Talk:Community policing

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Not neighborhood watch[edit]

Community policing is not at all the same thing as neighborhood watch. Community policing is a police department strategy that has police officers establish community ties in order to better serve the community. Warren Dew (talk) 19:01, 7 February 2013 (UTC)

Geographic focus[edit]

What about adding a section to do with geographic focus. Community policing often assigns patrol officers to a specific area for extended periods of time to increase familiarity with the community. Oliviashaw (talk) 17:26, 26 September 2014 (UTC)

Defining Community Policing[edit]

There is no universally accepted definition of community policing however can commonly be descried as:

"Community policing is a philosophy of full service personalized policing, where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems."

—Bertus Ferreira[1]

Community policing was derived out of the “Broken Window” theory; which suggested that since a broken window is not against the law then it would be ignored by the “professional” police officer. However, it is an indicator of social disorganization, and therefore requires the attention of the community-orientated officer. There have been multiple experiments, such as the Flint, Michigan experiment involving foot patrol officers be assigned to a specific geographic area to help reduce crime in hot spots. Many community-oriented police structures focus on assigning officers to a specific area called a “beat” and having those officers become familiar with the that area or beat through a process of “beat profiling.” The officers are then taught how to design specific patrol strategies to deal with the types of crime that are experienced in that beat.[2]

Community policing is a professional management organization that is structure for the support in the community to create proactive problem solving to address the immediate conditions that give rise to the public safety issues such as crime, social disorder and fear of crime. Community policing has partnerships between law enforcement agency and other organizations like government agencies, community members, nonprofit service providers, private businesses and the media. Government agencies includes probation and parole, public works departments, neighboring law enforcement agencies, health and human services, child support services, ordinance enforcement, and schools. Community members can include partnerships with neighborhood association that has meetings, town hall meetings and storefronts decentralized in the community. Nonprofit organizations includes advocacy of groups like service clubs, support groups, issue groups and community development corporations. These groups work with individuals that have the same interest in the community. Private Businesses have a bigger impact on the community from the health perspective. Private Businesses often identify problems that provide the resources which can include security technology for the community. The media represents a powerful pattern by which it can communicate with the community. The community policing uses the media to assist with publicizing concerns and solutions that will impact the community. The media can have an impact on the fear of crime, crime problems and perceptions of the police in the community. Community policing recognizes that police can’t solve every public safety problem alone so interactive partnerships are involved. The policing uses the public for developing problem solving solutions. Ashton22 (talk) 04:09, 1 December 2014 (UTC)

Many common elements in community-oriented policing include:

°Relying on community-based crime prevention by utilizing citizen education, neighborhood watch, and a variety of other techniques, as opposed to relying solely on police patrols.

°Re-structuralizing of patrol from an emergency response based system to emphasizing proactive techniques such as foot patrol.

°Increased officer accountability to citizens they are supposed to serve.

°Decentralizing the police authority, allowing more discretion amongst lower-ranking officers, and more initiative expected from them. Oliviashaw (talk) 04:43, 26 November 2014 (UTC)

Traditional Compared to Community Policing[edit]

Traditional policing is generally concerned with solving crimes with the most value, responding to incidents swiftly, and clearing calls. Many officers working busy shifts only have time to respond to and clear 911 calls. In contrast community policing is concerned with solving the crimes that the community is concerned about, and solving citizens concerns by working with and gaining support from the community. They get in touch with the community in a variety of ways including: polls or surveys, town meetings, call-in programs, and meeting with interest groups. [3]

Oliviashaw (talk) 17:52, 10 October 2014 (UTC)

Role of Policing[edit]

Role of police is one aspect of behavior that is emphasized into different perception. This role indicates local police officers agencies to respond to hostile environments. Law enforcement agencies perceive themselves as the protectors of communities and also the victims of a serious crimes. The role of police has major factors that can determine the role of an police officer. The factors are police discretion and the police use of force. Police discretion is the decision to make choices based on the current situation and environment that the officer is in. Police use of force is the amount of effort required by the officer towards the subject in a physical or verbal restraint. Police use those basic tactics to ensure the complete safety of the public or others from harm or death in a certain situation . Police officers are determine to find positive and negative effects of their presence in local police agencies. The work overload is to be found really high in the work place which causes high amounts of stress as a police officer. The heath aspect of policing is impacted heavily on the strong relations with stress in the work environment as a police officer. The policing profession is also associated with mental and physical hazard. Fatigue and burnout often are large factors that affects police officers. The relationship between fatigue and burnout are often connected to negative emotions. The positive emotions of police is less known because of the intensity work of being a police officer. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Ashton22 (talkcontribs) 02:45, 1 December 2014 (UTC)

Evaluating Community Policing[edit]

Determining whether or not community policing is effective or not is a whole different dilemma. For traditional policing determining whether police or policies are effective or not may be done by evaluating the crime rate for a geographic area. A crime rate is determined by using the Unified crime reporting system (UCRS), which is an index of crimes reported to the police. Community policing is more complicated than simply comparing crime rates. Due to the fact that there is no universally accepted definition of community policing and policies vary widely between departments there is also no universally accepted criteria for evaluating community policing. However there are some commonly used structures. One possible way to determine whether or not community policing is effective in an area is for officers and key members of the community to set a specific mission and goals when starting out. Once specific goals are set, participation at every level is essential in obtaining commitment and achieving goals. Street-level officers, supervisors, executives, and the entire community should feel the goals represent what they want their police department to accomplish. Objectives and goals should be reevaluated periodically to determine what progress the department and officers have made; along with whether or not those same goals are important to the community. Oliviashaw (talk) 02:23, 25 November 2014 (UTC)

Sources for Community policing[edit]

Sources that are compatible

Adams, R.E. , Rohe, W.M. and Arcury, T.A. (2002), “Implementing community oriented policing: organizational change and street officer attitudes”, Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 48 No. 3, pp. 399-430 { user: Ashton22 }

Crank, John P., Rebecca K. Murray, Dawn M. Irlbeck, and Mark T. Sundermeier. Mission-based Policing. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2012. Print.

More, Harry W. Special Topics in Policing. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Pub., 1992. Print. Oliviashaw (talk) 00:55, 4 October 2014 (UTC)

Suggestions for revisions[edit]

The new section on comparing community policing to traditional policing complies with Wikipedia rules. The first reference isn't correctly linked, so that should be fixed. Potential new sections might be: advantages and disadvantages of community policing relative to traditional policing, the history of community policing, and research on the effects of community policing on various outcomes such as crime rates, citizen trust in police, and fear of crime. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) have put out a few reports about community policing and that might also be helpful for expanding the pageProfmwilliams (talk) 17:29, 6 November 2014 (UTC).

Peer Review[edit]

This is a good section but is a little confusing in the wording. I also think it hits on a lot of points that would be good to expand, especially the final line. There also just is not a lot of information yet. Tthompson70381 (talk) 02:21, 7 November 2014 (UTC)

New Sources[edit]

Gayadeen, S. M., & Phillips, S. W. (2014). The innovation of community policing and the COPS Office: does diffusion of innovation theory hold in a manipulated environment?. International Journal Of Police Science & Management, 16(3), 228-242. doi:10.1350/ijps.2014.16.3.342

Colvin, C. A., & Goh, A. (2006). Elements Underlying Community Policing: Validation of the Construct. Police Practice & Research, 7(1), 19-33. doi:10.1080/15614260600579599

Greene, J. (2000). Community Policing in America: Changing the Nature, Structure, and Function of the Police. Criminal Justice 2000, 3, 299-370. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from SyndicateOlson (talk) 17:22, 13 February 2015 (UTC)

Suggested improvements[edit]

Community alienation among police officers and its effect on community policing

This section needs to have more explanation on how the alienation among police officers actually effects community policing.

SyndicateOlson (talk) 19:47, 4 March 2015 (UTC)

I think the definition of "mastery" is a little unclear and might be a direct quote. I suggest rewording or removing it.MikeTOwen (talk) 03:01, 6 March 2015 (UTC)

Long prose removed from article[edit]

Removed the following text from the bottom of the article. Whizz40 (talk) 05:19, 1 May 2015 (UTC)

THIS SECTION IS MISPLACED AND SHOULD BE SUMMARIZED---PLEASE HELP!!-----------------------------------------------

Effect of Community Policing To the Role of Policing Supervisor Name: Course: Number: Date:   Effect of Community Policing To the Role of Policing Supervisor The evolution in the fight against crime within our societies has led to the establishment and the changing of the policing departments as well as the formation and implementation of the community policing systems. Community policing has become a value system that effectively brings together the policing department (traditional model), and individual citizens, communities, public and private organizations in the process of identifying and resolving security issues such as fighting crime within communities. Many a time’s community policing has been misunderstood, as it has brought a different approach to the policing aspect within the communities. This paper looks into how the system or the aspect of community policing has affected the role of policing supervisor in the society as well as in the process of maintaining security and fighting crime, in comparison with the tradition policing model (Alarid & Montemayor, 2012). Community policing has brought along different approach to the aspect of policing both to the supervisors and the police workforce personnel’s. The traditional role of the policing supervisors has involved the supervisors managing police officers who have undergone training in the field of providing security to the people, and the community at large. The aspect of community policing has brought other parties into the fight against crime in the society. This includes the public, private and public organizations as well as other inclusive personnel’s. In other words, they become Human Relations manager as they have to manage the different groups that contribute to the wellbeing of the security system (Rosenberg, Sigler & Lewis, 2008). Unlike the traditional role, the police managers were only mandated to manage the police officers from the station assigned. This has undergone evolution to involve other relevant parties as defined by community policing. Community-based police subdivisions identify the fact that the police cannot effectively deal with such issues alone, and must partner with others who share a mutual responsibility for resolving problems. Community policing stresses prevention, early identification, and timely intervention to deal with issues before they become unwieldy problems. This has in turn led to the change in the scope of the functions of the police supervisors to identify and implement the effective working relationship between the relevant contributing departments. The supervisors are hence required to implement the most appropriate mechanism of management and equipping them for their tasks within a tight performance and accountability framework for fostering better policing (Rosenberg, Sigler & Lewis, 2008). On the other hand the aspect of community policing has changed the scope of police supervises to include training and coordination of the relevant parties in the implementation of security to the society. It’s the role of the police supervisor to ensure the community is educated on the functions of each group towards effective achievement of the objectives at hand. Thus, this has greatly impacted the magnitude of the role of supervisory. He acts as the coordinating tool to make sure investigations are carried out effectively, and within the law. He assigns each of the involved parties in the aspect of community policing (Palmiotto, 1999). Community policing has brought along has led to the adoption of transactional and transformational leadership styles in order to have successful functionality of the different elements involved. Finally, the community policing aspect has changed the policing role form crime fighting orienting to the focusing on livability. Problem solving and community policing has also contributed to the changing of the aspect of role of police supervisor towards security maintenance. Policing habitually has been case-oriented and incident-driven, and it has depended on primarily or entirely on the actual or threatened use of officers’ coercive authority. On the other hand, community policing has approached the security aspect from a ‘problem solving’, point of view. This in turn is an essential module of community policing that involves the identification and scrutiny of problems. Thus, the implementation of community policing and problem solving calls for officers not only to perform old tasks in new ways, but to perform substantially new tasks as well. As a result, the shift to problem-oriented policing is truly paradigmatic in nature (Palmiotto, 1999). The transitional, from the traditional aspect of policing to the community based policing approach the roles of every department in the policing departments has equally evolved in order to accommodate the different partners in the security aspects. The role of the police supervisors has undergone changes in order to accommodate the definition or the approach defined by the aspect of community policing. Community policing has been implemented to focus on social disorder, and crime through the delivery of police services that entails the traditional law enforcement approach as well as the community engagement, prevention, and problem solving as defined by the community policing approaches. The roles of the police supervisor have evolved to fit into the structures and the demands of the community policing approach, such as addressing the causes of crime I a society rather than combating the criminals once the crime has been experienced (Correia & Jenks, 2011). Conclusion

Although many constraining influences on the role of police supervisors' attitudes and actions, they mainly are responsible for the fulfillment of their organizations' missions, ensuring their subordinates' productivity and producing impacts in their jobs. The implementation of community policing has brought a diverse approach to the roles of policing supervisor. The evolution caused by the adoption of the community policing aspect has brought along changes to the roles of the relevant people towards implementation of the police duties in the communities. Community policing as identified above, has brought along a different approach to the idea of policing, turning the supervisors from commanders to managers of the different elements that implements security in the society. One major impact is the changing of the policing leaders from autocratic oriented to transitional leaders.

  1. ^ Bertus, Ferreira. The Use and Effectiveness of Community Policing in a Democracy . Prod. National Insitute of Justice. Washington, D.C,, 1996.
  2. ^ Watson, Elizabeth M, Alfred R Stone and Stuart M DeLuca. Strategies for Community Policing. Print. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall Inc, 1998.
  3. ^ More, Harry W. Special Topics in Policing. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Pub., 1992. Print.