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Hi everybody. I found the chronological separation into periods to be a bit unusual. A first edit was promptly (partially) reverted. Here my arguments for leaving it now as it is. I've put a lot of thought & research into this, will unfortunately not be able to continue the discussion (real life calling), but I do hope there will be some consensus once you read through what I've summed up here.
The "Early Islamic period" ends with the Abbasid caliph being forced to cede almost all of his worldly power around 920. Unless we make a distinction between "Early Caliphate" and "Early Islamic period", there is no reason to revert my edit. Does anybody have a reason for such a distinction? I looked for one and couldn't find any. It's also quite logical, with that event the caliphate as the united empire ruled not just in name by the companions of the Prophet and their descendants, comes to an end. Later attempts at recreating the unity are exactly that - later attempts. The material culture also changed in a substantial way once the Muslims became the majority within the realm around C12, among other factors.
But I looked it up again, and in Iraq the "early" imperial phase, call it however you like, ends without doubt with the Seljuk conquest (1055). In Iran some may go up to the Mongol conquest (c. 1221). In Jordan it's Early C7-11, Middle C12-14, Late(r) C15-20. Many call C10-14 the "Middle Islamic period", others place it (for Jordan for instance) between 1100-1650.
For those who start with other periodisations of the Ottoman Empire as such in mind: the early Ottomans appear in Anatolia in C13; globally, that's Middle Islamic period already, even if it's "early" for the Ottoman Turks. Doesn't contradict a scale designed for the Ottomans only, where "late" maybe only starts with the decline after Vienna II (1683).
I suggest we go broadly with  with some adaptations:
- Early Islamic Period, C7-10
- Middle Islamic Period, C11-15
- Late Islamic Period, C16-20
And since the page is about caliphates, not Islam per se, I see a good reason to apply following chronology:
- Early Islamic Period, C7-10 -- largely united caliphate.
- Parallel caliphates: Fatimids, Iberian caliphates (Umayyads and Almohads).
- Cairo Abbasids -- actual power rests with the Mamluk sultan, but at least the core lands are again united and there is a "caliph" in place.
- Ottomans -- leaving out further chronological distinctions, since the Porte created institutional continuity.
I changed the headings to reflect all this. I hope you can agree with me.
To save you from repeating my own search, see for
- the Levant: The Early Islamic Period in the Levant. 622 Mohammad... until: 1071–1098: Seljuk Turks briefly controlled the Levant before the arrival of the Crusaders. 
- Jerusalem: "Early Islamic Art in Jerusalem" mentions C7 until Fatimids (C10-11) 
- Syria & Iraq: "The transformation from the Early Islamic period to the Middle Islamic era during the 12th to 13th centuries...", "the blossoming in Islamic Syria and Northern Mesopotamia in the middle decades of the 11th century that characterized the Middle Islamic period." 
- Egypt and Syria: FRANK TROMBLEY, Cardiff University. Towns and their Territories in Egypt and Syria: An Interregional Comparison -- ... The paper will concentrate on two regions in Late Antiquity and the early Islamic period (ca . 501-900 C.E.), and DONALD WHITCOMB, The University of Chicago, Archaeology in “The Places where Men Pray Together” -- The study of the historical geography of the early Islamic city was the subject of a comprehensive monograph published in 2001, entitled The Places where Men Pray Together: Cities in Islamic Lands, Seventh through the Tenth Centuries. 
- Asia Minor (I guess): Asa Eger, The Islamic-Byzantine Frontier, p. 264 -- ... Middle Islamic/Middle Byz. period (tenth to fourteents centuries) 
- Arminden thank you appreciate your efforts. I however am going to remove the "Early" categorization now. Because firstly, it is redundant and gives no new information. And secondly, we don't need the "Early" categorization when we already have the natural categorization i.e. Umayyad era, Abbasid era, and Ottoman era, etc. Also, "Abbasid Caliphate under the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo" is more suitable as a subsection of the "Abbasid caliphate". They did not claim a separate line of caliphs from the Abbasids. Also, I am going to change the heading "Parallel caliphates" back to "Parallel caliphates to the Abbasids", and place them under the Abbasid era section. The phrase "Parallel caliphates" on its own without looking at it in the context of the Abbasids is nonsensical. The very reason they had been called "parallel" in the article was because they were parallel to the Abbasids and didn't recognize the Abbasid caliphal authority but instead claimed their own. The Fatimid caliphate, the Umayyad caliphate of Cordoba, and the Almohad caliphate are examples of such caliphates parallel to the Abbasids. Khestwol (talk) 05:38, 11 May 2015 (UTC)
Khestwol, that's a very nice solution for WP. I hope now it stays unchanged. I've learned the hard way that the common denominator for WP needs to be as formally neat as possible. Whoever first created the "early" vs. "later" classification knew Muslim history better than WP realities, and I tried to follow his thought and make it palatable. Nobody connects the Baghdad Abbasids with the Cairo ones (see for instance Britannica ), as little as they see the Vallachian Cantakuzenes as "Byzantine Emperors" just because they were descendant of the latter and some kind of rulers. The Caliphate lost virtually all its political power by C10 and the Abbasids disappeared from their capital Baghdad by 1258 altogether; the fact that some family descendants were used as puppets after that is utterly irrelevant and historically similar to the still-Umayyad "caliphate" of Cordoba: no significance to the much wider Muslim world, just a dynastic ambition. Same as the "emperor" of Byzantium at the time of the fall of Constantinople: kept the title while his "empire" was little larger than a single city. But putting more than strictly FORMAL information into the structure/classification of an article on WP will not stay unchallenged and seems to be an ultimately useless effort, it's an attempt at adding elements of analysis (quality of the Caliphate) to a plain enumeration of chronological facts (quantitative list). This is of course unacceptable for a real encyclopaedia like, say, the printed Britannica, but we're talking WP where consensus is the ultimate criterion. Democracy and academic knowledge don't mix, and WP has chosen the former.
I wouldn't though apply the "stay strictly formal" criterion to the "spiritual caliphates": that is a standard term quoted in Arabic, khilafah ruhaniyyah, so interpretations like "all caliphates claim to be spiritual", is not holding water. Existing terminology should be respected, or we're in trouble - more exactly, in Babylon, where everybody is making his own language according to logic - their own. Most Britons are in no way Britons (Celtic people), and the French are not Germanic Franks, Roman Catholics are not recognised as such (kata holos, universal) by any other Christian denomination, same as the Orthodox (ortho-doxos, having the right faith) etc., but nobody challenges the validity of the terms. That's why humanities and exact sciences don't mix well: "pure" logic doesn't apply.
- I oppose the "(1362/1517–1924)" for Ottomans ; there's still no consensus for the 1362 (see Neil's comments : they claimed the Caliphate, that doesn't make their claim accepted by any population except Ottoman Turcs). --Omar-toons (talk) 16:27, 11 May 2015 (UTC)
- Why are u anti Ottoman? Khestwol (talk) 16:37, 11 May 2015 (UTC)
- Sorry... what? Can you please keep your accusations for smbd else... somewhere else?
- The fact is that no one recognized Ottomans as Caliphs before 1517 , the same way Mughals, Marinids, Hafsids and Saadians aren't listed as Caliphs because people didn't recognize them outside of their borders when they claimed the title. --Omar-toons (talk) 23:23, 11 May 2015 (UTC)
- Why are u anti Ottoman? Khestwol (talk) 16:37, 11 May 2015 (UTC)
Folks, history isn't a matter of WP editors' consensus. Read some articles from real encyclopaedias, history books, whatever, but smth. with a real base of knowledge behind it. The family name of a puppet installed by an all-powerful sultan doesn't make a caliphate. It's not up to a group of nice people agreeing with each other to declare caliphates retroactively. WP declared it's not about "truth" because that's a subjective term, not because it's about rediscussing historic realities/hist. truth. This is NOT an exercise in democracy.Arminden (talk) 00:57, 12 May 2015 (UTC)Arminden
The article has a section "Spiritual caliphates". This however is not a clear title for the section, because each of the caliphates mentioned in the article has claimed to be spiritual. Hence "spirituality" is not only exclusive to the 3 caliphates mentioned in that section. Perhaps that title can be changed to something like "Non-political caliphates", because such a title will be accurate and give more information about the section. Khestwol (talk) 06:14, 11 May 2015 (UTC)
Please discuss Template talk:Caliphate#New template
Why is Islamic State of Iraq and Levant considered a cilaphate despite being a terrorist organization? Roshu 01:50, 16 September 2015 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Roshu Bangal (talk • contribs)