Talk:Electrochemical gradient

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Source of research funding on proton gradients[edit]

Someone on the radio mentioned a british researcher who self funded research on proton gradients. --Gbleem 20:11, 19 December 2005 (UTC)

Almost certainly Peter Mitchell who got the nobel prize for proposing the chemiosmotic hypothesis. David D. (Talk) 21:37, 19 December 2005 (UTC)

Why all the Bold[edit]

There seems to be an overuse of bold font on this page. JohnJohn 06:17, 2 February 2006 (UTC)

Those are all the terms that redirect to this page. David D. (Talk) 16:16, 2 February 2006 (UTC)

Okay, is there a better way to represent it? JohnJohn 21:40, 11 February 2006 (UTC)

Wiki linking?[edit]

I found it strange that Electrochemical gradient and Standard electrode potential do not have a common link! Maybe we need to amend the text so that there is appropriate interwikilinking. AshLin 08:55, 23 July 2007 (UTC)

Or just merge the articles Just looked at the article and now I understand what you mean. No harm in adding more text to allow a link. That is the reason for the BeBold philosophy. Most of these articles are only half finished. David D. (Talk) 03:05, 24 July 2007 (UTC)
Actually this article does link to Standard electrode potential, it's hidden in the Chemistry section as piped link (electrode potential), also standard electrochemical potential is bolded in that sentence (not sure why it's bolded?). Part of the problem is there is masses of related terminology on this topic and consequently a large number of redirects to both of these articles:
Redirect to Electrochemical gradient Redirect to Standard electrode potential
Anyway, the chemistry section could definitely be expanded. David D. (Talk) 03:29, 24 July 2007 (UTC)

WikiProject class rating[edit]

This article was automatically assessed because at least one WikiProject had rated the article as start, and the rating on other projects was brought up to start class. BetacommandBot 09:49, 10 November 2007 (UTC)

Simplify material[edit]

I'm from the Action Potential page and I got redirected here. Thought I'd give my two cents on what I think needs revision. The first sentence, in my opinion, is rather complicated.

  • an electrochemical gradient is a spatial variation of both electrical potential and chemical concentration across a membrane.

Both bolded terms are rather complex and incredibly overwhelming considered it is the first sentence.

Then in the Overview section we have the following

  • An electrochemical gradient has two components. First, the electrical component is caused by a charge difference across the lipid membrane. Second, a chemical component is caused by a differential concentration of ions across the membrane. The combination of these two factors determines the thermodynamically favourable direction for an ion's movement across a membrane.

Claiming it has two components might not be the best way to go about it. A better way would be to say "determined by" or "as a result of". I find it always helps to describe where the "charge" comes from, so say "the charge from positive or negative ions". Using the term "across" can be misleading to most people, much like using terms like "down concentration gradient", or "depolarisation". Big words like "differential" scare people away, it might be beneficial to use terms such as "different" or "different and constantly changing". I don't know if "thermodynamically" is really necessary here

Also, the hydroelectric dam example is confusing to me. Wouldn't the turbines be the ion channels which depolarize the neighbouring power cables, and evaporation and condensation would be the ion pumps which ensure a stable concentration ratio above and below the dam?

The ion gradients section is just terrible (I'm sorry).

We have a really good ion movement section on the action potential page. We are still revising it, but once the revisions are done, I'll move it over to here. Paskari (talk) 11:12, 1 September 2008 (UTC)


Electrochemical gradient is simply a gradient of electrochemical potential. Should this page be merged with electrochemical potential? Biophys (talk) 02:40, 21 August 2010 (UTC)


I moved the below out of the article. I think the question is wrong, but either way this clearly should be on the talk page, not the article:

'Is the above an error? On another Wikipedia site it says "Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, the most notable one being Halobacteria. It acts as a proton pump; that is, it captures light energy and uses it to move protons across the membrane out of (not into) the cell.]'

The question referred to this text:

Some archaea, the most notable ones being halobacteria, make proton gradients by pumping in protons from the environment with the help of the solar-driven enzyme bacteriorhodopsin, which is used here for driving the molecular motor enzyme ATP synthase to make the necessary conformational changes required to synthesize ATP. N1ugl (talk) 20:14, 27 February 2012 (UTC)

Article sources[edit]

I'm editing this article as part of a college class, this is a list of the sources I will be using. Your feedback would be appreciated.

  • Aperia, A., Akkuratov, E.E., Fontana, J.M., & Brismar, H. (2016). Na+-K+-ATPase, a new class of plasma membrane receptors. American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 310(7), C491-5.
  • DeCoursey, T. E. (2012). Voltage-gated Proton Channels. Comprehensive Physiology, 2(2), 1355–1385.
  • DeCoursey, T. E. (2013). Voltage-Gated Proton Channels: Molecular Biology, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the HV Family. Physiological Reviews, 93(2), 599–652.
  • Eisenberg, B. (2013). Interacting Ions in Biophysics: Real is not Ideal. Biophysical Journal, 104(9), 1849–1866.
  • Fujiwara, Y., & Okamura, Y. (2014). Temperature-sensitive gating of voltage-gated proton channels. Current Topics in Membranes, 74, 259-92.
  • Gunner, M. R., Amin, M., Zhu, X., & Lu, J. (2013). Molecular mechanisms for generating transmembrane proton gradients. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1827(0), 892–913.
  • Hagai Rottenberg, The generation of proton electrochemical potential gradient by cytochrome c oxidase, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics, Volume 1364, Issue 1, 14 April 1998, Pages 1-16, ISSN 0005-2728,
  • Höhner, R., Aboukila, A., Kunz, H.-H., & Venema, K. (2016). Proton Gradients and Proton-Dependent Transport Processes in the Chloroplast. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 218.
  • Igor Zdravkovic, Chunfeng Zhao, Bogdan Lev, Javier Eduardo Cuervo, Sergei Yu. Noskov, Atomistic models of ion and solute transport by the sodium-dependent secondary active transporters, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, Volume 1818, Issue 2, February 2012, Pages 337-347, ISSN 0005-2736,
  • Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. (2013). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (6th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman.
  • Poburka, D., & Demaurex, N. (2012). Regulation of the mitochondrial proton gradient by cystolic Ca2⁺ signals. Plügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, 464(1), 19-26.
  • Sun, F., Zhou, Q., Pang, X., Xu, Y., & Rao, Z. (2013). Revealing various coupling of electron transfer and proton pumping in mitochondrial respiratory chain. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 23(4), 526-38.

Arman Saied (talk) 08:43, 28 April 2016 (UTC)

Assessment comment[edit]

The comment(s) below were originally left at Talk:Electrochemical gradient/Comments, and are posted here for posterity. Following several discussions in past years, these subpages are now deprecated. The comments may be irrelevant or outdated; if so, please feel free to remove this section.

rated top as high school/SAT biology content - tameeria 14:31, 17 February 2007 (UTC) The biology section needs expansion. The importance of electrochemical gradients in nerve cells and neurotransmission, e.g. generation of action potential, is not even mentioned. - tameeria 18:04, 18 February 2007 (UTC)

Last edited at 18:04, 18 February 2007 (UTC). Substituted at 14:18, 29 April 2016 (UTC)

Outline of article[edit]

This is my proposed outline of the structure of the article and the topics that will be discussed in each section. I would appreciate any feedback.


  • Definition
  • Difference in Solute Concentration- generation of chemical gradient, concept of diffusion and how it happens
  • Membrane Potential (Vm)- generation of an electrical gradient

Biological Context

  • Mitochondria- Ca2+ signaling, respiratory chain, mitochondrial proton gradient
  • Chloroplasts- light-induced proton gradient, activation of Calvin Benson cycle enzymes, K+/H+ antiporters

Ion Gradient

  • Ion channels- Na+,K+,Ca2+,Cl- concentrations, transmembrane electrical potential and membrane polarization
  • Na+/K+ ATPase- NKA signaling, feedback loop between mitochindria and NKA

Proton Gradient

  • Voltage-Gated Proton Channels (Hv)- pH gradient, bioluminescence
  • Cytochrome c oxidase
  • Bacteriorhodopsin
  • Photosystem II (PSII)

Arman Saied (talk) 19:05, 4 May 2016 (UTC)

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