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Regarding the use of the circumflex in Portuguese, it is said to mark "roundedness" of a word. Where does this information come from, originally? As a native Portuguese speaker, I had never heard of the circumflex as denoting roundedness, denoting rather closedness, much the same as the French acute accent. However, seeing that diacritics in general in Portuguese are "skewed", I'm uncertain if this sort of information has a historical backing.--Wtrmute 18:46, 24 Mar 2005 (UTC)

You are quite right, Wtrmute. in Portuguese, the circumflex indicates a close-mid vowel, or a central vowel. I have corrected this in the article. S.V., 15 Nov 2005.


And the large diagram with the capital A's are all wearing inverted circumflexes. Please fix this someone! Nuttyskin 23:04, 22 August 2006 (UTC)

Disambiguation with Caret[edit]

Someone should disambig Cirumflex and Caret. ^ redirects here, but the caret is often used for exponents when superscripts aren't available; e.g., 5^2=25. Archola 28 August 2005

What's Naliuhn?[edit]

This is mentioned in this article, but the only Google result for it is this article another one Google with a list of languages. Maybe it was vandalism? --Awiseman 02:25, 11 June 2006 (UTC)

Looks like it: Removed. Mucky Duck 12:28, 31 July 2006 (UTC)

New Orleans?[edit]

The intro says it's used in the dialect of American English around New Orleans. Does anyone have more info on this? Is it just the legacy of the French influence in that area? I didn't know dialects of English ever had standardised written variations. Rojomoke 09:57, 9 August 2006 (UTC)

Sounds like a complete lkoad of B.S. to me. --Nelson Ricardo 00:40, 10 September 2006 (UTC)


Norwegian alphabet don't used or rarely used this diacritic signal. In the Portuguese language uses a sign in â, ê an ô. Rarely used in î or û. -- 21:47, 1 February 2007 (UTC)

Dutch and Frisian[edit]

As native Dutch and Frisian speaker I would like to share my information about this subject. In the article is written that the circumflex is used in Dutch, but it's used exceptionally in Dutch and can only be used on the 'e'. I suggest this to be added to the article.

The article is also mentioning Frisian, but doesn't add any additional information about the usage of the circonflex in Frisian while the circonflex is used often in Frisian. In Frisian it appears on the 'a', 'u', 'o', 'i', and 'e'.

  • On the 'a', 'o', 'e' to indicate an open vowel.
  • On the 'u' it's used to change its sound to 'u' as in German 'gut'.
  • According to the Frisian wikipedia also the 'î' is used, but I don't know when and where. If it's used at all it is used very rare and probably only in some dialects. If it's used it probably is used as 'ay' in the English word 'day'.


I noticed in the article on Aleut that ĝ and x̂ are used, but neither there nor here are they explained. Anyone? — Michael J 05:37, 7 November 2007 (UTC)


Despite them appearing in the sidebar list, there's no mention of circumflex-below in the article (Ḓ ḓ Ḙ ḙ Ḽ ḽ Ṋ ṋ Ṱ ṱ Ṷ ṷ), apparently used in Bantu languages (particularly Venda) for dental and labiodental consonants.

Does anyone know enough to expand that into a useful paragraph to add to the language? — OwenBlacker (Talk) 20:44, 9 January 2008 (UTC)

What letter??[edit]

The ~ above the Spanish n arose from another n. The double-dot above a, o, or u arose from an e. The ring above a Swedish a arose from an a. What letter did this symbol arise from?? Georgia guy (talk) 15:52, 31 August 2008 (UTC)

As currently explained in the "Pitch" section, the circumflex is originally a combination of the Greek acute accent and grave accent. – Simo Kaupinmäki (talk) 17:56, 15 September 2012 (UTC)

Strange use in Latin words[edit]

What's with the use of the circumflex in primâ facie? It is used in the Henry Burton (Puritan) article, and in this Russell edition they even added it (also à priori). Is it a replacement for a macron? Or a gallicism? -- (talk) 05:20, 4 December 2009 (UTC)

In both of those examples, the circumflex and grave accent are placed on long vowels, like macrons. But not all long vowels are marked; the completely marked forms would be prīmā faciē, ā priōrī. The ablative ending of prīmā was marked in Medieval Latin more than other long vowels, because it would be identical with the nominative (prīma) if it weren't marked.

I don't get why the à priori has a grave accent, though. Probably it's imitating French, as you say. — Eru·tuon 21:22, 23 January 2011 (UTC)

Medieval Latin (and Reinassance)[edit]

I’m pretty much sure that the curcumflex accent was used to signal the long vowels in latin, especially in those words what would become ambiguous without some kind of accent. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 18:12, 3 August 2011 (UTC)

Colloquial names[edit]

Could these be added (since Welsh has a colloquial term): "Chinese hat" in English, "Dach" in German? Also mention of its use in English (although all [?] loanwords from French): rôle (alternative spelling, not italic in SOED). (talk) 09:11, 4 February 2010 (UTC)

Changes to intro. section[edit]

It seems like the second and third paragraph of the intro section should be relocated to its own subcategory. The information contained is about inserting those diacritic marks onto charicters on a computer system. The information is good but just seems to be placed improperly. Your opinions? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Mgardner19 (talkcontribs) 02:35, 1 December 2011 (UTC)

Agreed. I have moved the technical information concerning computer character sets to the end of the article. I have also tried to organize the "Uses" section in a more logical way. – Simo Kaupinmäki (talk) 17:40, 15 September 2012 (UTC)

Greek circumflex[edit]

In the example, why is the circumflex used in its tilde-like form in "νοῦς", then used in its modern form in "noûs", which is the transliteration of the former? Entries of Ancient Greek words in Wiktionary have the same pattern. ZFT (talk) 16:48, 3 September 2015 (UTC)

It's just a font difference. In the font you and I have, the Greek circumflex has the tilde form, but the Latin circumflex has the classic circumflex form. Perhaps there are fonts where the Greek circumflex has the typical circumflex form, but it would be too difficult to force Greek text to display in those fonts and not the tilde-circumflex fonts. — Eru·tuon 23:47, 3 September 2015 (UTC)

Use in Kurdish[edit]

I know it is used in (some varieties?) of Kurdish for marking a long vowel, so once I find a source I'll add that. I thought it was already here, but I must be misremembering. Auvon (talk) 08:10, 26 November 2016 (UTC)

@Auvon: There's some information at Kurdish alphabets which shows the Hawar alphabet as having 5 additional letters from the basic Latin, including E, I, & U with circumflexes, and a Universal Kurdish alphabet which extends this further (but not with additional circumflexes). Hope this helps. - Ryk72 'c.s.n.s.' 09:23, 26 November 2016 (UTC)
Thanks! I found a reference for use in Kurmanji. Auvon (talk) 20:38, 26 November 2016 (UTC)

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