|Brook Farm has been listed as one of the Social sciences and society good articles under the good article criteria. If you can improve it further, please do so. If it no longer meets these criteria, you can reassess it.|
|Current status: Good article|
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- 1 Manifest Destiny philosophy
- 2 WikiProject class rating
- 3 New article name?
- 4 Massachusetts Cultural Resource Information System
- 5 Boston online maps and ownership 2010
- 6 Historic Maps
- 7 Print Shop constructed in about 1890
- 8 Brook Farm area Timeline
- 9 Pulpit Rock
- 10 1841 Brook Farm purchase
- 11 wrong image: NOT the famous Brook Farm in Massachusetts
- 12 Margaret Fuller youngest brother James Lloyd at Brook Farm
Manifest Destiny philosophy
Credited in "The Year of Decision: 1846" by historian Bernard DeVoto as perhaps an unintending proponent of the Manifest Destiny philosophy that drove the expansionism of Henry Polk's presidency. PP 9-10.
WikiProject class rating
This article was automatically assessed because at least one WikiProject had rated the article as start, and the rating on other projects was brought up to start class. BetacommandBot 05:54, 10 November 2007 (UTC)
New article name?
I'm curious why the article was moved. It seems to me "Brook Farm" almost always refers to this very famous community. Nevertheless, even if a move was necessary, naming it with the parenthetical phrase "Boston, Massachusetts" is bizarre considering that the community was and is, technically, outside of Boston. Thoughts? --Midnightdreary (talk) 02:21, 22 July 2009 (UTC)
- Thanks for raising this issue. It was I what moved the article. I don't want to impose any bizarreness. The disambiguation page I created, at Brook Farm, lists this one and 2 others. If this one is really clearly the wp:primary topic for this term, then I would agree to moving the disambiguation page to "Brook Farm (disambigation)" and moving this article back to "Brook Farm" with a hat-note stating something like, "For other uses, see Brook Farm (disambiguation)".
- I set up the disambiguation page and moved the article while preparing, myself, to visit the New York state, NRHP-listed Brook Farm, in the Skaneateles, New York area. I did visit it, and have pics to upload and material to add to its article. I will grant upfront that it does not seem to have more than New York state-level importance. So my current impression is that this Massachusetts one is more important, though I don't yet agree necessarily that this one meets "primary topic" type importance.
- The current article states this is in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, which is a neighborhood within Boston, Massachusetts. The disambiguation page that i set up states that it is in North Roxbury (at this moment i don't know what the source for that was, did the current article change?) But, isn't all of Roxbury within Boston? And, if so, what is the problem with identifying this as being in Boston? Is it inside or outside of Boston city limits? Certainly the facts of this can be resolved, and we can either move it to a better parenthetical location, or we can establish primary usage and move it back to the original name. I will watch here for further discussion. doncram (talk) 03:51, 22 July 2009 (UTC)
- I guess I don't think of West Roxbury as part of Boston proper. It's more than a "neighborhood," too - it has its own zip code, library, post office, and is far enough outside of the main part of Boston that it's always referred to as West Roxbury. I guess I'm single-minded but this "Brook Farm" strikes me as the first thing people think of when they hear that phrase. It might also be worth noting a similar Transcendental community with the article title Fruitlands (transcendental center). I might recommend Brook Farm (community). I'd love to hear other thoughts. --Midnightdreary (talk) 10:42, 22 July 2009 (UTC)
I just wanted to let you know that I moved what had been [[Brook Farm]] to Brook Farm (disambiguation). It seems clear that Brook Farm in Mass. is a "primary topic" (in this case a significant historical site and solid article -- see Wikipedia:Disambiguation#Is_there_a_primary_topic.3F), whereas the other two Brook Farms are minor stubs. I added a disambiguation note at the top, in accordance with standard Wikipedia practice. Also, I didn't see this discussion until I just came here to let people know my thinking....
Massachusetts Cultural Resource Information System
http://mhc-macris.net/ Massachusetts Cultural Resource Information System
Below are the results of your search, using the following search criteria: Town(s): Boston Resource Type(s): Area, Building, Burial Ground, Object, Structure Name: Brook Farm Inv. No. Property Name Street Town Year BOS.NY Brook Farm Boston BOS.823 Brook Farm - Gethsemane Cemetery 670 Baker St Boston 1872 BOS.9369 Brook Farm - The Dell 670 Baker St Boston BOS.9370 Brook Farm - The Hive Site 670 Baker St Boston BOS.9371 Brook Farm - Granite Gateposts 670 Baker St Boston 1680 BOS.9372 Brook Farm - Barn Foundations 670 Baker St Boston 1841 BOS.9373 Brook Farm - Barn Timbers 670 Baker St Boston 1841 BOS.9374 Brook Farm - Pilgrim House Site 670 Baker St Boston 1843 BOS.9375 Brook Farm - U. S. S. Constitution Cannon 670 Baker St Boston BOS.9376 Brook Farm - Camp Andrew Munitions Storage Vault 670 Baker St Boston BOS.9377 Brook Farm - Milk Storage Structure Foundation 670 Baker St Boston BOS.9378 Brook Farm - Burkhardt, Gottlieb F. Obelisk 670 Baker St Boston BOS.9379 Brook Farm - Eyrie School Building Site 670 Baker St Boston 1844 BOS.9380 Brook Farm - The Phalanstery Site 670 Baker St Boston 1844 BOS.10423 Brook Farm - Print Shop Building 670 Baker St Boston 1841 BOS.10836 Brook Farm - Fuller, Margaret Cottage 670 Baker St Boston 16 Properties Found
Boston online maps and ownership 2010
Pulpit Rock: http://hubmaps1.cityofboston.gov/egis/Map.aspx?PropertyID=2008962000 Address CEMETERY RD ISLAND Parcel ID 2008962000 Owner ROXBURY HISTORICAL SOC Property Type 0985 Land Use Exempt Lot Size 89,060 sq ft Valuation Land $311,700.00 Building $0.00 Total $311,700.00 main Brook Farm DCR parcel: http://hubmaps1.cityofboston.gov/egis/Map.aspx?PropertyID=2008964000 Address 670 BAKER ST Parcel ID 2008964000 Owner THE GARDENS AT GETHSEMANE IN Property Type 0906 Land Use Exempt Lot Size 6,454,590 sq ft Valuation Land $4,606,000.00 Building $0.00 Total $4,606,000.00 Gethsemane Cemetery: http://hubmaps1.cityofboston.gov/egis/Map.aspx?PropertyID=2008965000 Address BAKER ST Parcel ID 2008965000 Owner ASSOC OF EVANG LUTH CH Property Type 0906 Land Use Exempt Lot Size 920,455 sq ft Valuation Land $2,374,800.00 Building $0.00 Total $2,374,800.00 North corner parcels: http://hubmaps1.cityofboston.gov/egis/Map.aspx?PropertyID=2008961000 Address 710 BAKER ST Parcel ID 2008961000 Owner CONGREGATION BETH-HAMIDRASH Lot Size 296,643 sq ft http://hubmaps1.cityofboston.gov/egis/Map.aspx?PropertyID=2008963000 Address 700 BAKER ST Parcel ID 2008963000 Owner ISENBERG ISAAC TRSTS Lot Size 199,505 sq ft
Brook Farm Cemetery area
From Suffolk County Atlas
1896 PLATE 29 WARD 23
1905 PLATE 29 WARD 23
Print Shop constructed in about 1890
May 28, 2008 617-626-1453 DCR BEGINS REHABILITATION OF THE PRINT SHOP AT BROOK FARM HISTORIC SITE The Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) has begun work to stabilize the Print Shop at the Brook Farm Historic Site in West Roxbury. The Print Shop, constructed in about 1890, is the last remaining historic building at Brook Farm, a designated National Historical Landmark. The building is not associated with the Transcendentalist utopian community that briefly flourished on the property in the mid-19th century. Rather, it was built by the Lutheran Church, which operated the Martin Luther Orphan’s Home on the property from 1871 to 1944. The building housed the orphanage’s printing operations, which produced Lutheran newspapers and a variety of religious books, pamphlets, and other parish and church literature. The stabilization work consists of repairing the structural frame of the Print Shop; installing new clapboards, roofing, and sills; and restoring the basement wall to its original appearance. Due to damage from long-term water infiltration, a major portion of the building’s stone foundation must be dismantled and rebuilt. The work is intended to halt further deterioration of the building while DCR plans for its future reuse. The Print Shop building has been largely vacant for several years, used intermittently for storage. “We are very pleased to be able to start restoring this historic building and halt any future damage from the elements,” said DCR Commissioner Rick Sullivan. “We look forward to finding a suitable and appropriate use for the Print Shop in the future.” Keegan Contracting Inc. of Brighton was awarded the $350,000 contract to undertake the Print Shop repairs. In 2007, the contractor worked with DCR to install a new cedar shingle roof and repair the chimney at the building. The current construction, which began this month, is expected to be completed in late July.
Brook Farm area Timeline
Before 1838, the Brook Farm area was in Newton and thus in Middlesex County. After 1838 the area was in Roxbury/West Roxbury so it was in Norfolk County until 1874 it became part of Boston and thus in Suffolk County.
1691 MIDDLESEX COUNTY - NEWTON; Established as
The town of Cambridge Village, sometimes called Little Cambridge.
1838 NORFOLK COUNTY - ROXBURY
April 23, 1838 part of Newton annexed.
1846 Roxbury incorporated as a city.
1851 WEST ROXBURY
Date of Establishment May 24, 1851
1874 SUFFOLK COUNTY - BOSTON
Jan. 5, 1874 West Roxbury annexed to Boston
The memorial history of Boston: including Suffolk County ..., Volume 3 edited by Justin Winsor CHAPTER XVI. ROXBURY IN THE LAST HUNDRED YEARS. BY FRANCIS S. DRAKE. In 1838 eighteen hundred acres of Newton, bounding upon Charles River, were set off to Roxbury.
A manual for the use of the General Court By Massachusetts. 1900 p.138 MIDDLESEX COUNTY NEWTON Date of Establishment Dec. 15, 1691 From what Established or Incorporated, Change of Boundary... The town of Cambridge Village, sometimes called Little Cambridge. June 21, 1803 an island in Charles River annexed. April 23, 1838 part annexed to Roxbury. April 16, 1849 part annexed to Waltham. June 2, 1873 Newton incorporated as a city. Oct. 13, 1873 act of incorporation accepted by the town. May 29, 1874 bounds between Newton and Boston established. May 5, 1875 part of Boston annexed. June 23, 1875 the act accepted by Newton. July 1, 1875 the act took effect. Mar. 29, 1898 bounds between Newton and Boston established. May 13, 1898 bounds between Newton and Boston established. p.148 NORFOLK COUNTY ROXBURY Date of Establishment Sept. 28, 1630 Common land. From what Established or Incorporated, Change of Boundary... Common land. Mar. 4, 1633 bounds between Roxbury and Boston established. April 7, 1635 bounds between Roxbury and Newe Towne established. May 25,1636 certain lands granted to Roxbury. May 2, 1638 certain lands granted to Roxbury. May 16,1638 bounds between Roxbury and Dedham established. Oct. 7, 1641 bounds between Roxbury and Boston established. Oct. 16, 1660 certain lands granted to Roxbury. May 12,1675 bounds between Roxbury and Dedham established. Mar. 16,1836 bounds between Roxbury and Boston established. April 19 1837 bounds between Roxbury and Boston established. April 23, 1838 part of Newton annexed. Feb. 24, 1844 part annexed to Brookline. Mar. 12, 1846 Roxbury incorporated as a city. Mar. 25, 1846 act of incorporation accepted by the town. May 3, 1850 part annexed to Boston and bounds be- tween Roxbury and Boston established. May 24,1851 part estab- lished as West Roxbury. April 3, 1860 part annexed to Boston and bounds established if the act is accepted by both cities. April 16, 1860 the act accepted by Roxbury. May 8, 1860 the act accepted by Boston. June 1, 1867 Roxbury annexed to Boston if this act is accepted by both cities. Sept. 9 1867 the act accepted by both. Jan. 5, 1868 the act took effect. p.150 NORFOLK COUNTY WEST ROXBURY Date of Establishment May 24, 1851 Part of Roxbury. From what Established or Incorporated, Change of Boundary... Part of Roxbury. April 21, 1852 part of Dedham annexed upon pay- ment of $400 by West Roxbury. April 30, 1852 the act accepted by West Roxbury. July 4, 1853 $400 paid by West Roxbury to Ded- ham, and the act in effect. April 2, 1870 bounds between West Roxbury and Boston established. April 12, 1872 part (Mount Hope Cemetery) annexed to Boston. May 29, 1873 West Roxbury an- nexed to Boston if the act is accepted by both places. Oct. 7, 1873 the act accepted by both. Jan. 5, 1874 the act took effect. p.157 SUFFOLK COUNTY BOSTON Sept. 7, 1630 Common land called Tri-mountain.
http://historical-county.newberry.org/website/Massachusetts/documents/MA_Individual_County_Chronologies.htm#NORFOLK Massachusetts : Individual County Chronologies Massachusetts Atlas of Historical County Boundaries John H. Long, Editor and Historical Compiler; Peggy Tuck Sinko, Associate Editor; Douglas Knox, Book Digitizing Director; Emily Kelley, Research Associate; Laura Rico-Beck, GIS Specialist and Digital Compiler; Peter Siczewicz, ArcIMS Interactive Map Designer; Robert Will, Cartographic Assistant The Newberry Library 2009 23 Apr 1838 NORFOLK gained from MIDDLESEX when town of Roxbury gained from town of Newton. (Mass. Acts 1838, ch. 167, sec. 1/p. 481) 05 Jan 1874 NORFOLK lost to SUFFOLK when Boston gained West Roxbury. (Mass. Acts 1873, ch. 286, sec. 1/p. 716, ch. 303, sec. 1/p. 747, and ch. 314, sec. 1/p. 810) http://historical-county.newberry.org/website/Massachusetts/viewer.htm Massachusetts Historical Counties Select a date to view historical county boundaries. Valid dates are 3/4/1629 - 12/31/2000.
http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=afterminal&L=6&L0=Home&L1=Research+%26+Technology&L2= Government+Data+%26+Documents&L3=State+Documents+%26+Resources&L4=State+Documents+ Online&L5=Massachusetts+Acts+and+Resolves&sid=Eoaf&b=terminalcontent&f= lib_ourorganization_governmentdocs_acts18761959&csid=Eoaf Massachusetts Acts and Resolves 1692 to 1959 http://www.archive.org/details/actsresolvespass3738mass Acts and resolves passed by the General Court General Laws 1837-1838 http://www.archive.org/stream/actsresolvespass3738mass/actsresolvespass3738mass_djvu.txt NEWTON & ROXBURY. April 23, 1838. 481 CHAP. CLXVII. An Act to annex a part of the town of Newton to the town of Roxbury. BE it enacted by the Senate and House of Rep- resentatives, in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows: Sec. 1. William Palmer, Bartholomew White, William Hutchins, Leonard Newton, and Charles Ellis, of Newton, in the county of Middlesex, with their polls and estates, and all other lands within a line beginning on the southeast corner of said New- ton, at a stone post, where the same meets the hne of the towns of Roxbury and Brookline, and running north, thirty-seven and an half degrees west, two hundred and eighty-five rods, to a Savin tree, mark- ed; thence turning and running south, fifty-six de- grees west, two hundred and sixty-four rods; thence turning and running south, forty-seven degrees west, three hundred and twenty rods, to Charles River, -- are hereby set off from the town of Newton and an- nexed to the town of Roxbury, in the county of Nor- folk. Sec. 2. The land herebv set off from Newton to To pay taxes as- sessed prior to passage of act, http://www.archive.org/details/actsresolvespass1873mass Acts and resolves passed by the General Court 1873 810 1873. -- Chapter 314. Ch. 314. AN ACT TO UNITE THE CITY OF BOSTON AND THE TOWN OF WEST ROXBURY. Be it enacted, &c., as follows: Section 1. All the territory now comprised within the limits of the town of West Roxbury in the county of Norfolk, with the inhabitants and the estates therein, is annexed to and made part of the city of Boston in the county of Suffolk, and shall hereafter constitute a part of the county of Suffolk, subject to the same municipal regulations, obligations and liabilities, and entitled to the same immunities in all respects as the said city of Boston: provided, however, that until constitutionally and legally changed, said territory shall continue to be, for the purpose of electing members of the house of representa- tives, part of the county of Norfolk, constituting the second representative district thereof; for the purpose of electing a senator, part of the first Norfolk senatorial district; for the purpose of electing a councillor, part of the third council district, and for the purpose of electing a representative in congress, part of congressional district number eight, as the same is now constituted.
The following source seems very unreliable; at a minimum the dates seem very wrong. But it contains tantalizing leads about Pulpit Rock, the history of which should be included in the Brook Farm article.
http://sidis.net/mb040342.htm MEET BOSTON by Jacob Marmor (pseudonym) Friday, April 3, 1942 in What's New In Town W. J. Sidis
- Boston was once the scene of a famous Utopian experiment, just about one hundred years ago. In 1835, a number of Boston “intellectuals” became impressed with the idea that current injustices could be remedied by a “back-to-nature” movement and they proceeded to pool all their possessions and bought a farm, called “Brook Farm,” in Newton, on a hillside overlooking “Eliot’s Pulpit,” a large chair-shaped piece of Roxbury puddingstone, where (according to tradition) Apostle John Eliot sat when preaching to the Indians. At Brook Farm the experimenters lived together in what they imagined to be a communal life, and, though all “city folks,” they attempted to make a go of farming, which none of them understood. In the depression year of 1837, many new recruits came to Brook Farm, contributing what little they had left to join the farm that they hoped would take care of them. In 1838, the place was transferred from Newton to West Roxbury, though the reason for this shift in the boundary is not clear. Following the incorporation of the “Brook Farm Phalanx,” with the adoption of some European ideas of regimentation, the popularity of the experiment dwindled fast, and it never recovered after a fire in 1841. In 1847 the experiment was abandoned, and the place was converted into a poor-farm. [It was renamed] as “Camp Andrew” in the Civil War, and is now Mt. Benedict Cemetery. Eliot’s Pulpit can still be seen, over the Newton line on Lagrange Street. Nathaniel Hawthorne was a member of Brook Farm, and has described it in his “Blithedale Romance.”
1841 Brook Farm purchase
Transcendental Ideas: Social Reform; History of Brook Farm; Jessica Gordon, VCU
- "Brook Farm began in April of 1841 with George Ripley as the founder, his wife, Sophia Ripley, and about fifteen other members. The farm was bought from Charles and Maria Ellis, according to the deed on October 11, 1841. Although it says nothing about it in the deed, another strip of property was also purchased, called the "Keith Lot," which consisted of twenty-two acres. On the same day, the trustees--Ripley, Hawthorne, Dana, and Allen--mortgaged the property to Daniel Wilder and Josiah Quincy to secure the payment of $6000 in three years and twenty-one days. They also made a second mortgage to George Russil, Henry Sturgis, and Francis Shaw at $1500 each, and to Lucy Cabot at $500.00. The tuition of one pupil per stock share was entitled to each subscriber. No stockholder had any claim on the profits of the farm besides the 5% interest."
wrong image: NOT the famous Brook Farm in Massachusetts
(Please help fix this erroneous image file.)
This image: [File:BrookFarm-engraving.jpg] is not from the famous BROOK FARM in Massachusetts. It is an image of "Pond Field Farm" in East Chester, New York.
This image is from this book:
- Brook Farm: the amusing and memorable of American country life (1859)
- Publisher: London, Wertheim, Macintosh, and Hunt
- Language: English
- Call number: 1570336
The book describes the location thus:
Brook Farm — the scene of all but two or three of the following sketches — covered some 200 acres of the State of New York. It lay about seven miles east of the Hudson, and within an easy drive of the border of Con- necticut. The reader of Cooper's admirable tale of the "Spy" will be pleased to hear that the noted house where the four roads met, was within a quarter of an hour's walk of us...
A reviewer describes the book: "This book is by James Bolton, son of Robert Bolton, who owned the Pondfield Farm, in what is now Bronxville, NY. It has nothing to do with the Brook Farm community in Massechusetts. It is a memorial to the family life lived on Pondfield Farm in the early 1800's. The family also purchased 30 acres in what is now Pelham, NY and built the Bolton Priory there, the first example of neo-gothic architecture in the US, built in 1838."
This source explains that the book title is fictitious:
Thursday, March 26, 2009 Excerpt from Book Published in 1860 Provides Memories of Sundays at St. Paul's Church Before 1838
"Blake A. Bell is Town Historian and Town Clerk of Pelham, NY in Westchester County. He is also Village Historian of the Village of Pelham and is a member of the Boards of Trustees of the Westchester County Historical Society (Executive Committee), the Pelham Preservation Society, Ltd., and the Society of the National Shrine of the Bill of Rights at Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site."
Today's Historic Pelham Blog posting transcribes a chapter from a book published in 1860 containing an account of "Pleasant Sundays' spent at St. Paul's Church in about 1836. The author of the book was James Bolton (1824 - 1863), the youngest son of Rev. Robert Bolton who founded Christ Church in Pelham Manor and who served as Rector of St. Paul's Church in East Chester.
As James Bolton notes in the preface, he changed names in the book, but provides "truthful" narrratives from his boyhood. The book is about his family's life on the "Pond Field Farm" in East Chester which Rev. Bolton acquired in about 1836 before he built Bolton Priory and Christ Church in Pelham. In the book, James Bolton refers to Pond Field Farm as "Brook Farm", to East Chester as "Lancaster" and to St. Paul's Church as "St. Peter's Church".
"V. Pleasant Sundays.
BROOK FARM was about three miles from the village of Lancaster. It was the nearest village to us, and thither we had to go for our letters, literature, clothes and groceries; all of which, and blue pills besides, could be obtained in one large shop. The village, nicely shaded with locust-trees, straggled for another mile along the high road...
Source: Bolton, James, Brook Farm: The Amusing and Memorable of American Country Life, Chapter V, pp. 33 - 41 (NY, NY: Robert Carter & Brothers, 1860). -18.104.22.168 (talk) 16:39, 11 January 2013 (UTC)
- I've done what I could to correct this mistake. Thank you for noticing it. --Midnightdreary (talk) 21:03, 11 January 2013 (UTC)
Margaret Fuller youngest brother James Lloyd at Brook Farm
Margaret Fuller had a youngest brother James Lloyd who was at Brook Farm. Visiting him was part of the reason she would have visited there; this seems worth mentioning in the articles (sites.google.com/site/margaretfullerandthedial/fuller-s-family).-22.214.171.124 (talk) 21:44, 16 March 2015 (UTC)