Talk:Federal Security Service

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Umm, the infobox seems to have information on the CIA instead of the FSB. I'm guessing vandalism, but the page history mentions something or other about using it as a template. What's going on there?

Criticism of FSB actions[edit]

Alleged coup organized by FSB[edit]

Starting from 1998, people from state security services came to power as Prime Ministers of Russia: a KGB veteran Yevgeny Primakov; former FSB Director Sergei Stepashin; and finally former FSB Director Vladimir Putin who was appointed in August 8 1999.

In August 7, Shamil Basaev began incursion to Dagestan which was regarded by Anna Politkovskaya as a provocation intitiated from Moscow to start war in Chechnya, because Russian forces provided safe passage for Islamic fighters back to Chechnya [1]. It was reported that Aleksander Voloshin from Yeltsin administration paid money to Shamil Basayev to stage this military operation [2] [3] [4] (Basaev reportedly worked for Russian GRU at this time and earlier [5] [6] [7]). In September 4 a series of four Russian apartment bombings began. Three FSB agents were caught while planting a large bomb at the basement of an apartment complex in the town of Ryazan in September 22. That was last of the bombings. Russian Minister of Internal Affairs Rushailo congratulated police with preventing the terrorist act, but FSB Director Nikolai Patrushev had declared that the incident was a training exercise just an hour later, when he had learned that the FSB agents are caught.

Next day, Boris Yeltsin received a demand from 24 Russian governors to transfer all state powers to Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, according to Sergei Yushenkov [8] Second Chechen War began in September 24. This war made Prime Minister Vladimir Putin very popular, although he was previously unknown to the public, and helped him to win a landslide victory in the presidential elections in March 26 2000.

That was a successful coup d'état organized by the FSB to bring Vladimir Putin to power, according to former FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko, lawmaker Sergei Yushenkov, and journalist David Satter, a Johns Hopkins University and Hoover Institute scholar [9] [8] [10]. All attempts to independently investigate the Russian apartment bombings were unsuccessful. Journalist Artyom Borovik died in a suspicious plane crash. Vice-chairman of Sergei Kovalev commission created to investigate the bombings Sergei Yushenkov was assassinated. Another member of this commission Yuri Shchekochikhin died presumably from poisoning by thallium. Investigator Mikhail Trepashkin hired by relatives of victims was arrested and convicted by Russian authorities for allegedly disclosing state secrets.

"Christmas Gifts" the FSB. FSB works, nor without Humor.FSB trend - distribute each year soft Eight gifts for us. Can we discuss it, perhaps?Antoin de Hoop Zweite (talk) 15:45, 1 December 2014 (UTC)

FSB as ruling political elite[edit]

According to former Russian Duma member Konstantin Borovoi, "Putin's appointment is the culmination of the KGB's crusade for power. This is its finale. Now the KGB runs the country." [11] Olga Kryshtanovskaya, director of the Moscow-based Center for the Study of Elites, has found that up to 78% of 1,016 leading political figures in Russia have served previously in organizations affiliated with KGB or FSB [12]. She said: "If in the Soviet period and the first post-Soviet period, the KGB and FSB people were mainly involved in security issues, now half are still involved in security but the other half are involved in business, political parties, NGOs, regional governments, even culture... They started to use all political institutions."[12] "Like cockroaches spreading from a squalid apartment to the rest of the building, they have eventually gained a firm foothold everywhere," said Sergei Grigoryants, a Soviet dissident. [11]

This situation is very similar to that of the former Soviet Union where all key positions in the government were occupied by members of the Communist Party. The KGB or FSB members usually remain in the "acting reserve" even if they formally leave the organization ("acting reserve" members receive second FSB salary, follow FSB instructions, and remain "above the law" being protected by the organization, according to Kryshtanovskaya [13]). As Vladimir Putin said, "There is no such thing as a former KGB man" [14]. GRU defector and writer Victor Suvorov explained that members of Russian security services can leave such organizations only in a coffin, because they know too much. Soon after becoming prime minister of Russia, Putin also claimed that "A group of FSB colleagues dispatched to work undercover in the government has successfully completed its first mission." [11].

The idea about KGB as a political force rather than a security organization has been discussed by journalist John Barron, historian Victor Suvorov, retired KGB Major General Oleg Kalugin [15], and Evgenia Albats, a Harvard graduate and writer on KGB subjects, who was assigned to examine the KGB archives after the failed Soviet coup attempt of 1991. According to Albats, most KGB leaders, including Lavrenty Beria, Yuri Andropov, and Vladimir Kryuchkov, have always struggled for the power with the Communist Party and manipulated the communist leaders. Moreover, FSB has formal membership, military discipline, an extensive network of civilian informants [16], hardcore ideology, and support of population (60% of Russians trust FSB [17]), which makes it a perfect totalitarian political party [18] However the FSB party does not advertise its leading role because the secrecy is an important advantage.

With regard to death of Aleksander Litvinenko, the highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa stated that there is "a band of over 6,000 former officers of the KGB — one of the most criminal organizations in history — who grabbed the most important positions in the federal and local governments, and who are perpetuating Stalin’s, Khrushchev’s, and Brezhnev’s practice of secretly assassinating people who stand in their way." [19]

Would be to complement maybe, possibly the article(item). Something about ehwige <FSB - GRU restate>. Maybe, this is planned in such a way to educate better achievements(performances) of both services. For unconcerned ones this looks funny anyhow. The mutual(reciprocal) denigrations, up to agents remove.Volvo1-BDR-841 (talk) 16:17, 2 October 2013 (UTC)

Suppression of internal dissent[edit]

Many Russian opposition lawmakers and investigative journalists have been assassinated while investigating corruption and alleged crimes conducted by FSB and state authorities: Sergei Yushenkov, ‎Yuri Shchekochikhin, Galina Starovoitova, Anna Politkovskaya, Alexander Litvinenko, Paul Klebnikov, Nadezhda Chaikova, Nina Yefimova, and many others [1] [20] [21], [16]. Former KGB officer Oleg Gordievsky believes that murders of writers Yuri Shchekochikhin (author of "Slaves of KGB" [1]), Anna Politkovskaya, and Aleksander Litvinenko show that FSB has returned to the practice of political assassinations [2] which were conducted in the past by Thirteenth KGB Department.[22] Just before his death, Alexander Litvinenko accused Vladimir Putin of personally ordering the assassination of Anna Politkovskaya.

An increasing number of scientists have been accused of espionage and illegal technology exports by FSB during the last decade: researcher Igor Sutyagin[23], physicist Valentin Danilov[24] , physical chemist Oleg Korobeinichev [25], academician Oskar Kaibyshev [26], and physicist Yury Ryzhov [27]. Some other widely covered cases of political prosecution include investigator Mikhail Trepashkin [28] and journalist Vladimir Rakhmankov [29]. All these people are either under arrest or serve long jail sentences. Human rights groups also identified Mikhail Khodorkovsky as a political prisoner.

Ecologist and journalist Alexander Nikitin, who worked with Bellona Foundation, was accused of espionage. He published material exposing hazards posed by the Russian Navy's nuclear fleet. He was acquitted in 1999 after spending several years in prison (his case was sent for re-investigation 13 times while he remained in prison). Other cases of prosecution are the cases of investigative journalist and ecologist Grigory Pasko [30] [31], Vladimir Petrenko who described danger posed by military chemical warfare stockpiles, and Nikolay Shchur, chairman of the Snezhinskiy Ecological Fund [32]

Other arrested people include Viktor Orekhov, a former KGB officer who assisted Soviet dissidents, Vladimir Kazantsev who disclosed illegal purchases of eavesdropping devices from foreign firms, and Vil Mirzayanov who had written that Russia was working on a nerve gas weapon [32]

Political dissidents from the former Soviet republics, such as Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, are often arrested by FSB and extradited to these countries for prosecution, despite to protests from international human rights organizations. [33] [34] Special services of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaidjan also kidnap people at the Russian territory, with the implicit approval of FSB [35]

There are credible reports that FSB use drugs to erase memory of people who had access to secret information [36]

Criticism of anti-terrorist operations[edit]

Use of excessive force by FSB spetsnaz was criticized with regard to resolving Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan hostage crisis. According to Sergey Kovalev, Russian government kills its citizens without any hesitation. He provided the following examples: murdering of hostages by the poison gas during Moscow theater hostage crisis; burning school children alive by spetsnaz soldiers who used RPO flamethrowers during Beslan school hostage crisis; crimes committed by death squads in Chechnya[37]; and assassination of Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev [38]. Anna Politkovskaya and Irina Hakamada, who conducted unofficial negotiations with terrorists, stated that the hostage takers were not going to use their bombs to kill the people and destroy the building during Moscow theater hostage crisis [3]. This was supported by the subsequent events when the Chechens did not use their bombs.

It is also possible that FSB has returned to the old NKVD practice of creating puppet rebel forces, as during the Trust Operation, Basmachi Revolt, or operations against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army [39] Former FSB officer Aleksander Litvinenko stated in a June 2003 interview, with the Australian SBS television programme Dateline, that two of the Chechen terrorists involved in the 2002 Moscow theatre hostage crisis — whom he named as "Abdul the Bloody" and "Abu Bakar" — were working for the FSB, and that the agency manipulated the rebels into staging the attack.[40] Litvinenko said: "[w]hen they tried to find [Abdul the Bloody and Abu Bakar] among the dead terrorists, they weren't there. The FSB got its agents out. So the FSB agents among Chechens organised the whole thing on FSB orders, and those agents were released." The story about FSB connections with the hostage takers was confirmed by Mikhail Trepashkin. [41] Yulia Latynina and other journalists also accused FSB of staging many smaller terrorism acts, such as market place bombing in the city of Astrakhan, bus stops bombings in the city of Voronezh, and the blowing up the Moscow-Grozny train [42] [43], whereas innocent people were convicted or killed. Journalist Boris Stomakhin claimed that bombing in Moscow metro in 2004 [44] was probably organized by FSB agents rather than by the unknown man who called to Kavkaz Center and claimed his responsibility [45]. Stomakin was arrested and imprisoned for writing this and other articles. [46]

Many journalists and workers of international NGOs are reported to be kidnapped by FSB-affiliated forces in Chechnya who pretended to be Chechen terrorists: Andrei Babitsky from Radio Free Europe, Arjan Erkel and Kenneth Glack from Doctors Without Borders, and others [47]

According to Anna Politkovskaya, most of the "Islamic terrorism cases" were fabricated by the government, and the confessions have been obtained through the torture of innocent suspects. "The plight of those sentenced for Islamic terrorism today is the same as that of the political prisoners of the Gulag Archipelago... Russia continues to be infected by Stalinism", she said. [48].

It seems too simple and even false to say that the terrorists who took over the moscow theater were not going to use their bombs as supported by subsequent events. I'm assuming these subsequent events are referencing to the Beslan school crisis where the terrorists did use bombs; however their use is mired in controversy as seen on the Beslan wiki page. This should be changed.Mahhag 07:46, 11 June 2007 (UTC)
O'K, I deleted sentence about "subsequent events" as suggestion not supported directly by references (I will have to check sources). What was meant is that terrorists actually did not not use their bombs, although they had every possibility to do this (people remained conscience during few minutes after they felt the smell of the gas).Biophys 14:44, 11 June 2007 (UTC)
This segment says: "Use of excessive force by FSB spetsnaz was criticized with regard to resolving Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan hostage crisis." It does not say that Moscow theater crisis was organized by FSB (although it was). This is now only described as claim by Litvinenko and Trepshkin. Last segment ("most of the "Islamic terrorism cases" ) is not about Moscow theater hostage crisis at all; it is about different cases. Saying that, I agree that article should be improved and will work in this direction. You comments are very welcome.Biophys 14:25, 11 June 2007 (UTC)
As about the essence of your question, I must tell that in both cases (Moscow theater and Beslan), a vast majority of hostages were killed by governmental forces, not by terrorists, and this is simply a matter of fact. In Beslan they used RPO flamethrowers and allegedly tank guns to fire to the school. Both articles about Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan must be improved.Biophys 14:39, 11 June 2007 (UTC)

Alleged involvement in organized crime[edit]

Former FSB officer Aleksander Litvinenko accused FSB personnel of involvement in organized crime, such as drug trafficking and contract killings. [49] It was noted that FSB, far from being a reliable instrument in the fight against organized crime, is institutionally a part of the problem, due not only to its co-optation and penetration by criminal elements, but to its own absence of a legal bureaucratic culture and use of crime as an instrument of state policy [50]

International affairs[edit]

FSB collaborates very closely with secret police services from some former Soviet Republics, especially Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan [51] [52] The FSB is accused of working to undermine governments of Baltic states[52] and Georgia [53]. During 2006 Georgian-Russian espionage controversy several Russian GRU officers were accused by Georgian authorities of preparations to commit sabotage and terrorist acts. Historian J. R. Nyquist believes that "The KGB president of Russia wants to reestablish the USSR. Whether America likes it or not, this very fact leads us to a new Cold War." [54]

Chairman of the United Nations Special Commission Richard Butler found than many Russian state-controlled companies are involved in the Oil-for-Food Programme-related fraud. As a part of this affair, former FSB Director Yevgeny Primakov had received large kickbacks from Saddam Hussein according to Butler [4]. KGB, FSB and Russian government had very close relationships with Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Intelligence Service Mukhabarat according to Yossef Bodansky, the Director of Research of the International Strategic Studies Association.

Не, а что вы <> пугаете? Ето же наши ЦРУ&ФСБ. Ну генерал прокурор заинвестировал пару евро. Ну, сколько заинвестировал столько и отдадут.Riverun2 (talk) 12:42, 17 March 2014 (UTC)

Criminal Organization[edit]

FSS should be classified as a criminal organization, just like CIA.

Deletion of links and references[edit]

Pleas explain your deletions of links. Thanks, Biophys (talk) 20:31, 21 April 2009 (UTC)

The "further reading" section is completely unnecessary and redundant, as the books are already used in the article as sources. The "external links" section is way too long. As per WP:EL: "long lists of links are not acceptable." Furthermore, the section is very unbalanced regarding POV: it only has links to criticism articles. Offliner (talk) 20:35, 21 April 2009 (UTC)
You removed the following links:

Books or chapters of books about the FSB[edit]

Links to educational web sites about Russian secret agencies[edit]

Key publications on FSB influence in Russia[edit]


Some of them are important books about FSB. Others are reviews, and not all of them were cited. Having such links is helpful for a reader.Biophys (talk) 20:44, 21 April 2009 (UTC)

The EL section is against Wikipedia:El#Avoid_undue_weight_on_particular_points_of_view and Wikipedia:El#Links_to_be_considered - "long lists of links are not acceptable." Wikipedia is WP:NOT a web directory. And like I said, the "further reading" section is completely redundant as the books are already used in the article as sources. Offliner (talk) 20:50, 21 April 2009 (UTC)
Most of these links are consistent with Wikipedia:El#Links_to_be_considered. If you think any of them is not, please explain why.Biophys (talk) 21:08, 21 April 2009 (UTC)
OK, I checked and sorted the links. All of them (except perhaps "others") are useful for a reader as general books or reviews on the subject. What's the problem? Biophys (talk) 20:47, 25 April 2009 (UTC)
I don't like to repeat myself endlessly as you obviously aren't going to pay attention anyway. "What is the problem?" - read what I have said above, I have explained the problem there. Offliner (talk) 20:56, 25 April 2009 (UTC)
You did not provide any arguments beyond flatly telling: "The "further reading" section is completely unnecessary and redundant".Biophys (talk) 20:59, 25 April 2009 (UTC)
I guess I have no choice but to repeat myself afterl all: that section is completely unnecessary, as the books mentioned in it are already used in the article as sources. Offliner (talk) 21:05, 25 April 2009 (UTC)
I can see that User:Russavia just joined you to remove some undesirable information including the famous quote [5]. That will be my pleasure to write down a lot more about this notable organization, as time allows.Biophys (talk) 15:40, 26 April 2009 (UTC)

About healthy competitors between great powers. Suppose a healthy FSB - GRU between competitors is not always bad. In the case of certain Kalashnikov - merchants from France FSB has jumped in time to help. This <Al Asa> wanted to elliminieren whole Procouroutour de Roi! Or? From other side, but also sometimes to exaggerate. Just as with a drug courier (e.g.). Exestieren but ordinary means. Yes, and. Look what came of it, the 18-s in Sirya. Belgian soldiers want to come but also dalan major help. Or? Here it must be said, previous FSB regional Shef worked more smoothly, so do intiligent. Via Chevalier's of place, always took advantage of "gloves", jugoslavenische, Hebrew. So, what miemand noticed. Yes. Transported by this stat waschington. Or ?Fergfzrgfz (talk) 20:33, 6 October 2013 (UTC)

Military History Assessment[edit]

Article assessed as start class for military history. The Military History project does not use the C class at this time. --dashiellx (talk) 11:03, 11 May 2009 (UTC)

On the eve of New Year gifts. It makes sense to make the web beautiful with the link to the FSB's umbrella organizations. Recipient will know where to turn to.

... Weinachtsmann2 (talk) 19:00, 16 December 2014 (UTC)

Overfocusing on criticism and conspiracy theories[edit]

I think this article is overfocusing on the various conspiracy theories about FSB. We should concentrate mainly on describing the organization - on factual, uncontroversial information. Currently the article tries to advance the theory "Russia is an evil FSB-controlled totalitarian state" in almost every chapter. The material comes from a few conspiracy theory books, such as the one by Litvinenko and Felshtinsky (both are associates of the anti-Kremlin oligarch Berezovsky, and the books and documentaries are financed by him.) But the book is not really an academic source, so we should over overrely on it. I agree that the conspiracy theories should be discussed, but currently we are giving them too much space in relation to other things. Offliner (talk) 03:54, 28 May 2009 (UTC)

I still think this article is hugely biased. It's not really an article about the FSB, it's an article about criticism of FSB. Offliner (talk) 09:06, 19 July 2009 (UTC)
Agreed. Virtually half the article is based on unsubstantiated claims and conspiracies. Not acceptable for an encyclopedia, although considering this is wikipedia, not surprising either. LokiiT (talk) 08:40, 3 August 2009 (UTC)
I don't think it is a conspiracy—but details do need to be substantiated or removed. Charles Edwin Shipp (talk) 01:31, 9 July 2010 (UTC)
I'm just going to do exactly that - some of the information were indeed based on hearsay and unsourced (like the alleged Putin's phrase "there are no former Chekists") but majority of the information in the former criticism section was pretty well sourced and valid. This 2009 deletion brought this article to a rather absurd state, where the Russian FSB seems to be apparrently the only security service in the world that is not controversial and criticised —just have a look at Central Intelligence Agency or List of Israeli assassinations for comparison, how huge the criticism sections are for these agencies. In fact, FSB faces huge criticism from within Russia, not only for large scale operations where their operatives were actually arrested (Russian apartment bombings) but also for petty crime, extortions and bribery —and all that needs to be properly documented here. Kravietz (talk) 09:41, 20 July 2015 (UTC)

Total mistake in this article (History)[edit]

The Cheka was first organization in the FSB history. Beginning of the FSB is 1917 year, December 20 (other history does not exist in the nature). - Mros4554 (talk) 00:33, 3 May 2015 (UTC).

  1. ^ a b Politkovskaya, Anna (2003) A Small Corner of Hell: Dispatches from Chechnya
  2. ^ The Second Russo-Chechen War Two Years On - by John B. Dunlop, ACPC, October 17, 2001
  3. ^ Paul Klebnikov: Godfather of the Kremlin: The Decline of Russia in the Age of Gangster Capitalism, ISBN 0-15-601330-4
  4. ^ The Operation "Successor" by Vladimir Pribylovsky and Yuriy Felshtinsky (in Russian).
  5. ^ Western leaders betray Aslan Maskhadov - by Andre Glucksmann. Prima-News, March 11, 2005
  6. ^ CHECHEN PARLIAMENTARY SPEAKER: BASAEV WAS G.R.U. OFFICER The Jamestown Foundation, September 08, 2006
  7. ^ Analysis: Has Chechnya's Strongman Signed His Own Death Warrant? - by Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, March 1, 2005
  8. ^ a b Sergei Yushenkov: That was a coup in 1999.
  9. ^ Yuri Felshtinsky, Alexander Litvinenko, and Geoffrey Andrews. Blowing up Russia : Terror from within. New York 2002. ISBN 1-56171-938-2.
  10. ^ David Satter. Darkness at Dawn: The Rise of the Russian Criminal State. Yale University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-300-09892-8.
  11. ^ a b c The KGB Rises Again in Russia - by R.C. Paddock - Los Angeles Times, January 12, 2000
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Finn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Interview with Olga Kryshtanovskaya (Russian) "Siloviks in power: fears or reality?" by Evgenia Albats, Echo of Moscow, 4 February 2006
  14. ^ A Chill in the Moscow Air - by Owen Matthews and Anna Nemtsova - Newsweek International, Feb. 6, 2006
  15. ^ The Triumph of the KGB by retired KGB Major General Oleg D. Kalugin The Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies
  16. ^ a b Slaves of KGB. 20th Century. The religion of betrayal (Рабы ГБ. XX век. Религия предательства), by Yuri Shchekochikhin Moscow, 1999.
  17. ^ Archives explosion by Maksim Artemiev,, December 22, 2006
  18. ^ Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia--Past, Present, and Future. 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5.
  19. ^ The Kremlin’s Killing Ways - by Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review Online, November 28, 2006
  20. ^ Amnesty International condemns the political murder of Russian human rights advocate Galina Starovoitova
  21. ^ Yushenkov: A Russian idealist
  22. ^ *Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West, Gardners Books (2000), ISBN 0-14-028487-7
  23. ^ Case study: Igor Sutiagin
  24. ^ AAAS Human Rights Action Network
  25. ^ Russian Scientist Charged With Disclosing State Secret
  26. ^ Oskar Kaibyshev convicted
  27. ^ Researchers Throw Up Their Arms
  28. ^ Trepashkin case
  29. ^ Russia: 'Phallic' Case Threatens Internet Freedom
  30. ^ Grigory Pasko site
  31. ^ The Pasko case
  32. ^ a b Counterintelligence Cases- by
  33. ^ "An oppositioner was transfered to Rakhmonov" by Irina Borogan - Novaya Gazeta
  34. ^ FSB serves to Islam - by Aleksander Podrabinek - Novaya Gazeta
  35. ^ "Special services of former Soviet republics at the Russian territory" - by Andrei Soldatov - Novaya Gazeta (Russian)
  36. ^ "A nuclear chemist has been returned to a childhood state". - by Aleksei Tarasov - Novaya Gazeta (Russian)
  37. ^ Russia Condemned for Chechnya Killings
  38. ^ Sergey Kovalev - Interview to Radio Free Europe
  39. ^ Yossef Bodansky The Secret History of the Iraq War (Notes: The historical record). Regan Books, 2005, ISBN 0-060-73680-1
  40. ^ Lazaredes, Nick (04 June 2003). "Terrorism takes front stage — Russia’s theatre siege". SBS. Retrieved 2006-11-28.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  41. ^ (Russian)"М. Трепашкин: «Создана очень серьезная группа»". Chechen Press State News Agency. 1 December, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-01.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  42. ^ Special services stage undermining activities - by Yulia Latynina, Novaya Gazeta, 03 April, 2006.
  43. ^ The marketplace was blown up by photorobots by Vjacheslav Izmailov, Novaya Gazeta, 07 November, 2005.
  44. ^ The Moscow metro bombing - by Roman Kupchinsky, RFE/RL Reports, 12 March, 2004
  45. ^ Pay back for genocide (Russian) - by Boris Stomakhin
  46. ^ ARTICLE 19’S Statement on the conviction of Russian newspaper editor Boris Stomakhin, 23 November 2006
  47. ^ Special services of delivery (Russian) - by Vyacheslav Ismailov, Novaya Gazeta 27 January, 2005
  48. ^ Stalinism Forever - by Anna Politkovskaya - The Washington Post
  49. ^ A. Litvinenko and A. Goldfarb. Gang from Lubyanka (Russian) GRANI, New York, 2002. ISBN 0-9723878-0-3. Full book in Russian
  50. ^ Russia's Great Criminal Revolution: The Role of the Security Services - by J. M. Waller and V. J. Yasmann, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 1995.
  51. ^ Special services of the former Soviet Union work in Russian Federation (Russian) - by Andrei Soldatov and Irina Dorogan, Novaya Gazeta, 27 February, 2006.
  52. ^ a b Special services of Russian Federation work in the former Soviet Union (Russian) - by Andrei Soldatov and Irina Dorogan, Novaya Gazeta, 27 March, 2006.
  53. ^ Moscow Accused of Backing Georgian Revolt - by Olga Allenova and Vladimir Novikov, Kommersant, Sep. 07, 2006.
  54. ^ Eternal Recurrence by J. R. Nyquist, Geopolitical Global Analysis, April 29, 2005