antioqueña, a typically home-made corn bread), with either cheese, fried eggs, or fried meat as well as hot chocolate as drink.

Dominican Republic

In the Dominican Republic, the main dish for breakfast is called mangu (mashed boiled plantains). It is prepared with ground plantain mixed with butter and is usually eaten with salami, fried cheese, eggs (fried eggs or scrambled eggs). This dish is usually accompanied by cafe con leche, hot chocolate, or juice. Another main breakfast dish is the sandwich, prepared with cheese, ham, salami, or scrambled eggs. This is often accompanied with coffee, hot chocolate or juice. To make this particular sandwich the Dominican people use a bread called pan de agua (water bread—a simple bread made with water, flour, yeast, and salt). Other kinds of bread are also used to make this simple meal.


In Ecuador breakfast depends on the region it is served. Along the Pacific Coast (litoral), breakfast mainly consists of strong black coffee brewed in a special little aluminium pot (café de olla), fried plantain and white hard cheese made locally. It can include also an omelette and fresh fruit juices. In the highlands (Sierra), breakfast may include some black coffee or herbal teas (infusiones) with some fresh bread rolls, and scrambled eggs.


In Guatemala they eat scrambled eggs with frijoles (beans) and tortillas with some cheese, fried banana and sometimes chirmol (tomato sauce with condiments). Also, depending on the region, the Guatemalan people eat Paches (like a "tamal" but made from potaoes, pork or chicken, hot chile) or Tamales (made from corn dough, spicy red sauce, pork or chicken). Most people like to drink coffee (boiled coffee) or atol (hot beverage made from oats, corn, or dough).


In the past, when Mexico's population was predominantly rural and agricultural, breakfast tradition included hot beverages and breads at dawn, and a heavier mid-morning desayuno, consisting of an egg dish (such as huevos rancheros), chilaquiles, meats, beans, tortillas, pastries, and fruits. Commercial cereals are widely consumed now. Today, desayuno generally means "breakfast," and the Mexican breakfast may be the lighter or heavier version depending on personal taste or occasion. Usually, workday breakfasts differ from weekend or leisure day breakfasts in the amount and types of foods. Restaurants and hotels serve mainly buffet-style breakfasts with a variety of foods, oftentimes including "quesadillas" of various fillings, scrambled eggs, refried beans, chilaquiles, fruits and cereals. Menudo, a tripe stew considered a folk remedy for a hangover, has become a breakfast dish as well as one eaten at other meals. As with other large countries, breakfast in Mexico differs according to the region. In the north it is common to have salchicha con huevo (scrambled eggs with sausage) or machaca con huevo (scrambled eggs with beef jerky, in some places also called machacado), and wheat tortillas. In the central and southern regions of the country, corn tortillas are commonly consumed. Most breakfast dishes in the state of Veracruz are called antojitos (this word can be used for other meals), which consist of pastries made with corn flour and tend to be quite fatty. The most common antojitos are picadas (or pellizcadas, a tortilla with a sauce, onion and fresh cheese topping) and empanadas (tortillas filled with an ingredient like cheese, chicken or huitlacoche); in the northwest birria (beef or goat stew) and barbacoa (steamed beef or lamb) are also very popular. A popular breakfast is huevo con chorizo (eggs with Mexican sausage). Mexicans are also known to have a high milk:cereal ratio.[citation needed]


In Lima and other coastal cities of Peru, daily breakfast is a fast and simple meal: sourdough bread with jam, butter, ham or a little bit of cheese on it and sometimes scrambled or fried eggs on it, served with a cup of coffee, tea or oatmeal. School-age kids used to have milk (plain or with cocoa powder) or thick oatmeal served in a bowl (with milk, coffee or cocoa powder) or a lighter oatmeal prepared with apple, quince, quinoa or kiwicha. In working-class areas of Lima, emoliente is a common breakfast, which consists of boiled barley with linseed, alfalfa, boldo, horsetail, key lime juice and an infusion of assorted herbs or boiled quinoa, served with wheat bread or sourdough bread with fresh farmhouse cheese or fried eggs. Sunday breakfasts are much bigger; they consist of tamales or a pan con chicharrón. Other common Sunday breakfasts are the salchicha huachana scrambled with eggs and served with bread, the lomo saltado, humitas with cheese on it, boiled choclo (corn) and many more dishes. During Sunday breakfast in Arequipa (in the south of the country), they eat a dish known as abodo de chancho. In the central mountain range area, it is typical to have breakfast very early in the morning, when they eat thick soups made out of mote (hominy) and some meat (e.g. tripe, chicken, sheep, etc.). It is also common in the andean area to have potatoes, hominy and boiled broad beans as a breakfast.


People in Venezuela welcome a hearty breakfast that is a variation of the traditional Venezuelan Pabellón criollo, without the rice and plantains. A typical breakfast would have minced meat, perico, black beans, grated hard white cheese and the ubiquous arepa. Fruit juices and coffee would surely be on the table as well. The full breakfast is usually served on weekends, as it might require a siesta afterwards. If there is only a short time, it is common to eat a cachito (baked dough roll filled with ham), an empanada or an arepa stuffed with fresh cheese, meat or any combination of a broad selection of fillings.

Middle East

An Israeli breakfast typically consists of coffee, orange juice, fresh vegetables salad, goats/cows cream cheese, fresh bread or toast, olives, butter, fried eggs, and some small cookies or slices of cake. For an even fuller breakfast it might include hard-boiled eggs, cottage cheese, quark cheese, and Israeli salad. Another type of breakfast would be jachun or fried dough, malawach served with sweet fruits or something spicier. Hotels with continental breakfasts, in addition to the aforementioned items, will usually serve many different kinds of fish and yogurts, as well as a dish of egg and spicy tomatoes known as shakshuka.


A Palestinian breakfast typically consists of orange juice, coffee, fresh bread, a variety of cheeses, fresh vegetable salad, fried or scrambled eggs and olives. It might also include hard-boiled eggs, yogurt and jam, and in some cases cured fish or shakshuka.


Breakfast in Jordan varies depending on economic background, but can include any of the following: Labneh, Fried eggs, Hummos, Falafel, Fool, Mtabal, Allaiet bandora, Za'taar with olive oil, lamb sausage, jam and butter, turkey or beef mortadella, Thyme or cheese manousheh, fried cheese, white cheese, olives, tomatoes, cucumbers, assorted pickles and pita bread.


In Lebanon, there are many breakfast foods, including labneh, mankoucheh, cheeses, fresh cut herbs & vegetables, black olives, coffee, teas, pickles, fool, honey, butter, boiled or fried, boiled potatoes, pastries, eggs, hummus, mortadella cold cut meats, local sausages, jams & marmalades, toast breads, kichek, and knefeh.


In the Mashriq, breakfast varies greatly according to taste, but a typical breakfast consists of tea or instant coffee, juice, a morning salad (cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, mint and olive oil), pita bread dipped in rich labneh, a type of yogurt, or in olive oil and za'atar. Hummus, ful medames and falafel are more common on the weekends. Other breakfast items include a variety of olives, cheeses, especially goat cheese, variety of vegetables, cereals, jams and pastries. In most Arab areas, the most popular breakfast by far is pita bread dipped in rich labneh, a type of yogurt, or in olive oil and za'atar (a common Middle-Eastern spice mix). Other popular breakfast foods in the Mashriq include boiled eggs, olives, cheese and fava beans.

Hafspajen (talk) 15:53, 26 February 2013 (UTC)

Picture Overlap Question[edit]

Hi, I'm new to Wikipedia language in the edit window. Could anyone please tell me what I would need to do so that the "Toast with vegemite" picture in this article on breakfast doesn't overlap the text in the gallery section right above it? Also, did I post this message in the correct place?

Thanks! (talk) 22:21, 4 April 2012 (UTC)O.C.

I took care of it. It just needed to be moved to the right. (talk) 13:24, 24 May 2012 (UTC)

Query about the Mexican breakfast[edit]

Never having been to Mexico, I do not not know what Mexican breakfast is like. However, it did seem to rather a contradiction to say that breakfast is the lightest meal of the day, and then to add "Therefore, three courses are common place". ACEOREVIVED (talk) 22:13, 28 November 2012 (UTC)

Breakfast#United States and Canada[edit]

Not Canada and the United States? Lumped together is slightly annoying, but why USA first? Is this due to population? Canada is alphabetically first and first mentioned in the section. Plus, Canada has better bacon, and we don't have grits -- horrible, horrible grits. Anna Frodesiak (talk) 18:02, 6 April 2013 (UTC)

Not the author or editor of that section, but the US having 9 times the population of Canada and a greatly more influential culture means that, yes, it should go first. And you don't have better bacon. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 02:30, 27 April 2016 (UTC)

Old saying about breakfast[edit]

There is quite a lot of information in this article, at the beginning of the article, on how some nutritionists have considered breakfast to be the most important meal of the day. Given that this information is here, could this article include reference to the old saying about breakfast: "Breakfast like a king, lunch like a princess, supper like a pauper"? This information could go at the beginning of the article, where the information on the nutritionists is. ACEOREVIVED (talk) 15:15, 11 June 2013 (UTC)

Just in case any one is curious, I have just done a Google search, and the fountainhead of that proverb appears to be Adelle Davis. ACEOREVIVED (talk) 15:22, 11 June 2013 (UTC)

First image titled "Western breakfast foods"[edit]

I suspect that this is not a typical breakfast plate but either an unusual breakfast plate (served in a fancy hotel?) or rather a collection of breakfast foods on 1 plate and hence somewhat unrepresentative. I'd rather see an image of a typical breakfast plate. And I suggest that this is not "Western" breakfast foods but more accurately "American" breakfast foods. I live in the UK, travel in Europe and have never seen a strawberry dipped in chocolate for breakfast. I guess I'm uncomfortable with people thinking this is what most westerners eat for breakfast. Sorry I don't have a better image to suggest. Asmoe (talk) 09:15, 9 October 2013 (UTC)

American here. I've never once seen a strawberry dipped in chocolate at breakfast either. I'm not sure what that's representative of, but it's not a typical US breakfast. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 02:32, 27 April 2016 (UTC)

External links modified[edit]

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Compare today's article to its historical version[edit]

Back in 2002 when this article was first created on Wikipedia (by an IP) this is what it looked like:

Ottawahitech (talk) 16:08, 9 June 2016 (UTC)

Missing South American Breakfast section[edit]

Hello, I just noticed there aren't any south american countries in the list (only Caribbean and north american). I'm not good at writing articles but some country cuisine articles have stuff regarding their breakfast dishes that can be added to the article. As for my experience, I can only write about Colombia's breakfast which I can that the traditional one consists of Milk and Coffee or Colombian Hot Cocoa served with eggs (either fried, boiled or scrambled) and bread or most of the times Arepa (notice that Arepa is also from Venezuela). Colombian Arepa in the morning is eaten either with butter on top or with Colombian "Campesino" style cheese . In some cases, Colombian Buñuelos, Pan de yuca / Almojabanas (Colombian cheese bread) or Colombian Chorizo can be added to the menu. Often popular among older people, another type of Colombian breakfast is the "recalentado" (meaning: re-heated) which consists of rice and pinto beans mixed together served sometimes with arepa and/or chorizo though there are many ways you can make this dish, even with things from last night's dinner (hence the name of the dish). American-style breakfast such as cereals or pancakes are also served (mostly in middle or high income families) but the traditional breakfast continues to be the most popular one among Colombians.

I can also tell from my small experience in Argentina that they have a very european-style breakfast with sweet pastries called Facturas which also exist in paraguay. Maybe someone can make a better research in argentina's breakfast. Thank you! — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:59, 25 February 2017 (UTC)

  1. ^ Korean breakfast
  2. ^ "Wandering Chopsticks: Banh Mi Hot Ga Op La (Vietnamese French Bread with Sunnyside-Up Eggs)". 2008-02-03. Retrieved 2010-09-07.