Talk:Caffeine

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Cosmetics[edit]

I see no mention of its use in cosmetics to, for example, reduce eye bags. Does it go into the blood? Is the effect through the skin similar to the oral effect? --Error (talk) 21:44, 1 March 2017 (UTC)

It is now also being sold in shampoos - Alpecin. May have no medical effect, just promotional sales woo. 60.242.247.177 (talk) 08:39, 7 April 2017 (UTC)

Caffeine#During_pregnancy[edit]

I am updating a Cochrane Review on this, and I feel that this paragraph should be changed around. The first sentence presently states "Caffeine consumption during pregnancy does not appear to increase the risk of congenital malformations, miscarriage or growth retardation even when consumed in moderate to high amounts.[63]"

This is followed by a "however"... a cochrane review (that states there is not sufficient evidence to "confirm or refute caffeine avoidance during pregnancy", and other references from WP:MEDRS sources suggesting that pregnant women limit their caffeine intake.

I feel that a health guidance document or reference from a national or international expert body should be used for the first sentence, followed by the cochrane review, and the other reviews (including the above review reference stating that caffeine does not appear to increase the risk of birth defects or low birth weight etc).

Here is my proposed edit, it changes around the paragraph:

This is a great improvement IMO. I'm thinking that the first paragraph might fit better under the "Specific populations" section though. Sizeofint (talk) 04:09, 23 March 2017 (UTC)
very good improvement to the section(you might use [1] for the last sentence which has a citation needed)--Ozzie10aaaa (talk) 10:58, 23 March 2017 (UTC)
Thanks User:Ozzie10aaaa, I am looking at your link but I am not familiar with these text books. Do you have a particular one in mind that you feel is a strong WP:MEDRS?JenOttawa (talk) 00:19, 24 March 2017 (UTC)
  • Gabbe, Steven G.; Niebyl, Jennifer R.; Galan, Henry L.; Jauniaux, Eric R. M.; Landon, Mark B.; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Driscoll, Deborah A. (2012). Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 157. ISBN 1455733954. ...caffeine section seems interesting(I would specifically draw your attention to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynocologists statement at the end of the aforementioned section[2]),I hope this adds to the article--Ozzie10aaaa (talk) 01:42, 24 March 2017 (UTC)
Thanks User:Ozzie10aaaa. I will sit down and look through this book later this weekend or early next week. JenOttawa (talk) 02:56, 25 March 2017 (UTC)


This meta-analysis from 2016 implies that higher caffeine intake (over 150 mg per day) is associated with pregnancy loss. However there are limitations with the meta-analysis such as possible confounding. Axl ¤ [Talk] 14:29, 23 March 2017 (UTC)
The paper is written by the same group as "Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with risk of low birth weight" below (reference 8). Axl ¤ [Talk] 14:33, 23 March 2017 (UTC)
This review states that high maternal preconception caffeine intake (over 300 mg per day) is associated with increased risk of pregnancy loss. However, again the studies included were observational. I wonder if preconception caffeine intake is really a marker of during-pregnancy caffeine intake though. Axl ¤ [Talk] 14:40, 23 March 2017 (UTC)
Thanks for all the help with this and for your support. I have updated the page with the new edit. I will go through these references and add them in tonight. This all looks great! JenOttawa (talk) 16:17, 23 March 2017 (UTC)
User:Axl Is this what you had in mind with your suggested references? I can add the following into the article (the first reference is already in, the other two are your suggestions)

There is some evidence that higher caffeine intake by pregnant women may be associated with a higher risk of giving birth to a low birth weight baby,[1] and may be associated with a higher risk of pregnancy loss.[2] A systematic review, analyzing the results of observational studies, suggests that women who consume large amounts of caffeine (greater than 300 mg/day) prior to becoming pregnant may have a higher risk of experiencing pregnancy loss.[3]

Thanks again, JenOttawa (talk) 00:13, 24 March 2017 (UTC)

This new paragraph looks fine. Axl ¤ [Talk] 11:57, 24 March 2017 (UTC)
JenOttawa, did you mean to cite a 1973 paper in reference 47? Looks good otherwise. Sizeofint (talk) 16:38, 24 March 2017 (UTC)
Definitely not! Good catch, there must have been a mistake when I was pasting it in. Thanks for noticing User:Sizeofint. JenOttawa (talk) 02:43, 25 March 2017 (UTC)

During pregnancy[edit]

The UK Food Standards Agency has recommended that pregnant women should limit their caffeine intake, out of prudence, to less than 200 mg of caffeine a day – the equivalent of two cups of instant coffee, or one and a half to two cups of fresh coffee.[4] The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) concluded in 2010 that caffeine consumption is safe up to 200 mg per day in pregnant women.[5] For women of childbearing age, Health Canada recommends a maximum daily caffeine intake of no more than 300 mg, or a little over two 8 oz (237 mL) cups of coffee.[6]

The evidence for or against the importance of limiting caffeine intake during pregnancy is insufficient and of weak quality.[7] There are conflicting reports in the scientific literature about caffeine consumption during pregnancy.[8] A 2011 risk analysis review found that caffeine consumption during pregnancy does not appear to increase the risk of congenital malformations, miscarriage or growth retardation even when consumed in moderate to high amounts.[9] There is some evidence that the hormonal changes during pregnancy slow the metabolic clearance of caffeine from the system, causing a given dose to have longer-lasting effects (as long as 15 hours in the third trimester).[10] There is also some evidence that caffeine intake by pregnant women is associated with a higher risk of giving birth to a low birth weight baby.[11]

Caffeine's potential impact on female fertility, and its precise impact on pregnancy, is still being studied, but (as with many other substances in these circumstances) caution and moderation is warranted in any case until further information is known.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ Chen, Ling-Wei; Wu, Yi; Neelakantan, Nithya; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M (19 September 2014). "Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with risk of low birth weight: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis". BMC Medicine. 12 (1). doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0174-6. 
  2. ^ Chen, Ling-Wei; Wu, Yi; Neelakantan, Nithya; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M. (2016-05-01). "Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of pregnancy loss: a categorical and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies". Public Health Nutrition. 19 (7): 1233–1244. ISSN 1475-2727. PMID 26329421. doi:10.1017/S1368980015002463. 
  3. ^ Tan, T. L. (1973-01-01). "[Physiology of nitrate reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa]". Zeitschrift Fur Allgemeine Mikrobiologie. 13 (1): 83–94. ISSN 0044-2208. PMID 4196566. 
  4. ^ "Food Standards Agency publishes new caffeine advice for pregnant women". Retrieved 3 August 2009. 
  5. ^ American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (August 2010). "ACOG CommitteeOpinion No. 462: Moderate caffeine consumption during pregnancy". Obstet Gynecol. 116 (2 Pt 1): 467–8. PMID 20664420. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181eeb2a1. 
  6. ^ "It's Your Health – Caffeine". Health Canada. March 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 
  7. ^ Jahanfar, S; Jaafar, SH (28 February 2013). "Effects of restricted caffeine intake by mother on fetal, neonatal and pregnancy outcome.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (2): CD006965. PMID 23450573. 
  8. ^ Kuczkowski KM (2009). "Caffeine in pregnancy". Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 280 (5): 695–8. PMID 19238414. doi:10.1007/s00404-009-0991-6. 
  9. ^ Brent RL, Christian MS, Diener RM (2011). "Evaluation of the reproductive and developmental risks of caffeine". Birth Defects Res. B Dev. Reprod. Toxicol. 92 (2): 152–87. PMC 3121964Freely accessible. PMID 21370398. doi:10.1002/bdrb.20288. 
  10. ^ Fredholm BB, Bättig K, Holmén J, Nehlig A, Zvartau EE (1999). "Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use". Pharmacol. Rev. 51 (1): 83–133. PMID 10049999. 
  11. ^ Chen, Ling-Wei; Wu, Yi; Neelakantan, Nithya; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M (19 September 2014). "Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with risk of low birth weight: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis". BMC Medicine. 12 (1). doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0174-6. 

Good Faith edit on caffeine and children[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caffeine&type=revision&diff=772817905&oldid=772063041

Should we leave this new sentence about caffeine and children out until a more recent WP:MEDRS citation is found?

Thanks. JenOttawa (talk) 15:00, 29 March 2017 (UTC)

You mean "There is no evidence that coffee stunts a child's growth"?
It is commonly stated that caffeine does stunt a child's growth.
It however appears to be an urban legand[3].
I think it is fine to include this. Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 15:24, 29 March 2017 (UTC)
Found a suitable source[4] Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 15:33, 29 March 2017 (UTC)
Thanks @Doc James:. I am not up to speed with the literature on caffeine and kids. I just noticed this new edit and was not sure if it was a suitable reference.JenOttawa (talk) 16:02, 29 March 2017 (UTC)
Agree that it was not a very good ref. But the content is the generally accepted position it appears. The new ref is somewhat better. Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 16:06, 29 March 2017 (UTC)

Student assessement[edit]

Check a few citations. Do the links work? Is there any close paraphrasing or plagiarism in the article? I did not find any broken links or plagiarism or close paraphrasing in this article. It appears to be a well research, well cited article with more information than I thought possible. Is each fact referenced with an appropriate, reliable reference? It does appear there are some facts that do not have a direct source. Some of them are what I would consider "common knowledge" while others, like the last paragraph in the opening section, about lethal caffeine doses, does indeed lack proper citations. This information is properly cited later in the article under the overdose section, so I am not sure if that is adequate or not.Davidjpboyd (talk) 04:17, 5 April 2017 (UTC)

Welcome to Wikipedia. Yes, the lead is supposed to the body so it isn't necessary to reference statements in the lead because they should be already referenced in the body. However, for controversial statements or medical topics this is often done regardless of the general practice. Sizeofint (talk) 22:27, 5 April 2017 (UTC)

Function in Pain Killers - APC[edit]

For a long time aspirin-phenacetin-caffeine compound analgesic, was used as a remedy for fever and pain before phenacetin was banned. (Mentioned in other articles)

Why was caffeine used? 60.242.247.177 (talk) 10:58, 6 April 2017 (UTC)

Googling reveals that caffeine was used to reduce fever as quinine came from a related plant. This may be the real reason rather than pain reduction. These demonstrate some possible not necessarily acceptable sources.

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=pkzx2TeYYT8C&pg=RA3-PA645&lpg=RA3-PA645&dq=fever+reduction+caffeine+quonine&source=bl&ots=LGCL29Ixqg&sig=Xt8vtImiYbQMpLPHc-Z1y0j3DDU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwix8qOk85HTAhUBwLwKHboxB38Q6AEIKzAD#v=onepage&q=fever%20reduction%20caffeine%20quonine&f=false

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=sUEEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=fever+reduction+caffeine+quonine&source=bl&ots=anTEOQwq67&sig=GFoKNQ22tzNVGWBKhcITVH7eBvQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwix8qOk85HTAhUBwLwKHboxB38Q6AEIKTAC#v=onepage&q=fever%20reduction%20caffeine%20quonine&f=false

http://www.botanical-online.com/english/feverremedies.htm This one from 1972 is a claim that caffeine in tea taken with aspirin (known antipyretic) does not reduce fever, but may increase body heat. 60.242.247.177 (talk) 08:32, 7 April 2017 (UTC)

External links modified[edit]

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addiction liability[edit]

I question the 'low - none' evaluation, caffeine has clearly been consumed, and continues to be, at a rate that proves moderate - high levels of addiction. Especially in regards to young adults and 'energy drinks'. Mw110088 (talk) 08:56, 24 May 2017 (UTC)

Can you provide reliable medical sources that contradict the multiple sources which are used in the article which support the classification of the addiction liability of caffeine as "low/none"? Just because someone routinely consumes drinks with caffeine in them, that doesn't mean someone is addicted. Deli nk (talk) 09:47, 24 May 2017 (UTC)
Also keep in mind the distinction between addiction and dependence. Sizeofint (talk) 16:25, 24 May 2017 (UTC)

Semi-protected edit request on 3 June 2017[edit]

Please change ".[6] Nicotine decreases the half-life by 30–50%". In the reference it is stated that smoking decreases the halflife of nicotine, most likely it is the pyrolysis products from smoking that induces the enzymes that metabolises the caffeine not the nicotine itself. So it should be changed to " Smoking decreases the halflife by 30-50%". 109.238.129.170 (talk) 17:48, 3 June 2017 (UTC)

Not done: please provide reliable sources that support the change you want to be made. – Train2104 (t • c) 17:35, 6 June 2017 (UTC)
The reference states that it is smoking and not specifically nicotine. The cited reference is support for the requested change. The addition of nicotine is a bit of original research.JSR (talk) 17:58, 6 June 2017 (UTC)

assorted problems[edit]

  • Addiction - some degree of aversion may actually occur, which? (with?) people preferring placebo
Fixed Sizeofint (talk) 06:11, 14 February 2017 (UTC)
  • Effects of genetics - and beta-1 and beta-2 play roles - beta-1 & beta-2 should be fully identified here (rather than in a following sentence).
  • people with the heterozygote? (heterozygous?) ADR beta-2
  • Beta 2- (is it beta-2, beta2, or beta 2? - be consistent) adrenoceptors are receptors that regulate glycogenolysis, secret? insulin (insulin secretion,?) and intramusculatly transport? (intramuscular transport of? - I doubt the receptor transports insulin or glucose itself) glucose
  • Arg389 homozygotes? (homozygous?) subjects
  • altered norepinephrine (an adrenoceptor agonist) neurotransmission contribute? (contributes?) to
  • Biosynthesis - The text describes chemical synthesis, not biosynthesis.
Fixed It describes both I think, but I have changed the title. Sizeofint (talk) 18:40, 6 June 2017 (UTC)
  • Figure - lab synthesis - where does the nitroso (NO) group come from?
See http://www.umich.edu/~chemh215/CHEM216/HonorsCup/HC%20230-III.pdf. I think that the originator of the graphic forgot a step.JSR (talk) 18:57, 6 June 2017 (UTC)
  • Analogs - have also been elucidated? (identified?).
  • Products - and inhalation? (inhalants?).
  • Caffeine content in select food and drugs - 12 fl. oz. Coca-Cola Classic is listed as 34 mg and 96 mg/L but the same size Guarana Antarctica is given as 30 mg (less) and 100 mg/L (more - inconsistent).

69.72.92.65 (talk) 06:36, 6 February 2017 (UTC)

I've added some bullets to ease parsing. Hope you don't mind. Sizeofint (talk) 07:11, 6 February 2017 (UTC)
     I had started each item on a separate line but the returns were mysteriously deleted when I saved the page. Any idea why and how to prevent this?
          69.72.92.92 (talk) 07:57, 11 February 2017 (UTC)
Wiki markup is often a bit mysterious. For instance, if you insert one or more spaces at the beginning of a new line, standard Wikipedia formatting will be absent from resulting text. (You inserted six spaces above, and look what happened.) To answer your specific question: see Help:Wiki_markup#Line_breaks. RivertorchFIREWATER 07:15, 12 February 2017 (UTC)

Genetic effects on withdrawal symptoms[edit]

The below content from the article is from a master's thesis. It likely does not meet WP:MEDRS or even WP:SCIRS for that matter. Sizeofint (talk) 15:10, 7 June 2017 (UTC)

=====Effect of genetics on withdrawal symptoms=====

Gene polymorphism could be associated with caffeine withdrawal symptoms and beta-1 and beta-2 play roles in caffeine withdrawal.[1] For example, compared to people with homozygous Gly16 allele, people with the heterozygote ADR beta-2 Gly16 Arg gene polymorphism have a higher chance of feeling fatigue after 48 hours of caffeine withdrawal.[1] It has been suspected that beta2- adrenoceptors are the main cause for this increase in mental fatigue symptoms.[1] Beta 2- adrenoceptors are receptors that regulate glycogenolysis, secret insulin and intramuscularly transport glucose that is used for cerebral and muscle activity.[1]

Another example is given by the genes ADRbeta1 Gly16 Arg and CYP1A2-163A>C polymorphisms.[1] They are associated with peoples' mood swings and increased depression level.[1] Among subjects homozygous for the CYP1A2 allele, ADRbeta1 Gly389 allele carriers are reported to have a higher percentage of depression level increase when compared to Arg389 homozygotes subjects.[1] Adrenergic receptors, again, play a key role in this symptom, as altered norepinephrine (an adrenoceptor agonist) neurotransmission contribute to the etiology of depression.[1] This symptom is often seen in faster caffeine metabolizers, because caffeine effects diminish quicker in these people and provide them less opportunity to adapt to caffeine loss.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Day-Tasevski E (6 April 2010). Genetic Determinants of the Acute Effects and Withdrawal Symptoms of Caffeine (MSc Thesis). University of Toronto. hdl:1807/24245. [page needed]

Semi-protected edit request on 19 June 2017[edit]

please change in the article on caffeine Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It is found in the seeds, nuts, or leaves of a number of plants native to South America and East Asia and helps to protect them against predator insects and to prevent germination of nearby seeds. The most well known source of caffeine is the coffee bean, a misnomer for the seed of Coffea plants. Beverages containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve performance. To make these drinks, caffeine is extracted by steeping the plant product in water, a process called infusion. Caffeine-containing drinks, such as coffee, tea, and cola, are very popular; in 2005, 90% of North American adults consumed caffeine daily.[1]


to Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It is found in the seeds, nuts, or leaves of a number of plants native to South America and East Asia and helps to protect them against predator insects and to prevent germination of nearby seeds. Caffeine is stored in the plant material in two places. Firstly, in the cell vacuoles where is t is complexed with polyphenols. This caffeine probably is released into the mouthparts of insects, to dscourage herbivory. Secondly, around the vascular bundles, where it probably inhibits pathogenic fungi from entering and colonising the vascular bundles.[2]

The most well known source of caffeine is the coffee bean, a misnomer for the seed of Coffea plants. Beverages containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve performance. To make these drinks, caffeine is extracted by steeping the plant product in water, a process called infusion. Caffeine-containing drinks, such as coffee, tea, and cola, are very popular; in 2005, 90% of North American adults consumed caffeine daily.[1] Zapostol (talk) 14:25, 19 June 2017 (UTC)

That is probably too much detail for the lead, but I think it is worth adding to the body. Sizeofint (talk) 17:58, 19 June 2017 (UTC)
 Done Added to the natural occurrence section. Sizeofint (talk) 18:13, 19 June 2017 (UTC)

References

  1. ^ a b Lovett R (24 September 2005). "Coffee: The demon drink?". New Scientist (2518). (Subscription required (help)). 
  2. ^ Van Breda, Shane; van der Merwe, Cris; Robbertse, Hanes; Apostolides, Zeno (2013). "Immunohistochemical localization of caffeine in young Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (tea) leaves.". Planta. 237(3): 849–858. doi:10.1007/s00425-012-1804-x – via Springer.