Talk:Contrasting and categorization of emotions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
WikiProject Psychology (Rated Start-class, Mid-importance)
WikiProject icon This article is within the scope of WikiProject Psychology, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of Psychology on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.
Start-Class article Start  This article has been rated as Start-Class on the project's quality scale.
 Mid  This article has been rated as Mid-importance on the project's importance scale.
WikiProject Cognitive science (Rated List-class, Low-importance)
WikiProject icon This article is within the scope of WikiProject Cognitive science, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of Cognitive science on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.
 List  This article has been rated as List-Class on the project's quality scale.
 Low  This article has been rated as Low-importance on the project's importance scale.


Constipation as an emotion? Are you sure? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 04:28, 18 June 2008 (UTC)


Where are the face images that correspond to the emotions? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:42, 9 August 2010 (UTC)

This page is a mess[edit]

This page is a mess -- many of these things are not emotions, and are synonyms. I have attempted to move the synonyms into a section, and remove those which are not strictly emotions (rapture, repentance). --dsm iv tr 11:25, 25 June 2006 (UTC)

I agree with DSM IV TR on this matter. I always understood emotion to be tied to physiological responses in the brain. It has been taught ubiquitously in textbooks that the 6 basic human emotions are happiness, saddness, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise. In the neurobiology of emotion, the emotions listed are "agreement, amusement, anger, certainty, control, disagreement, disgust, disliking, embarrassment, fear, guilt, happiness, hate, interest, liking, love, sadness, shame, surprise, and uncertainty." It also states: "Emotions are mammalian elaborations of vertebrate arousal patterns, in which neurochemicals (e.g., dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) step-up or step-down the brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures, and postures."
My question is: why are there 2 or 3 lists in this article (like the one at the top from Aristotle's Rhetoric) that have little to no scientific backing, while other, more accurate lists of emotions are not included in this article? I propose that we first list the basic 6 (as it's agreed upon by many neurobiologists and psychologists), and then list others from the neurobiology of emotion. We can then follow with other, less scientifically accepted lists. Thoughts anyone?

--Ubiq 08:00, 26 December 2006 (UTC)

It's a start! It's definitely a start!  :) —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 05:30, 22 September 2007 (UTC)

This article, and the article on Emotions, linked to in Ubiq's quote, doesn't list uncertainty, confusion or indecisiveness. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 21:57, 26 June 2011 (UTC)


I studied Maslow heirarchy of needs. Everybody has a very basic need for security and comfort. Not just having a physical place but an emotional place, a feeling place. Self centeredness and fear...

Needs some Ekman[edit]

The most commonly cited list of emotions is that defined by Paul Ekman. It's not perfect, but it's notable enough to be here. matturn 02:32, 7 October 2005 (UTC)


"Synonyms (in ancient Greek syn 'συν' = plus and onoma 'όνομα' = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings and are interchangeable."

Synonyms are words. If one word is a synonym for another word that happens to represent an emotion, then that first word also represents the same emotion. Words are just representations of things, not the things themselves. The section, Synonyms for common emotions doesn't really even make sense! SHysterical.gif ← (another representation of an emotion) If a word on this list really isn't an emotion, then it should just be deleted (hopefully with some defensible justification). SNive.gif Rfrisbietalk 13:43, 25 June 2006 (UTC)

Many of these words are simply not emotions in and of themselves, but are used mistakenly, describing the intensity of an emotion rather than the emotion itself, which may or may not be as strong as the speaker intends. Take angst, as an a example. Webster's online dictionary claims it to be, generally, "a feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or insecurity" (definition), whereas dread (definition) is "to feel extreme reluctance to meet or face". They differ in magnitude. Trepidation is closer to apprehension than to fear, and is also used in this way. I felt at the time that it was best to describe them as synonyms, since they are used so frequently as such. Meanwhile, I have noticed that glad and happy appear to be as you described, and will gladly (pardon the pun) move "glad" back into the fray. Perhaps you or someone else can suggest a different approach to this section? A separate page (not on the list of emotions), maybe? Thank you! --dsm iv tr 03:11, 26 June 2006 (UTC)

I agree with Dsm, dread and agnst are not synonyms. Also rfrisbie has a point I want to amplify: when it comes to emotions there usually are no synonyms; we have two words because they are subtly different. Finally, I think inspiration, in the sense of being inspired by something, is an emotion, something similar to awe.--simon

What is the name for this emotion?[edit]

What is the name for the emotion felt when seeing a famous person make a fatal mistake. For example, when a star from another medium melts down on live TV. It's partly fascination (also missing from this article), but something else as well. It's not schadenfreude, because you're not necessarily glad to see the person fall, but you're drawn to the spectacle. Sometimes people say "like watching a train wreck."

I'd call that attentive vicarious embarassment. :) --Ubiq 00:06, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Empathic people sometimes refer to vicarious embarrassment as 'the dumbchills'. Strong empaths, like INFJs (in the MBTI system) seem to feel more distress watching someone being humiliated than the person who actually experiences the humiliation. Ninquerinquar 19:05, 27 June 2007 (UTC)

It is hard to answer your question posed as it is because each and every person who attempts to connect with you or with the famous person must first look inside themselves and ask; what emotion would I be feeling? There are many who would be confused as to how to even begin to answer that question, and many more who would “think” their way into an answer rather than connecting compassionately/empathically, and there would still be a number of people who would have vastly differing points of view on other aspects. As there is no picture to show the emotion on the face of the person in question, we must now guess based on subjective reasoning and attempts at objective visualization on the basis of personal experience and awareness. The simplest or most accurate answer to the question posed is - there is no one or other emotion that is more or less valid, there are many possible emotions all of which are appropriate given the specific source (or lack thereof with regard to visible observable data). If the source is an animal the “feeling” associated could be either fear or excitement, depending on what need the animal is trying to meet at that given time; if a plant it may be feeling cramped (in need of change); if human, well again, that depends on the needs that person is experiencing and their perceptions (to date) of the world and their own needs in relation to the perceived ability of the interactions to meet those needs adequately. If you are seeking to grow your own emotional vocabulary in order to define for yourself what your emotion would be either in such an event or in relation to such an action there is a set of books that you could look into that may also help you to expand on your awareness, alongside the occupational books by Ekman. Look into Marshall Rosenberg's Nonviolent/Compassionate Communication which starts with the basics of Ekman’s specifics and teaches from that point a way to re-organize ourselves within our frameworks (understand ourselves more lovingly, compassionately, completely and deeply). If you choose to look into the course get the Handbook and Guide together as starting points, or the flashcards, also consider getting a notebook or journal in which to write down any thoughts you have as your read in order to help yourself visually record and thereby suspend your thinking (learn) on the pages of the journal. My next step, research the basic emotions and their offspring, as well as Maslow’s and many others’ perspectives and understanding’s of needs for yourself; get in touch with your awareness, meditate (if you prefer), on what you see and know from the perspective of a camera taking pictures – be your own scientific project in understanding the condition of human “being / doing / humanity / equal.” I hope you are able in my answer to find what you are looking for. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:33, 2 May 2013 (UTC)

Timidity goes to the wrong article[edit]

The Timidity link goes to the wrong article.

Nothing matched so I removed the link. Rfrisbietalk 13:43, 14 November 2006 (UTC)


looks like the alphabetical list that is supposed to include all the emotions listed above does not.

wonder, awe?[edit]

i was curious as to whether wonder and/or awe are considered emotions. wonder appears on one list, awe on none. are there any other lists of emotions not yet included that do include awe?


I think this is being given prominence out of all proportion to Lojban's significance. Most people have never heard of Lojban, so to give it a whole section (with no explanation!) quite high up the article seems close to absurd. 03:43, 24 July 2007 (UTC)

It currently links to Logjam, a Minnesota festival. I will correct it to Lojban, the language. ADyuaa (talk) 21:21, 9 January 2008 (UTC)

Editing the emotions section of the Psychology Project[edit]

The content of this section was moved to Wikipedia:WikiProject_Psychology/Emotion, where it belongs... You may go there if you please. Robert Daoust 02:01, 29 August 2007 (UTC)

Annoncing a request for renaming category emotion[edit]

I made a request for renaming Category:Emotion to Category:Affective states and processes. You are invited to share your thoughts on the matter at Wikipedia:Categories_for_discussion/Log/2007_September_12 --Robert Daoust 03:31, 12 September 2007 (UTC)

It appears that such a renaming is unacceptable. People want to keep the term emotion as a category. Then, this means one of two alternatives: (1) category emotion includes all affective topics, (2) category emotion is reserved for 'strong' feelings. Alternative (1) is the present problematic situation. Alternative (2) seems to me the way to go for a solution, but the problem of naming and organizing the category 'all affective topics' will require another initiative than mine. --Robert Daoust 18:13, 13 September 2007 (UTC)

Why add phobia?[edit]

Why add "phobia" to the list, considering that fear is already on the list? In fact, "phobia" isn't even an emotion - it's strictly a verb, never a noun, and is a fear of something in particular. You can feel fear, but you can't feel phobia. This page is a mess. It really should be started from scratch - fixing this wreck would just take more work. I think the problem with this page is that there are so many emotions, and many are a blend of other emotions. There are also several emotions that don't even have names. "Emotions" is too broad of a topic to create a single page without becoming a mess. Sorry for the doubt, but...seriously.

How to clean up this page[edit]

I have an idea on how to clean up this page! I don't know how else to suggest it, so I'm just posting it on this page. What if the "List of Emotions" page was strictly an alphebetical list of emotions - giving no information on each emotion, no confusing charts, no Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions, etc. There could just be links to each emotion, and the emotion's personal page can include all the information on that emotion. Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions, etc could also have its own page. Of course, there will still be disagreements about whether something is or isn't an emotion, but that comes with the territory of such a broad, abstract topic. A basic list would be much less messy. Anyone think this is a good idea???

A suggestion for how to use this page[edit]

Why not give examples of emotions used in the arts. I will use "Pride" as an example.

An example of "Pride"

In the musical Oklahoma!, Curly is infatuated with Laurey, and Laurey is infatuated with Curly. But, they are both too proud to admit to each other that they love each other. They are even to proud to let anyone else know how they feel for each other.

An example of the opposite of "Pride" could be: In the musical Oklahoma!, Will Parker has returned early from his trip to Kansas City telling everyone he won fifty dollars so he can marry his girlfriend Ado Annie. But he spent it all on presents for Ado Annie and her father. He shows off all the presents to everyone. Meanwhile, his girlfriend who can't say no to other men has gotten herself engaged to a peddler who only just flirted with her.

I think a page like this would be a great idea. I hope you agree. Darlinginmyfashion 07:38, 30 September 2007 (UTC)

A semantic atlas of emotional concepts[edit]

The paper by Averill, J.R. (1975) “A semantic atlas of emotional concepts”, JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA, Vol. 5, No. 330, pp.1-64 (Ms No. 1103) analyzes 558 terms referring to emotional concepts. Appendix “B” of the paper lists these terms in decreasing order of emotional relevance. This paper may provide a valuable resource for this page. I have a copy of it (from the author) but I don not know the release status of the paper. There are some extracts from it are on-line at: --Lbeaumont 02:36, 30 October 2007 (UTC)

Original research and notability[edit]

I just wanted to offer my opinion that having people come up with their own lists of emotions looks to me like original research. I sort of like the way the article doesn't try to give an exhaustive list of emotions, but merely records what various psychologists have listed. I think this is the proper way to go as long as the criteria of notability is held in check. So yes, Aristotle and the Stoics are notable enough to be included, even if people believe that they have been scientifically superceded (this should be mentioned if it can be verified). I'd also include Spinoza for that matter and any other notable psychologists (does Freud list emotions at some point?).

Also, emotions that have been significantly studied or critiqued should be listed in a separate list, again keeping in mind the criteria of no original research and notability. For instance, pity should be included as many different and notable philosophers have written about pity, even if it didn't show up on anyone's list of emotions (which it does, so this probably isn't the best example).

And at the end, perhaps in a list of "Other emotions", links should be given to emotions that Wikipedia has full (non-stub) articles on that aren't in the rest of the list.

You guys really shouldn't be arguing about what is or isn't an emotion as such arguments really have nothing to do with what should be in this article. Do your armchair philosophy/psychology elsewhere :)

Kevin (talk) 23:58, 22 December 2007 (UTC)


from Also, this table as it was copied into the article was wikified in a lame way; for example Zest; why make the word zest a wiki link it has nada to do with soap nor lemon rinds in this context. beh. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 18:42, 4 January 2009 (UTC)


Is pleasure considered an emotion? Should it be listed?Smallman12q (talk) 18:48, 16 February 2009 (UTC)

hi guys - think it would be helpful to list emotions from what feels 'good' to what feels 'bad' - (obviously everyone will have their own unique sense of each but we can get a useful order)

this way - people can use the list to feel better if they want

i do this myself - it can really help to know where you are going xxx —Preceding unsigned comment added by Wantingtobehelpful (talkcontribs) 07:32, 17 February 2009 (UTC)

knowing where u r going :-)[edit]

hi guys - think it would be helpful to list emotions from what feels 'good' to what feels 'bad' - (obviously everyone will have their own unique sense of each but we can get a useful order)

this way - people can use the list to feel better if they want

i do this myself - it can really help to know where you are going xxx

Retrieved from "" —Preceding unsigned comment added by Wantingtobehelpful (talkcontribs) 07:35, 17 February 2009 (UTC)

1980 or 1958?[edit]

On this page it states "Robert Plutchik created a wheel of emotions in 1980", but on the Plutchik page -- Robert_Plutchik -- it states "Plutchik first proposed his cone-shaped model (3D) or the wheel model (2D) in 1958". Does anybody know which date is correct? Reidlophile (talk) 00:03, 17 January 2010 (UTC)

Probably an evolving model, with the 1980 version being the final version. Arnoutf (talk) 16:48, 6 March 2010 (UTC)


I note that Schadenfraude and Saudade are listed as emotions, but Hiraeth isn't. There isn't a direct translation for this Welsh word, but essentially, Hiraeth is a feeling of longing or yearning for home experienced by the people of Wales. Homesickness does not adequately convey what Hiraeth is, unfortunately. And to that end, I feel that a separate category would be desirable. --Monkeynuts2008 (talk) 10:54, 8 March 2010 (UTC)

Actually neither is listed on this page. These "emotions" are listed inside the Template:Emotion-footer so you should take your point there. Arnoutf (talk) 18:20, 8 March 2010 (UTC)

Emotions, desire, thoughts[edit]

Jealousy; hate; lust; greed and anger seem to be the five basic emotions from which all other tones of emotions sprout, combined with a desire for either liking or disliking an emotion or object. The combination of emotional qualities and sensory perceptions at any given moment, plays the major role in creating personality or ego, whose existence depends on thought patterns, which surround a desire for either liking or disliking; and that movement creates verbal and then physical expression. That is to say, when examined, that which is considered to be 'me' can only exist when there is a sense of internal 'I-ness' which is a result from all that has been written before and which also relates to a world that seems to be external to itself. i.e. 'me' and the sensed world outside of 'me'. This constant shifting movement of thoughts, emotions and desires, is responsible for the illusion that everything which is actually temporary, appears to be real. This illusion is binding until the person who seeks knowledge of what is real and unreal, begins to understand how emotions, desire and thoughts create the illusion that the ever changing 'me' is not real and that the REAL is watching the show of life, silently from the background of Mind. (--MikeT 22:30 ......5th June 2010) —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 19:35, 5 June 2010 (UTC)

Interesting point of view (only negative emotions!). Do you have any sources for this view, or is this your personal and unsubstantiaded opinion. Arnoutf (talk) 20:58, 5 June 2010 (UTC)

Artificial languages[edit]

Why are these artificial languages added to this listing. I notice multiple problems

  • Wikipedia is not a dictionary WP:DICT, following that policy Wikipedia should not list jargon terms. Both Earl and Lojban are just that.
  • It seems undue WP:UNDUE that more than half the length of this article is dedicated to two rather obscure artificial languages. While "Earl" at least specialises in emotions "lojban" does not.
  • The Lojban section does not provide any source that what it lists are indeed emotions. Therefore that whole sections is unsourced.

In my view bullet point 1 is a strong reason to delete both, with the 2nd and 3rd point giving additional rationale to remove the lojban part. If you disagree please respond, otherwise I will remove the sections in about a week or so. Arnoutf (talk) 16:09, 27 June 2010 (UTC)

Since nobody seems to care, I have been bold and removed Lojban per above talk. Arnoutf (talk) 16:31, 17 July 2010 (UTC)
I just restored EARL, which disappeared when an anonymous editor also blanked the "See also" and references sections. Is there consensus to keep it or lose it? __ Just plain Bill (talk) 23:12, 26 January 2011 (UTC)

Wheel/Chart Difference[edit]

The Wheel of Emotions shows "disapproval" as one of the advanced emotions, but the chart of Advanced Emotions next to it shows "Disappointment" instead. The chart does not list "disapproval". —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 16:25, 17 July 2010 (UTC)

The table is correct. The image of the wheel of emotions has the error. The wheel of emotions should have "disappointment" between (i.e. the result of the combination of) sadness and surprise. Pyhjw (talk) 00:03, 13 February 2012 (UTC)

Optimism, opposite?[edit]

Human Feelings (The results of Emotions.) Feelings Opposite Optimism Anticipation + Joy Disappointment

Dissapointment: when something has/hasnt happened. Optimism: Expecting something nice to happen.

Are those really each others opposites? Same goes with "love" and "remorse". — Preceding unsigned comment added by [[User:{{{1}}}|{{{1}}}]] ([[User talk:{{{1}}}|talk]] • [[Special:Contributions/{{{1}}}|contribs]])

Whether or not this is true is irrelevant as we use Plutchiks classificaiton here Arnoutf (talk) 20:16, 30 January 2011 (UTC)
True. But shouldnt we mark somehow that those classifications sucks? Im sure there's a lots of critization of those; will try to add that when I have time, if I find anything relevant like authorities rejecting it, ofcourse. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 21:23, 23 February 2011 (UTC)
 — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:44, 25 May 2011 (UTC) 

The Case of the Missing Emoticons part 1/??[edit]

Sorry, i'm kind of new at editing Wikipedia, so sorry if I'm posting this in the wrong place or something. It appears this page may have been sabotaged, at least on my end: I see no emoticons i.e.: ":-)"

Perhaps this situation could be resolved. -T — Preceding unsigned comment added by [[User:{{{1}}}|{{{1}}}]] ([[User talk:{{{1}}}|talk]] • [[Special:Contributions/{{{1}}}|contribs]])

Personally I do not think emoticons are emotions. They are a subclass of the expression of emotions, i.e. that through the ASCII sign set. Therefore they do not belong here in my view. Arnoutf (talk) 18:02, 26 May 2011 (UTC)

Could the wheel been drawn?[edit]

This Plutchik-wheel image is used in many articles except in List of emotions#Plutchik's wheel of emotions. Could it be inserted? Lacrymocéphale 22:27, 6 June 2011 (UTC)

Relationship between emotions[edit]

I'm planning to update this page by referencing the article Brain function, mental experience and personality from the Netherlands Journal of Psychology. It seems to be the most recent broad review of this domain. I also believe like others that the Plutchik wheel should be moved to a page of its own. Ultimâ (talk) 19:48, 9 November 2011 (UTC)

Ok, so I don't have too much time, but I have been thinking about this page. I don't think Emotions List properly describes what this page is describing. I'm going to suggest renaming it to "Contrasting and Categorization of Emotions". I suggest removal of the list because it is already provided on the page titled Emotions and thus is redundant here. Ultimâ (talk) 14:57, 30 December 2011 (UTC)

section edit[edit]

the section alphabetical list should be completely reorganized-it looks really empty with just that one long list on the right side. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Gauravjuvekar (talkcontribs) 13:05, 11 December 2011 (UTC)

Table Content / Contrasting Basic Emotions[edit]

This table should not be changed unless parts are shown to conflict with common knowledge. It should be discussed here in the first instance. Removed "dreadfullness" which is not the name of an emotion (and fear is already in the table). Also restored a row that seems to have been accidentally removed by the dreadfulness contributer. Given the initial point also removed the sentence inviting users to amend the table. Ultimâ (talk) 12:49, 11 October 2015 (UTC)

Page issues[edit]

There does not appear to be any disputes or discussions about missing information so it seems the tags were removed. Lower tables may need extended descriptions.Ultimâ (talk) 22:39, 31 March 2016 (UTC)

External links modified[edit]

Hello fellow Wikipedians,

I have just modified one external link on Contrasting and categorization of emotions. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQ for additional information. I made the following changes:

When you have finished reviewing my changes, please set the checked parameter below to true or failed to let others know (documentation at {{Sourcecheck}}).

You may set the |checked=, on this template, to true or failed to let other editors know you reviewed the change. If you find any errors, please use the tools below to fix them or call an editor by setting |needhelp= to your help request.

  • If you have discovered URLs which were erroneously considered dead by the bot, you can report them with this tool.
  • If you found an error with any archives or the URLs themselves, you can fix them with this tool.

If you are unable to use these tools, you may set |needhelp=<your help request> on this template to request help from an experienced user. Please include details about your problem, to help other editors.

Cheers.—cyberbot IITalk to my owner:Online 09:27, 23 June 2016 (UTC)

Small Error in Plutchik's wheel image[edit]

Dear All -- The image of Plutchik's wheel has a small error in it. The border emotion between sadness and surprise should be "DISAPPOINTMENT", it should not be "disapproval". If you look at the factor analysis of 40 emotional words (figure 1.2, page 18 in [1]), the word DISAPPOINTMENT is halfway between "sad" and "bewildered", while "disapproval" does not appear in his selected list of 40 emotions. However, "dissatisfied" does appear, next to "disgusted". Disappointment can also be found in table 3 (page 120 in [2]). It also makes intuitive sense that the opposite of "optimism" is disappointment, not disapproval. Unfortunately, this error has been propagated throughout the internet based on this slightly flawed image. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:51, 3 July 2016 (UTC)

I have a different view given a different reference from Plutchik. Please see [3] page 349 figure 6. In Plutchik's own article he shows the wheel and the word disapproval is used. Since that reference is 10 years after the previous reference one can infer that Plutchik means to use 'disapproval'. Personally, I like disappointment better, but we are supposed to be a reference source, right? McAugustine (talk) 22:38, 18 March 2017 (UTC)

I put my first disagreement on 18 March and signed it. If you look at the references and pull up the image on the wayback machine then you can quite clearly see the wheel says disapproval. I don't understand why the unsigned user says differently. It's been more than a week. I'm going to make my change again. I don't know what will happen, but if a bot refers me back to this meta page then I guess I'll get to learn about Wikipedia escalation procedures.McAugustine (talk) 04:07, 29 March 2017 (UTC)

Additional information. I have purchased and reviewed [4] (same as reference 2). On page 113 Chapter 8 figure 2 the eight primary emotions have 'sorrow' in place of 'sadness'. Then on page 118 "surprise + sorrow = embarrassment, disappointment". From this I conclude that 'disappointment', like 'sorrow' was an earlier term. As this 1991 source material does not contain the eight petaled structure with three levels of intensity that are discussed in the article and the 2001 American Scientist article does contain the picture and uses the word 'sadness' not 'sorrow' and 'disapproval' not 'disappointment' then the most accurate wiki article would have to say 'disapproval' also. In addition, the table 3 comment from the unsigned contributor above is not convincing. There are many words used in that table that do not end up in Plutchik's wheel and dyads and triads notably: fatalism, resignation, pride, and alarm. McAugustine (talk) 02:42, 1 April 2017 (UTC)


  1. ^ Plutchik, Robert. "A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion." Theories of emotion 1 (1980): 3-31.
  2. ^ Plutchik, Robert. The emotions. University Press of America, 1991.
  3. ^ American Scientist July-August 2001
  4. ^ The Emotions, Robert Plutchik, University Press of America, 1991 which is also listed as copyright 1962 and 1990 Random House


Can anyone provide additional verifiable source for the emotion combos, like textbooks. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 15:53, 21 January 2017 (UTC)