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1-part epoxy?[edit]

Could someone with some knowledge in this area explain, or at least refer to a site, how a 1-part epoxy (no separate hardener, I assume) works?

Oops, I could've *sworn* I signed this. --Joe Sewell 17:42, 21 November 2005 (UTC)

Some epoxies require a certain heating aspect in order to cure - certain temperature for certain time. In this case, you can mix the two parts together, but they won't cure until the heating has been carried out, or at least they will cure very very slowly. I would guess that this is what a the 1-part epoxy you're talking about is. -chc

Another type of 1-part epoxy is a Powder Coating type known as Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE coating). This, as final product, is a one component powder coating. Infact, the powder coating contains the epoxy, hardeners, fillers and extenders, but they all are blend and in a powder form at ambient temperature. Please refere to the article in Wikipedia "Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coatings" for details. I have edited the section "Paint and Coatings" in the main article to incldue FBE coatings in the text.

Penguine_s, January 25, 2006

Hi all. Also, one system are water-borne epoxy coatings. The resins are kept in a suspension, similarly to say, acrylic latex, etc. When the film is applied, the water evaporates and a film forms in which the resins are able to meet and fuse. (talk) 04:42, 31 January 2011 (UTC)

Does anyone else think the caption below the picture of epoxy curing on a surfboard fin sounds like an advertisement for the mentioned brand of epoxy?

I have seen many spray paints that are sold as "epoxy". They're usually white and advertised as a repair paint for washers/dryers/fridge/etc. They are single part spray cans. Does anyone know if there's something special about these paints that allow them to be called epoxy, or is this just marketing BS? Gcronau (talk) 15:06, 2 February 2012 (UTC)Gcronau

Epoxy Removal[edit]

I believe Epoxy is also used in electronics for security, making the electronic component under a dob of epoxy very difficult to get to and be tampered with. Can anyone else vouch for this? And, how does one remove epoxy? Or is it not possible? Matejhowell 17:39, 31 January 2006 (UTC)

In the pipe coating industry, the applied epoxy coating (rejected during QA/QC) is removed by burn-off at a temperature of 700 to 750° F for about 6 hours in an air circulating oven. Another method of removing epoxy coatings from small aras is by soaking the area in a suitable solvent such as Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) or Xylene. ~~ Penguine_s February 5, 2006

For larger areas, such as in decorative collector's displays of coins or other objects embedded in clear epoxy resins, one will find MEK, Xylene and most organic solvents completely ineffective in dissolution of epoxy. <Ken Forbes April 13, 2006>

Air temperature cured epoxy can be "melted" by applying heat. Michael

Crosslinked epoxies are not soluble in any solvent, they only swell depending on the solvent used. Amine-cured epoxies may be destroyed by acetic or formic acid, pure or diluted by a suitable solvent (dichloromethane e.g.). I don't exspect vinegar to be suitable for removing epoxy mixtures, because epoxy resins are insoluble in water. It only may dissolve amine hardeners by forming a salt with the amines. On the other hand, acetone dissolves epoxy resins but often forms insoluble compounds with amines... I recommend alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol). --FK1954 (talk) 15:16, 14 January 2009 (UTC)

   Thanks for your attempt to clarify. Readers should bear in mind that the vinegar (which you dismiss as probaby unsuitable) is a solution of acetic acid in water. "Dammit, i'm a physicist, not a chemist", but our discussion of the glacial form at Acetic acid suggests that how much dilution by water is likely to be problematic will depend more on thoroughness of curing, and on which epoxy compound is under discussion.

Anecdotal testimony has a solution of triethanolamine in CHCl3 and I think it was N-MePyrrolidone being used by military contractors during the 60's to dissolve the potting around Soviet chips for reverse engineering. Please do not do this at home -chlorinated solvents may attack metal. I believe in a pressure vessel but temperatures were not (too) extreme. (talk) 20:21, 23 August 2012 (UTC)

   We do discuss triethanolamine; your trichloromethane solvent for it is much clearer if you mark up the formula as CHCl3 (tho i wish it were more clearly distinct, at least on my screen from CHCI3; hmm, IlI).
--Jerzyt 03:31, 2 August 2018 (UTC)
   Oh, yeah, hmm; do we distinguish e.g. pressure cooker, pressure vessel, and i think autoclave?? Yeah, DON'T TRY IT AT HOME.
--Jerzyt 03:31, 2 August 2018 (UTC)

Indeed, don't try these at home either, read the safety data sheets, etc. Depending upon the glass transition temperature of the epoxy formulation (if known), and the substrate and component types (wood? electronics to be looked at, etc.) warming to about ten degrees C above the glass transition temperature will often allow one to mechanically abrade, cut, or otherwise remove much of the cured epoxy resin. Such bulk removal can be helpful prior to applying other methods (following). Methylene dichloride (chloroform has already been mentioned) is particularly good at swelling and softening cured epoxy resin and in some cases will cause spontaneous spallation, given enough time. Doing this in a kettle or flask with a reflux condenser will speed things along. Similarly, benzyl alcohol (arguably safer to use than the chlorinated solvents) is quite good at swelling amine-cured epoxy resins. The swelling reduces the glass transition temperature, often below room temperature, and the modulus drops a couple of orders of magnitude, making the cured resin "cheesy" and much more easily removable. The two methods, heat and solvents, may be used together for optimal effect. Filled or composite systems may take longer to remove. Bruce L. Burton (talk) 20:19, 4 September 2018 (UTC)

Epoxy Quality[edit]

Is there any way to determine the additive that causes one epoxy to harden faster than another? —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 17:25, 13 February 2007 (UTC).

Krazy Glue[edit]

I Heard Krazy Glue Will Melth Through Epoxy. I Put Krazy Glue On My Surfboard Which Has An Epoxy Covering And It Turned White. It Is One Of The Aviso Boards That Are Made Of Carbon And It Costy Me About $1220 So I'm Pretty Worried About It —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 23:10:00, August 18, 2007 (UTC)

   Gosh, and i had heard that those surfin' dudes were highly skilled and really cautious!
--Jerzyt 03:40, 2 August 2018 (UTC)

Epoxy group[edit]

Isn't epoxy also the name of a chemical functional group i.e a chemical can be aiad to contain and epoxy (epoxide) group, which is presumably why this compound is so named?

Souldn't this fact be incorporated into this page or a disambigious-type page created? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 09:47, 27 September 2007 (UTC)

Yes, I think there should be a disambiguation page. One link should come to this page, which should be called Epoxy(adhesive). The other link should go to the Epoxide article. Deepfryer99 (talk) 20:13, 20 March 2008 (UTC)

I added a hatnote to the article to disambiguate the meaning of "adhesive" and the meaning of "chemical group". Do you think the name of this article should also be changed? Devil Master (talk) 15:32, 28 September 2011 (UTC)


  1. How epoxy PUTTIES are made? Does the body mostly consist of just epoxy + talcum powder mixed into each of part a and part b? can I make my own putty from a low viscosity epoxy?
  2. Is epoxy the strongest material in the world? Can someone disuss the possible achievable tensile strengths, what allows for these strengths because I often see tensile strength quoted
  3. Is epoxy often utilized in ICF (insulated concrete form) work for building homes to increase the strength of concrete and prevent the steel rods from corroding or is polyester used?
  4. I think the section about gel coats needs clarification.

It says that polyurethane can coat over epoxy and then it says it has poor adhesion. Which is it? Also, is it possible to use oil paint on top of epoxy (ie are there adhesion issues?)

  1. Can someone please add a section about how epoxy can be used in wood rot applications by applying borax first?
  2. Is silane ever added to epoxy?
  3. It is confusing so who owns the switzerland epoxy plant now?

Thanks. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:28, 22 April 2008 (UTC)

temperature service range?[edit]

What is the typical temperature service range of the cured adhesive? - (talk) 23:38, 29 April 2008 (UTC)

Possible WP:COPYVIO[edit]

This edit appears to come from here. Some of that page is in turn declared to be from a PD source here, but the suspected material doesn't form part of the "free" page. Can anybody take this further? I'm inclined to delete, particularly as the new paragraph is widely digressive. --Old Moonraker (talk) 05:57, 9 September 2008 (UTC)

This one [1] GFDL gives more info about the sources of the text [2]. (FIXED).Mion (talk) 09:12, 9 September 2008 (UTC)
Thanks for the additional links. They are helpful, in that the original writer acknowledges that he has taken "details" from Scientific American, Encarta and works published by the OUP. For this reason, coupled with the largely off-topic content, I have trimmed heavily. --Old Moonraker (talk) 06:04, 10 September 2008 (UTC)


The chemistry section of this article is nothing short of shocking. I'll edit it properly to illustrate their synthesis, how the curing reactions work and the effects of changing the type of resin and the type of hardener when I have some time in the near future.

Matt —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:26, 20 October 2008 (UTC)

Yes, the only thing I read about curing is that a "catalyst" is used - which may be right but in the most cases isn't. --FK1954 (talk) 15:21, 14 January 2009 (UTC)

Also please tone down all the talk about businesses involved. Who cares about the money grubbing that goes on? Thanks. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 21:34, 3 March 2009 (UTC)

What is the layman's term basic raw material for the components (resins and hardeners) of epoxy? Petroleum? Coal? bio (plant)? Wikiredr (talk) 23:32, 29 January 2010 (UTC)Wikiredr


How does Epoxy hold up when it comes in contact with Gasoline or Ethanol? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 16:06, 29 January 2009 (UTC)

This depends on the composition of the resin, but usually nearly nothing will happen. --FK1954 (talk) 17:47, 29 January 2009 (UTC)
  The more cautious among interested readers will want to read carefully our articles on Usuality, Nearly nothing, and Barely anything.
--Jerzyt 00:50, 2 August 2018 (UTC)

As noted results may vary widely depending upon the structure of the polymer network formed. I've found that most systems, when fully cured at a one to one stoichiometry, will be quite resistant to gasoline but may succumb to ethanol and, more so methanol. Bruce L. Burton (talk) 20:24, 4 September 2018 (UTC)

Is it thermosetting or not?[edit]

The opening sentence says epoxy is thermosetting and later in the article it says epoxy doesn't necessarily benefit from heat generated during the curing process. Is epoxy thermosetting or not? Rsduhamel (talk) 19:35, 26 June 2010 (UTC)

Thermoset doesn't mean "heat induces curing" (see that article's opening sentence--the terminology is confusing, but mere Wikipedia can't fix that:(. Luckily, the opening sentence links "thermosetting" to that article, so you can un-confuse yourself. DMacks (talk) 20:49, 26 June 2010 (UTC)

differant between adduct cured epoxy and cured epoxy[edit]

i need to know the differant between adduct cured epoxy and cured epoxy —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 10:50, 21 July 2010 (UTC)

Economics and addition[edit]

The Economic section starts out stating that Epoxy is a $15bn/year market. Later in the article, it is stated that due to the economic recession, epoxy has dropped to $15.8 bn/year. (Wish the recession treated me like that!) What was the actual peak yearly market of epoxy between 2005 and present?

The "Wind Power" section covers the process that is also used for making aircraft propeller blades and wings, R/C aircraft wings, and similar airfoils, should this be mentioned in the "Wind Power" section, or should they be mentioned, and the title changed to "Airfoil usage"?

8r455 (talk) 05:03, 16 May 2011 (UTC)

I removed the wind power section because it's not an example of an epoxy, but rather of a fibre-reinforced plastic. Wizard191 (talk) 19:32, 17 May 2011 (UTC)


In which solutions does epoxy resins dissolves? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:03, 20 July 2011 (UTC)

ethanol — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 09:38, 14 December 2013 (UTC)


According to the German Wikipedia, epoxy is highly toxic and carcinogenic upon skin contact, and a number of industrial institutions are named which therefore issue health regulations regarding it, which is that no material for daily use must be made of more than 0.0002% epoxy. Also it recommends handling epoxy only by means of proper protection, that is full-body protective suits, like hazmat suits, and that simple rubber gloves are not save to handle a substance as hazardous as epoxy.

While here on the English version of the article, epoxy is made out to be just like any other glue. Might this have something to do with the fact that "60% of the Dollar value is dependent on the epoxy industry"? -- (talk) 02:54, 30 July 2011 (UTC)

"There are no reports of carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic or reproductive effects to humans..." but you are right about rubber gloves: "PVC gloves, good housekeeping, hand washing before breaks are needed." This is a bit of a simplification as the manufacturing process, rather than the deployment, uses some nasty stuff. 60% of the cost of the product goes to these bulk manufacturers, but why would this introduce any overly favorable editing on the English Wikipedia? Quotes are from Chemical Hazards of the Workplace ISBN 9780471268833, pp 298–301. --Old Moonraker (talk) 08:45, 30 July 2011 (UTC)
Afterthought: I've just looked at the German article, for an explanation of "no material for daily use must be made of more than 0.0002% epoxy". What it actually says (or, rather, what the google translate rendition actually says) is that any unconsumed residual of a component, epichlorohydrin, should be less than 0.002% (not 0.0002%). "Under certain circumstances a protective suit may be necessary" (emphasis added). Any help? --Old Moonraker (talk) 09:16, 30 July 2011 (UTC)
Epoxy resins are not toxic by themselves. They may produce skin itching or allergies (eben very bad ones), so keep it away from your skin. Other epoxy compounds may be toxic, carcinogenic and so on. This is true, e. g. for the above mentioned epichlorohydrin (one of the nasty stuffs used to produce epoxy resins). In addition, some epoxides of low molecular mass are used as a reactive diluent for epoxy resins. These too are usually more dangerous to health than the resins, especially some diluents which were used in former times (phenylglycidyl ether e.g.).

Newer developments like fatty alcohol glycidyl ethers seem to be nearly harmless. --FK1954 (talk) 13:58, 22 August 2013 (UTC)

Speed of Sound[edit]

Hi, does anyone know any values or sources for the speed of sound or impedance of epoxy?-- (talk) 14:41, 21 October 2011 (UTC)

Paints and Coatings[edit]

The first paragraph of this section reads as if it was lifted from the marketing brochure of a particular product. The facts might be right for that one particular product, but they are wrong for the category as a whole. Epoxy paints are mixed in any number of different ratios, depending on the product, not just 4:1. 2:1 is much more common. They also often have a high volitile content, and most *don't* clean up in just water. This paragraph should probably be removed and replaced with something that better describes the category. Gcronau (talk) 15:22, 2 February 2012 (UTC)gcronau

epoxy breakdown[edit]

Flapityjack (talk) 09:22, 14 May 2012 (UTC)Hello, I appeal to anyone knows about it: I have more interest in how epoxy can be broken down. There are some suggestions that extreme heat, alcohol or some very toxic chemicals may be of use, but several times it is mentioned that epoxy is subject to deterioration by UV light, so I would surmise this could be a way (though I wonder how long it would take)? I am interested in regards to world wide pollution by plastics. Is epoxy one of the things that's ending up in the Great Pacific Gyre (Great Pacific Rubbish Patch), starving birds bellies etc? If so, how to break it down safely is obviously a very important issue. Please address! Thank you.Flapityjack (talk) 09:22, 14 May 2012 (UTC)

Epoxies are highly cross linked and unreactive. UV deterioration is slow. Your interest in the environment is laudable. But action without knowledge is a recipe for disaster. You surely can't believe that only good intentions are necessary to fix the world?!? Spending energy tilting at windmills is at best ignorant. It is not up to us to research your concerns. If you want to know the composition of the GPG, there have been numerous articles written. Go. Read. them. Epoxies can best be broken down by burning, because of the high temperatures necessary for the aromatic rings (this is all over your head, isn't it?), it may be most effective just to bury them. That way their carbon is sequestered, probably for a very long time. (talk) 20:04, 23 August 2012 (UTC)

Not a Forum... and article is deeply flawed[edit]

Scanning through most of the comments here, I find them well below the threshhold of competence and knowledge that should be expected from contributors. Please do NOT add to this page if you can not substantively contribute, and most can not. If there is a topic which you feel is missing or incomplete, then by all means, but this is not a epoxy technical data page nor a political forum. If your question is about a specific product you bought, consult the manufacturer. If you do not understand that almost all of the answers to questions on the properties of epoxies will depend on the formulation and can not be answered here, then you shouldn't be posting here at all, IMHO. . This article is fundamentally wrong. First of all, epoxy based polymers are mostly adhesives, but are also used for other purposes such as coatings, composite (resins) and sealants (many more examples are possible). Second: epoxies can react with themselves or with anhydrides, acids, amines, amides, and mercaptans to name the most common co-reactants. It is absolutely WRONG to claim that epoxy adhesives are epoxy + amine. All of the above mentioned co-reactants are COMMONLY used. If I get a chance I will begin to make this more general and accurate. (talk) 19:52, 23 August 2012 (UTC)

(( get over yourself )) — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 23:30, 29 May 2017 (UTC)

A Secret? ...Most Epoxies are not Waterproof?[edit]

Most people assume epoxy adhesive is waterproof. This caused an underwater filter assembly I once built to blow up after several days.

I guess the truth must be an industry secret, since it's not mentioned here, and a google finds vague and imprecise language. Years ago I remember a major adhesive label had an epoxy properties chart on the back of the blisterpack to aid in purchasing selection. Perhaps 8 or 12 of their epoxies were listed, and only a few were recommended for permanent submersion and use below the water line. None were quick setting. Yet even in our "marine" section, no mention is made of this here.

Perhaps advances in technology have repaired this problem? No, one maker I found used the now endangered precise language of yesteryear in their user friendly FAQ:
    Is Gorilla Epoxy waterproof?
"Gorilla Epoxy is water resistant, which means it will resist moderate exposure to water but should not be fully submerged. However,...." end quote

Here are some further, hard-found notes:

  • Epoxies
  • QUIK-CURE™ 5 min. -- QUIK-CURE™ shouldn’t be used in areas that are subject to long-term immersion in water; however, it works fine for the internal structure of wood framed boats.
  • MID-CURE™ 15 min. -- It is more water resistant
  • SLOW-CURE™ 30 min. -- the highest strength of our epoxies. ... it is waterproof and more heat resistant. SLOW-CURE™ can be used for bonding if you’re willing to wait overnight.

Titebond 16-oz Wood Glue Adhesive
is proven waterproof - Passes ANSI/HPVA Type I water-resistance

It seems there is no standard for water resistant Vs. waterproof. Anyway, I added a consumer-user adhesives properties paragraph to the lead section. However, not being an expert, it's more of a heads-up than a detailed, usable chart/table. Needs work. See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style (lead section) This belongs in the Lead, it's currently too technical, jargony...As if written by/for chemists and industry reps.
-- (talk) 21:00, 18 April 2014 (UTC)Doug Bashford

Sorry, but it absolutely isn't true to say that most epoxies are not waterproof, although it may be true to say that some home DIY epoxy adhesives are not very water resistant. Besides the lack of definition of the term waterproof, I think we should avoid the confusion between home glue products (an almost negligible percentage of epoxy usage) and the thousands of tons used industrially. Epoxies are extremely resistant to water, which is why they are used the world over as one of the primary marine corrosion coatings. They are certified for deep sea oil applications, offshore wind applications, marine craft fabrication, food can linings and water pipe re-lining, not to mention full aerospace approval for planes. Each industry using epoxy typically has extensive testing programs and certification which specifies properties such as mechanical performance and water absorption after submersion or water boiling tests. There are epoxy composite boats which have been in the water for 40 plus years without any problem..Thatmajor (talk) 14:50, 10 June 2014 (UTC)
No doubt that's true. I think that you are not following Wikipedia guidelines to think that somehow the arcane industrial usage of epoxy and it's "thousands of tons used industrially" outweighs the importance (to Wikipedia) of the "almost negligible percentage" used by the Wikipedia target reader. To write an article about epoxy strictly from the industrial and chemist's viewpoint and to ignore the target audience is in blatant violation of guidelines, as well as being just plain poor writing style.
You write:
Each industry using epoxy typically has extensive testing programs and certification which specifies properties such as mechanical performance and water absorption after submersion or water boiling tests. 
Yes, and so list. And we here at Wikipedia should be able to pull some of that secret info out of the black pigeon holes where industry hides such valuable proprietary information, and present some of it to serious users not backed by industrial teams or who don't have dedicated purchasing agents or researchers. Jeepers, that sounds like actual hard work.
--2602:306:CFCE:1EE0:B82E:5D68:303B:A66B (talk) 23:21, 17 November 2017 (UTC)Doug Bashford
Sorry to see you learned the hard way that 5-minute epoxy isn't really very good at anything. Most epoxy is slow-cure. The "natural state" of most room temperature epoxies is to take an hour or more to set. If it's going to set in five minutes, the product should more rightly be considered "heavily modified epoxy" than "epoxy". And furthermore, a shorter set time will allow for less thorough mating with the substrate surfaces. Piojo (talk) 15:49, 10 January 2016 (UTC)
Good info! I'm glad to see my experience and suspicions are verified by broad chemistry. I hope somebody can work 5-min epoxy "isn't really very good at anything," (and other "glue product" shortcomings?) into suitable language for the article. My attempt was deleted.
I'm kinda perturbed that some authors here seeming believe that there are two epoxy (and polymers in general) markets: 1) "the thousands of tons used industrially," and 2) inconsequential DIY idiots, undoubtedly in need of a bath. A bifurcated world of schooled specialists and squirming meat. That attitude leave professional repairmen, including doctors etc, unable to quickly find useful info. —Bifurcated pidgonholed worldview: —confirmed.—
--2602:306:CFCE:1EE0:B82E:5D68:303B:A66B (talk) 22:39, 17 November 2017 (UTC)Doug Bashford

Need to split epoxy entry?[edit]

There seems to be a great deal of confusion between the usage of the term epoxy as a chemical class (covered by the Epoxide page), the use of epoxy industrially, which represents the vast majority of epoxy application and the term applied colloquially to home products such as DIY adhesives or repair products. Would it make sense to keep this page for Epoxy: industrial usage and create a new page for Epoxy: home repair products? That might prevent some of the confusion as well as the erroneous and often inaccurate contributions from home DIY users.Thatmajor (talk) 15:14, 10 June 2014 (UTC)

Good points. Let me add a few. Wikipedia guidelines explain that it is primarily interested in everyday people, and discourages "too technicalness" and jargon (always bad writing outside of specialized media). The authors here often seem more interested in buffing their desire to be published, and to impress their technical/industrial peers than contributing to the Wikipedia mission. IOW, wikipedia is more interested in home usage than the fact that "the use of epoxy industrially, ...represents the vast majority of epoxy application."
I also find it jarring that other people here are also using; "the term applied colloquially to home products," as if "common" usage is somehow not quite as proper as they are. But dictionaries say:
epoxy (also epoxy resin)
NOUN Any of a class of adhesives, plastics, or other materials that are polymers of epoxides.
‘When the guards tore down her posters, she put them back up with epoxy.’
‘The veneer is a concoction of tropical Fijian light and dark woods and, of course, is strengthened with a proper dose of epoxy.’
VERB [WITH OBJECT] Glue (something) using epoxy resin.
‘the wire is epoxied to the top of the nut’
I'm thinking that the problem authors will somehow see those definitions as "lesser" than the their own, and will continue to revert all home usage perspectives. If so, then true, these are indeed two separate topics needing two separate articles. (also see my below comment)
--2602:306:CFCE:1EE0:B82E:5D68:303B:A66B (talk) 20:51, 17 November 2017 (UTC)Doug Bashford

Reference for Epoxy[edit]

It is stated in the article that epoxy is the cured end product of epoxy resins. Is there any reference? I can just find in the gold book that it shall not be call epoxy resin. Best regards --Minihaa (talk) 12:36, 26 November 2014 (UTC)

I found some references, where epoxy is used as a name for cured epoxy resins: a) Chin, In-Joo; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Russell, Thomas P.; Wang, Jing (June 2001). "On exfoliation of montmorillonite in epoxy". Polymer. 42 (13): 5947–5952. doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00898-3.
b) Wang, Zhen; Lan, Tie; Pinnavaia, Thomas J. (January 1996). "Hybrid Organic−Inorganic Nanocomposites Formed from an Epoxy Polymer and a Layered Silicic Acid (Magadiite)". Chemistry of Materials. 8 (9): 2200–2204. doi:10.1021/cm960263l.
c) Braun, Dietrich (2003). Erkennen von Kunststoffen qualitative Kunststoffanalyse mit einfachen Mitteln (4., durchges. und aktualisierte Aufl. ed.). München [u.a.]: Hanser. ISBN 978-3446224254.
d) Lüftl, Hrsg. Hans P. Degischer; Hrsg. Sigrid (2009). Leichtbau : Prinzipien, Werkstoffauswahl und Fertigungsvarianten (1. Aufl. ed.). Weinheim, Bergstr: WILEY-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-32372-2.
However, I found no reference where it is given as a definition in that way. Does anyone know one? --Minihaa (talk) 16:31, 15 December 2014 (UTC)

I Don't Believe the "Exact Ratio" Statement (which has no citations)[edit]

Article says:

Epoxy resins typically require a precise mix of two components which form a third chemical. Depending on the properties required, the ratio may be anything from 1:1 or over 10:1, but in every case they must be mixed in exactly the right proportions, and thoroughly to avoid unmixed portions.

But as a matter of fact, common ordinary persons, with no means of making exact ratios, use epoxy successfully every day. Most I have used have a 50/50 mix prescribed, but I know that I don't get 50/50 exact. So is there something I don't understand about the quoted claim? Or is it an exaggeration? "Exact ratios" are mostly theoretical and rarely occur in real life. So I think this statement should be deleted or revised. The question is, "How close do you have to come to the prescribed ratio?" And what happens to the properties of the mix as one deviates from the ratio in either direction (more part B hardener or more part A)? ( (talk) 05:23, 22 January 2015 (UTC))

Cured Epoxies are the combination of two components, commonly known as Resin and Hardener. Mainly used hardeners are Aliphatic, Aromatic, Cycloaliphatic Amines, their Adducts, Amidoamines, Polyamides, Phenalkamines, Anhydrites and many others. Some of these are used in fixed ratios while others are used in variable ratios. They are used in variety of Industrial and household applications. For household applications mainly used as a glue or adhesive, Polyamides are quiet suitable, which can be used in ratio of 35% to 150% avoiding the hassles of exact mixing, and also are low toxic. For high performance industrial applications where tough service and reliability is required, other Hardeners are used. While Epoxies have hundreds of applications, Some of the Interesting applications are given Below: 1- Adhesives for household applications 2- High strength Adhesives for Automobile and Aircraft Industries 3- Boat Building 4- Surfing Board 5- Bowling Balls 6- Inside Can Coatings for Juices, soft drinks etc 7- Tennis and Badminton Rackets using Carbon Fibres 8- Transformer winding 9- Manufacture of Resistances, Capacitors and use as an encapsulators in Electrical and Electronic Industry. 10- Jewellery making 11- Construction Material Adhesives and various Coatings, Like Floor Coatings, Tarrazo, Electrical Insulation Coatings etc 12- Primers for Automotive and Aircrafts, Ships, Tanks and many 13- Acid and Chemical Resistant Coatings 14- Putties of various application, like Leakage Repairs, Metal Rebuilding, Protective coatings etc. ... ...

List Is Endless Sdeshmankar (talk) 04:34, 3 January 2016 (UTC)


The introductory paragraph says "It can also be used as a solver due to its high melting and boiling points." What the (bleep) is a "solver"? Its not in wikipedia, and not defined in online dictionaries. Do they mean "solvent" or are they using slang for something very useful? (talk) 01:17, 9 April 2015 (UTC) Sandy


Surely "epoxies" means the plural of epoxy and not a band? In ictu oculi (talk) 22:08, 28 January 2017 (UTC)

Clayton May Epoxy Resins: Chemistry and Technology Second Edition, 0824776909 p.784 1987 "Epoxies are the resins most commonly employed for electrical and electronic applications. Selection of epoxies is based on their superior adhesion, permeability, purity, and corrosion- and stress-resistance properties." In ictu oculi (talk) 07:52, 29 January 2017 (UTC)

Very technical...[edit]

Is there any chance that the article can just explain simply what an epoxy (resin) is and its applications in a straightforward way that someone without an engineering or chemistry degree can understand? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Thoughtcat (talkcontribs) 15:16, 22 May 2017 (UTC)

I attempted to do that three years ago, 18 April 2014, in the intro section and it was deleted, seemingly because it contained an error. See also my comment above about splitting EPOXY into two entries. This article does not meet Wikipedia standards, for a number of reasons, this is one.
As I wrote in 2014:
Anyway, I added a consumer-user adhesives properties paragraph to the lead section. However, not being an expert, it's more of a heads-up than a detailed, usable chart/table.  Needs work. See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style (lead section) This belongs in the Lead, it's currently too technical, jargony...As if written by/for chemists and industry reps. 
I'm currently not in mood for entering pissing contests with Proud Little Napoleons on their sanctimonious high horses. ——...Not about glue, anyway.
--2602:306:CFCE:1EE0:B82E:5D68:303B:A66B (talk) 21:21, 17 November 2017 (UTC)Doug Bashford