Talk:Gender pay gap

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uncited line in intro contradicts graph[edit]

"While in the United States, the gender pay gap has increased for younger women and decreased for older women, in the UK the opposite is taking place. In both countries, however, the pay gap is greater for older women than younger women"

The graph(figure 2) on this page shows that the gap has decreased on all counts. At least be consistent. (talk)

this one? No it doesn't. Ironholds (talk) 12:29, 3 September 2015 (UTC)

removed entire section: "Effect of socialization on gender pay-gaps"[edit]

  • I removed the entire section; you can read it in article history. The section cited one statistic saying that differences in career paths between men and women account for 53% of the wage gap, but then it places that factoid within the frame of an unverified POV assertion (even in the heading of the section) that these career differences are due to the disempowering effects of society upon women. That ignores the possibility that women consciously trade lower-paying jobs for ones with a better working environment, etc. This section can be completely rewritten with a POV-neutral heading, and far better statistics, but in its current state it neither makes the case nor remains neutral. • ArchReader 13:15, 13 May 2015 (UTC)
    No, it cited two peer-reviewed academic papers and tied them together - and I'm not seeing what's POV about the heading. Could you explain that bit? You removed a chunk of the article actually far better referenced than a large portion of the rest. Ironholds (talk) 02:50, 15 May 2015 (UTC)
    • Yes. It cites one little stat that says that women receive different pay regardless of similar qualifications, and another which states that the wage gap is related to job selection. Well OK, those can be kept, but they are apples and oranges (qualifications vs. job selection), and belong in different sections. Even more, the WHOLE SECTION is POV because it explicitly attributes job choices to nebulous, disempowering forces of society. Bullfeathers. Job choice is not dictated by some dark, sinister disempowering force. The higher-paying jobs that males predominantly take are *unpleasant* and often even *dangerous* ones (e.g., coal miner). Women self-select careers that have better working conditions but lower pay. The heading is POV because it very explicitly attributes job selection to those mysterious disempowering social forces. The section quotes two disparate stats that belong in different sections, then assumes an editorial voice and shoves a POV-laden narrative that "explains" those two stats down the reader's throat, when other explanations are far more reasonable. The entire section is explicitly situated within this narrative. @Ironholds:, please put on your thinking cap. The two different stats belong in different sections of any reasonable organization scheme, and the "social forces" narrative belongs in some section that explicitly labels it as speculation rather than fact. When the heading of the section and the text below it explicitly select one speculative narrative over others, Wikipedia is takng on an editorial voice. Do you want Wikipedia to assume an editorial voice? If so, please get a job with a partisan online source. If not, please self-revert and rewrite the whole darn article. , • ArchReader 10:04, 15 May 2015 (UTC)
      • Even more, the WHOLE SECTION is POV because it explicitly attributes job choices to nebulous, disempowering forces of society. Bullfeathers. Job choice is not dictated by some dark, sinister disempowering force. The higher-paying jobs that males predominantly take are *unpleasant* and often even *dangerous* ones (e.g., coal miner). Women self-select careers that have better working conditions but lower pay. you've provided absolutely no citations for this and it appears to be your personal opinion - your personal opinion, that you're using to justify editorial choices and the removal of content actually referenced to reliable, third-party sources, of which neither of us are. You seem to be desiring an editorial voice for Wikipedia yourself, simply one that disagrees with the content of the article.
      • If you can give examples of how you would like the article rearranged, based on reliable sources, I am happy to add to them and include them (with consensus!) in the article once everyone here finds them satisfying. But if you wish to rearrange the article based on your own anecdotal evidence of the causes of the gender pay gap and the lived experiences of men and women, well, that's, as you would say, bullfeathers. Ironholds (talk) 22:30, 15 May 2015 (UTC)
      • You are favoring one anecdotal account over another. That is POV in its purest form. I want to rewrite the entire article, top to bottom, to reflect what is actually stated in statistically valid sources. I want to explicitly state that opinions are opinions, wherever opinions are given. And yes, that stuff about society forcing or pressuring (or whatever verb you want to use) women to choose certain fields is 100% unadulterated worldview-based narrative. Also known as Opinion.. • ArchReader 05:13, 16 May 2015 (UTC)
        • Why are peer-reviewed journal articles anecdotal accounts to you? If you mean you don't recognise qualitative research as valid research, well, that's your problem to take up with...pretty much every academic field. Ironholds (talk) 14:44, 16 May 2015 (UTC)
          • @Ironholds:, please listen. Please think. That section contains three and only three elements. Please think about what the content actually is. So we have: 1) a cite that says that women get differing pay even when they have the same qualifications. That is a complicated topic that deserves an entire dedicated section rather than a drive-by lone cite, and just lobbing one cite at it is genuinely simplistic, but OK, it's a cite, and we can accept it for now. [I haven't even verified it yet, but for the moment I gladly assume it's a valid cite.]. Then second we have 2) a cite that says that 53% of the pay gap is due to the different fields that men and women are employed in. OK. We have 2 cites. We are assuming those two cites are fully and absolutely valid. Now, what is the third thing we have? We have some Wikipedia editor attempting to draw out a narrative that connects two unconnected cites, taking on an editorial voice and "explaining" those cites by framing them within his or her worldview. It's one Wikipedian standing on a soapbox and informing the entire world the what two completely unrelated cites "Really Mean", and "Real Truth" of what what "Really Causes" the factoids behind those two cites, according to that Wikipedian's personal view of things. That is all we have. Two unrelated factoids and a rather sweeping soapbox. Why is that impossible for you to see?• ArchReader 22:57, 16 May 2015 (UTC)

──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── "please listen. Please think." please don't patronize your fellow editors. Also I'm 100% certain that the two cites we're discussing do not constitute the whole universe of work on compensating differentials. Jeez. Protonk (talk) 11:59, 17 May 2015 (UTC)

  • Thanks, Protonk; fully agreed. ArchReader, your attitude and behaviour here are both problematic: please try to take a more constructive attitude. On the rework of the article, I fully support a rework - I'm somewhat confused as to why the starting point is checking cited elements rather than removing totally uncited elements, though. Ironholds (talk) 13:07, 17 May 2015 (UTC)
  • This post is very, very long, but it is necessarily long because the arguments require close and extended examination. Please do not insult me by personal attacks, saying tldr/condescending/patronizing etc. If you don't wanna read, then you vastly reduce the value of your input to this phase of the discussion... OK then…. The "socialization" section was originally such a beautiful & classic example of WP:Coatrack that – really – someone should copy/paste the version in recent article history to the WP:Coatrack essay, as an illustrative case. Now, before I discuss the current text, please allow me to suggest that we define "socialization" in the relevant section. A source that Protonk seems to have added (Reskin 1993) states: "Both the socialization and neoclassical-economic perspectives on segregation contend that workers' occupational outcomes reflect their preferences. Socialization theories emphasize the different preferences the sexes develop before reaching adulthood..." So "socialization" means that women self-select stereotypically "feminine" careers, but the decision reflects preferences formed during young, formative years.. This definition is useful for the discussion, and later assertions need to be worded carefully to fit within that definition (or deleted if they cannot fit under it)... OK, the current text, as amended by Protonk after my extended complaints, is still quite problematic. It currently has 5 sentences. The first sentences provides a topic, with cites. That's kind of OK in so far as it goes (tho I will check the cites later, and tho I think it's still not unpacked enough.. but OK for now). The second sentence – @Ironholds:, if you want to delete unsupported sentences, this one sticks out like ten sore thumbs. Its assertions are sweeping and unsupported. The third sentence, recently added by Protonk, adds a new thicket of factoids but provides little light to the reader. In fact, it seems both self-contradictory and unsupported by the source. Work with me here: the first half says "Job choices influenced by socialization are often slotted in to 'demand-side' decisions in frameworks of wage discrimination." It's sourced to Reskin, and it's true that Reskin discusses demand-side decisions (among other things), but I can't see where this source claims that demand-side decisions are held to be more prevalent in determining presumed inequality (and may I presume that "often slotted into" means "often described as being"?). Even worse, the source defines "demand-side" as including "employers' preferences, the demand for workers, economic pressures, discrimination, and personnel practices". Note the absence of the word "socialization" among demand-side issues. But the source describes "supply-side explanations" as including "the size of the labor supply, the neoclassical human-capital explanation, gender-role socialization [my emphasis], workers' values, and the opportunity structure..." So the source defines socialization as a supply side explanation, while the Wikipedia article's section about socialization makes the (unsupported?) claim that Reskin says "demand-side" considerations are (more?) often discussed. That doesn't seem to make sense; in a section about socialization, you should be trying to establish that supply-side explanations (including socialization) are powerful explanatory factors… so what we have so far is that 1) the source doesn't seem to claim what Protonk claims it claims, or if it does so, then it does so only in passing, and 2) Protonk's claim undermines the section's argument rather than supporting it, anyhow. Moving on, the second half of that sentence says "… rather than as a result of extant labor market discrimination influencing job choice". What does that mean, and how should we connect it to the first half? It seems to mean that the market – the demand-side – acts in ways that influence the employees – the supply side --- to make decisions that segregate themselves by gender. Well, socialization is self-segregation (but presumably it is "bad" in the sense that it is a result of "brainwashing", forgive my loose terminology, though I actually can't find where reskin makes that particular assertion). So the whole sentence say… maybe it says… "Job choices influenced by [supply-side] socialization are often described as being a result of demand-side considerations… rather than demand-side considerations affecting supply-side decisions." To me at least it sounds like multiple layers of self-contradiction. Please do correct me if I'm wrong. Continuing on, we have: "Nonetheless, women continue to do well in higher education when compared to men. Yet studies show the existence of a pay gap even when a woman and man hold the same degree and same experience level." Would anyone like to explain to me what on earth this assertion has to do with the.. socially-impelled self-selection that reflects attitudes formed during youth...? Thanks for your patience. • ArchReader 07:12, 18 May 2015 (UTC)
No, I'm not going to forgive your loose terminology. If you're going to huff and puff about how I have to read the above carefully otherwise I'll "vastly reduce the value of [my] input to this phase of the discussion" then you can learn the correct fucking terminology and acquaint yourself with the sources on the subject. Protonk (talk) 11:37, 18 May 2015 (UTC)
My Reskin addition was sloppy, I'll fix that. You'll want to read 260-263 for some detail (and other sources) on the role of socialization specifically. Protonk (talk) 11:57, 18 May 2015 (UTC)
ArchReader, if you genuinely don't see why your attitude or behaviour here is a problem, then this is likely to end badly. You've come in and stated that the article is a hot mess; that's not a problem. The problem is that the attitude you're taking is patronising and it's not a personal attack to point that out. Ironholds (talk) 15:56, 18 May 2015 (UTC)
    • Your comment immediately above is more or less identical in meaning to a comment you made in another forum here, so I refer you to my reply on that same forum, here. Sorry for the inconvenience. • ArchReader 01:30, 19 May 2015 (UTC)
  • Dear Protonk, my "loose terminology' is that I was being casual when I said "brainwashed". No need to reach for the f-bombs. Thank you for telling me that I need to read more about the topic. I already know this. My plan for this page is a very, very long term plan ("eventualist"). I plan to learn quite a bit as I go. I have never pretended to have any knowledge in this area at all. However, what I do have knowledge about is writing. This article is... I'm concerned that any description that really captures the level of inadequacy present here would be construed as a personal attack on its various editors. To call it "sloppy" would be an act of kindness. I'm not saying this to score points in some personal quarrel with you or anyone else. I'm saying it because it is simply and flatly true. But this is not the end of the world. We have the technology. We can rebuild it. • ArchReader 13:09, 18 May 2015 (UTC)
    • I'm not going to be concerned about offending you when this "Job choice is not dictated by some dark, sinister disempowering force. The higher-paying jobs that males predominantly take are *unpleasant* and often even *dangerous* ones (e.g., coal miner). Women self-select careers that have better working conditions but lower pay. The heading is POV because it very explicitly attributes job selection to those mysterious disempowering social forces." is already on the table. If your prior is to treat long and widely documented socialization problems as fairy tales using a pretty selective reading of compensating differentials, then I'd consider you to think deeply about whether or not that is some commonly held "truth". If you'd like I can offer some systematic or narrative reviews in the literature outlining different models for thinking about the wage gap as well as empirical support for them. This is not some fanciful semiotic jaunt through a late 20th century poem. Economists, sociologists, demographers and anthropologists have been studying the changing gender makeup of the labor force (worldwide, but in US/Canada/UK/Germany more than others) as well as the pay gap since before world war II. Much of that research goes into the inputs to the labor force, the sociological or economic reasons why women might choose a specific job, career path or education. That specific branch still has hundreds of papers from sociologists and economists. This is not new ground and it is not some abstract concept. Protonk (talk) 14:12, 18 May 2015 (UTC)
    • As an example of this, let's take a look at women on submarines. In the US they basically couldn't be assigned to submarines until 2013, and then only in specific boats (newer ones). Let's fast forward 10 years. Submariners are still likely to be disproportionately male, despite personnel officers and recruiters desperately looking for women interested in submarines. Let's also imagine, because we're being charitable, that everyone along the chain to get to the fleet is really excited about a women going through the pipeline. They wouldn't be the first (we've already seen them), but let's pretend that the military suddenly becomes pretty welcoming of women in this avenue. What about the women who choose to do it? Some of them will get captivated at an early age by some image and will immediately self-select, just like men did prior to 2013. But how might that happen? None of the movies they see about submarines will have women in them in any significant way. Das Boot, Hunt for Red October, Crimson Tide. All men. Those movies recruited so many fucking submariners on their own but a girl or woman watching them doesn't have anyone to relate to of the same gender. Even if they do relate to a man--and let's be fucking real they've basically had to forever--they're being sent a pretty clear signal that girls weren't allowed. But she presses on and when she's nearing the end of high school or college she talks to a recruiter. Lots of times recruiters will sell specific jobs (usually those with a performance bonus attached) based on personal experience or bring in someone who can. If this woman wanted to speak to a stateside submariner, the person would most likely be male. Ditto for the instructors at her school(s). 10 years after integration and all the senior people in the training commands are still men, because anyone with 10+ years in is male and nearly all of the remainder are male as well (sheer numbers plays a role). If they make it through, the command structure at sea will be largely male for some time (for the same reasons). You'll maybe see one female submarine XO by 2023, maybe. Out of dozens of boats. Same with senior enlisted. That's the best case scenario. None of the actual discrimination we know exists in the service and none of the exclusionary boys club attitude that has been part of the submarine force for decades. Best case scenario and navigating that as a woman is a pretty lonely road. By the by, those submariners? They make more money on average than the rest of the fleet, they get promotions faster (across most rates) and they get to live in base housing earlier. Someone who chooses another job in the navy (save pilots or specops, two other notable boys clubs) will make less money and we will report it as them self-selecting out of a more arduous job that pays more. Protonk (talk) 14:34, 18 May 2015 (UTC)
      • The above is just a hypothetical with a formerly sex-segregated, higher paying industry. Plenty of jobs have paths to them where socialization is crucial even for pointing already motivated people the right direction. That's not even throwing out larger, documented problems with socialization in determining outcomes. Like I said, best case scenario. None of these mechanisms are magical or brainwashing in any conceivable way. They're studied (empirically, qualitatively and in the lab) and the results that are robust are pretty non-trivial. They also (thankfully) mostly fit with the more common models of discrimination. Socialization can co-exist as a barrier to equal pay with other forms of discrimination. In some places their pronouncements conflict depending on the authors you choose, but that's where narrative literature reviews and work in academic handbooks and monographs is really helpful. People have spent a lot of time writing about this. The sources are out there. Protonk (talk) 14:44, 18 May 2015 (UTC)
  • @Protonk: It seems that the genesis of this discussion, and an ongoing theme, is that I have created a misperception that I am militating in favor of one POV over another (that is, in favor of one explantion over another). That perception arose because I deleted an entire section about socialization, and basically said it was bullshit. Now, please let me correct the misperception: I am not saying that the socialization explanation is bullshit. I am saying the the section as it exited was both WP:Coatrack and WP:POV. I am saying that the section of Wikipedia text, as it was written, was complete and utter shambolic bollocks. Now, if we create a very well-written section about scoialization, which carefully defines and qualifies all its important terms, and carefully and prominently states that this is only of possible explanation, then that section would meet with my applause and strong approval. I am not about striking down one POV; I am about identifying POVs as POVs and explaining them very, very, very, very, very carefully. Does that make more sense? • ArchReader 07:35, 19 May 2015 (UTC)
    • Oh, so your statement "Job choice is not dictated by some dark, sinister disempowering force." was just talking about the prose of our wikipedia page! And I presume the heading you're referring to here ("The heading is POV because it very explicitly attributes job selection to those mysterious disempowering social forces.") is Effect of socialization on gender pay-gaps? That sounds pretty totalizing. None of that is about a prior position on the wage gap? Look, we all come to the table with priors. The goal here is to work together to write a resource that is useful, clear and neutral. I'm perfectly willing to do that. But this true neutral editor schtick has got to stop. It's tiresome. First off, if you go around shouting at other editors about how neutral you are, how many people do you think that convinces? Do you think after you've said "I am about identifying POVs as POVs and explaining them very, very, very, very, very carefully" my first thought it "wow, this guy is really careful and neutral, I better respect what he has to say"? How about you write very carefully and edit very carefully and let other editors make their own determinations of your neutrality. Because to do otherwise is to waste everyone's time. Protonk (talk) 11:07, 19 May 2015 (UTC)
  • @Protonk: You may have noticed that I have stopped editing the page, except for moving a couple sentences (unchanged). I did that (as opposed to editing the article) specifically because others obviously disagree with (reverted!) my edits, and Talk is where things are hammered out. I am sorry if this has wasted your time. I will happily edit the page, but it will take a long time and a lot of reading even to get cranked up & going. Forex, I think a very early section should discuss different measures of the gap (units, I mean: raw weekly, etc.), and discuss how selecting a unit of measurement impacts the end result. The lede's assertion that "The European Commission defines it as the average difference between men’s and women’s hourly earnings" may be literally quite true, but it is very misleading, because it omits a discussion of the fact that different sources use different measures, and comparing their results is apples and oranges. Then I wonder if the whole structure of the article could be reworked. The "possible explanation" sections could follow Reskin's description of demand/supply and her list of those, with a discussion of each. This seems logical and orderly. There needs to be a discussion of this topic's status as a political football, etc. There needs to be a more global view. And many of the sources are stale, either broken, or just old and outdated. And on and on. If you will let me edit, I will try, but it is a massive undertaking, and intermediate edits will be inadequate etc. So I can work in userspace – yours or mine – but the problem with that is that other editors will change things here in the interim. Or I can work here, but I think it needs several new sections, so it will be a bit chaotic. Or I suppose I could write in userspace but do it section by section, then import one section at a time when it is finished. And so on. So then. Feel free to judge me by my edits. • ArchReader 11:36, 19 May 2015 (UTC)
    Or we could just work on it at TalK:Gender pay gap/sandbox . Ironholds (talk) 16:25, 19 May 2015 (UTC)
    • My vague memory from many years ago is that it is somehow or other against some rule somewhere to put sandboxes in mainspace (article space). • ArchReader

full rewrite, stage 1: verification of citations[edit]

  • At the moment that I'm writing this, I see 53 ref links (tho some are linked to more than once). The first stage of a full rewrite is to verify that every citation actually contains the assertion that Wikipedia alleges it contains. I will do this, tho it may take a while, because I don't really have large blocks of contiguous free time. Any and all cites that do not contain the purported assertions will be removed immediately. Please do note that I will not always read the full text of every source, but will instead search for (CTRL-F) a number of related keywords. It is possible that I may make a mistake. If I do, please do not assume bad faith. If you point out any errors that I may make, I will restore the relevant text immediately. Also, I plan to use exactly the same edit summary every time, to make these edits particularly easy to spot. I was thinking rm assertion not supported by src, but if you have a better suggestion, please do let me know. Next, I realize that sometimes the ref might have been valid when originally inserted, but someone may have stuck some dodgy text in between the (originally valid) citeref and valid text. So I will try to backtrack a few sentences whenever I find a bad cite, to see if the cite can be retained next to valid text. And finally, I probably won't be working in a straight line from cite 1 to cite 53, merely because that's a little tedious. But I will check every cite. Thank you for your patience. • ArchReader 09:27, 17 May 2015 (UTC)

Sources held list[edit]

  • I am just now beginning to gather sources. While we're working on this (which for me at least may be weeks if not months), I will keep a list of fulltext sources that I acquire at: User:ArchReader/gendergap. Tks. • ArchReader 10:32, 19 May 2015 (UTC)

request consensus: modify referencing to include notes section, for page numbers[edit]

  • It would be a long time before I actually change the existing article page, but while I am working on a rewrite, I would like consensus to start from scratch with a referencing system that I believe supplies more specific information to the reader. The example I have in mind is the system used in Funerary art: the <ref> tags are used to place page numbers and occasionally comments in a Notes section (see WP:CITESHORT), and full references are written out just below that in a References section.• ArchReader 11:16, 22 May 2015 (UTC)
    Seems totally fine by me; I tend to use "References" for page-level entries and "Bibliography" for the works, but naming conventions around this are fuzzy for good reason. Comments I think we should shy away from unless they're supported by references. Ironholds (talk) 23:09, 23 May 2015 (UTC)

How calculated[edit]

The article could use some background information on how earnings are calculated. In the "Weekly Earnings" time series chart, for instance, do women earn less because their hourly rate is lower, or is it because they work fewer hours each week, or both? The reader can't tell by looking at the chart, but will have to consult another chart or table that gives hours worked per week by gender. Even the Bureau of Labor Statistics seems uncomfortable with compensation issues and attendant inequalities, approaching data collection in a scattershot manner that omits significant information. In the USA, fringe benefits are a major part of a worker's compensation; weekly earnings tables do not reflect benefits such as health insurance, vacation time, or employer contributions to retirement accounts. Nor are the effects of taxes. If these were included, the gap could be either smaller or larger. I did notice that some notes and references are embedded in the chart's media page. Weekly earnings come from the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey, and (I believe) are reported by householders themselves. A section on these considerations will be difficult to write, however, as it really calls for someone who knows this subject professionally. Jessegalebaker (talk) 00:21, 17 August 2015 (UTC)

This article is vague, imprecise, confusing, potentially misleading, etc. from top to bottom, as its sister articles are as well. Needs top to bottom rewrite. I have it on my to do list, but alas it's way down near the bottom of that list. Thanks for the input tho; it's helpful. • Lingzhi ♦ (talk) 00:38, 17 August 2015 (UTC)

"Criticism" section proposal[edit]

I understand that this is a contentious topic, but I thought I might as well propose a "Criticism" section for the article. This criticism section was primarily made to showcase criticisms of gender pay gap statistics, in particular those in the United States. If you have any suggestions about how to improve this proposal, such as adding more sources or perspectives, please do let me know. I tried to keep it short in relation to the rest of the article, however, since I don't want to give undue weight, especially when the majority of credible criticisms I found were about the "77–78¢ on every man's dollar" claim in specific as an inaccurate and poor representation of the gender pay gap in the United States.

If you, alternatively, believe that this section should not be included and/or that this specific proposal should be scrapped, feel free to voice your opinion below. I am alright with scrapping this work if there is consensus that it's not worth adding.

There have been criticisms of the gender pay gap in the United States, in particular regarding the estimate that the average woman's earnings are approximately equivalent to 77–78% of the average man's. Most notably, equity feminist and philosopher Christina Hoff Sommers has repeatedly criticized the estimate, describing it as a "wage gap myth".[1][2][3] According to Sommers, "when you control for relevant differences between men and women (occupations, college majors, length of time in workplace) the wage gap narrows to the point of vanishing".[1] She argues that "[t]he 23-cent gender pay gap is simply the difference between the average earnings of all men and women working full-time", but that "[i]t does not account for differences in occupations, positions, education, job tenure, or hours worked per week" between men and women workers.[2] When these factors are controlled, Sommers believes that "the wage gap narrows to about five cents", but that "no one knows if the five cents is a result of discrimination or some other subtle, hard-to-measure difference between male and female workers".[2] Nevertheless, Sommers believes that it is "demeaning" to women to they imply "that they are manipulated into their life choices by forces beyond their control", which she considers "divorced form reality".[3]

Hanna Rosin of Slate argues that "the gender wage gap [that women make 77 cents to every man's dollar] is a lie", arguing that it is an inaccurate and "misleading statistic" which fails to grasp the complexity of the gender pay gap. In her article, she states that: "The point here is not that there is no wage inequality. But by focusing our outrage into a tidy, misleading statistic we've missed the actual challenges." According to Rosin, [i]t's the deeper, more systemic discrimination of inadequate family-leave policies and childcare options, of women defaulting to being the caretakers" that causes the gender pay gap.[4]

In response to President Obama's "persistent '77-cent' claim on the wage gap", Glenn Kessler gave it "Two Pinocchios" on the Fact Checker blog at The Washington Post. Kessler states that while "[f]ew experts dispute that there is a wage gap", the "differences in the life choices of men and women—such as women tending to leave the workforce when they have children—make it difficult to make simple comparisons". In his opinion, he believes that President Obama "must begin to acknowledge that '77 cents' does not begin to capture what is actually happening in the work force and society".[5]

Thanks for your consideration and apologies if this issue has already been discussed before; I was not able to find any discussion on a "Criticism" section in the archives. ―Nøkkenbuer (talkcontribs) 17:40, 1 October 2015 (UTC)


I've added a Globalize template as their is a distinct lack of information about the gender pay gap outside of North America and the EU. Virtually nothing is mentioned about countries in South America, Asia or Africa, which is a real shame. This would certainly be one way to improve the article so if anybody can help that'd be much appreciated. (talk) 09:36, 11 November 2015 (UTC)

Sources not supporting "40% of the salary gap can be largely attributed to sex discrimination" -statement of the 2nd paragraph.[edit]

There are 3 sources gives for the statement "These factors resolve around 60% of the pay gap, however the remaining 40% can largely be attributed to sex discrimination". However, none of the three given sources seem to state that.

The Conrad report states in its conclusions -section "Statistical analysis that includes those variables has produced results that collectively account for between 65.1 and 76.4 percent of a raw gender wage gap of 20.4 percent, and thereby leave an adjusted gender wage gap that is between 4.8 and 7.1 percent" and goes on to give some additional factors that haven't been taken into account which could have an effect on the gap. According to this source, the gap is 25-35% without taking into account some additional factors.

The second source only mentions discrimination briefly in the last paragraph and gives no figures to suggest the size of it.

The third source comes closest by stating "41% of the gender pay gap cannot be explained even when gender differences in education, experience, industries, occupations and union statuses are taken into account", but doesn't seem to take a stance on how much of that gap is based on discrimination. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:35, 20 November 2015 (UTC)


  1. ^ a b Sommers, Christina (November 4, 2012). "Wage Gap Myth Exposed – By Feminists". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 1, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c Sommers, Christina (February 1, 2014). "No, Women Don't Make Less Money Than Men". The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 1, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Sommers, Christina (September 2, 2014). "5 Feminist Myths That Will Not Die". TIME. Retrieved October 1, 2015. 
  4. ^ Rosin, Hanna (August 30, 2013). "The Gender Wage Gap Lie". Slate. Retrieved October 1, 2015. 
  5. ^ Kessler, Glenn (April 9, 2014). "President Obama's persistent '77-cent' claim on the wage gap gets a new Pinocchio rating". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 1, 2015. 

Supply vs deman and wage compression[edit]

I think that the scholarly article 'Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap'[1] should be included in the artcile. He concludes, that 'overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country’s gender pay gap.'

Here the abstract:

Using microdata for 22 countries over the 1985–94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap, with an especially large effect for wage structures. Reduced‐form specifications indicate that the extent of collective bargaining coverage is also significantly negatively related to the gender pay gap. Together, the wage compression and collective bargaining results suggest that the high wage floors that are associated with highly centralized, unionized wage setting raise women’s relative pay, since women are at the bottom of the wage distribution in each country.[1]


  1. ^ a b Blau, Francine D.; Kahn, Lawrence M. (2003-01-01). "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap". Journal of Labor Economics. 21 (1): 106–144. doi:10.1086/344125. 

--Momo Monitor (talk) 19:51, 16 February 2016 (UTC)


I added Germany. It would be nice, if you could correct my English (in case of mistake/s). --Momo Monitor (talk) 12:16, 18 February 2016 (UTC)

"Overview" section[edit]

This seems like a redundant section with some POV language and uncited claims. Per WP:LEDE, shouldn't the lede be serving as an overview anyways? PearlSt82 (talk) 16:45, 19 February 2016 (UTC)


Once again, we are presented with Gender Income Gap being equivalent to Gender Pay Gap. Being paid for the same activity, doing the same job and having the same qualification level as a male, this is what thew PAY GAP is. The figure 0f 17-22% you see and hear all the time is based on the OVERALL INCOME of men and women. When women decide not to work the same jobs as men, when they work less hours, naturally they will be paid less and have a smaller I.N.C.O.M.E. The overall income doesn't say anything about the actual PAY, women receive for the same job, same activity and thesame amount of working hours. Sorry, but the income gap numbers sold as pay gap numbers are a huge pile of policitically correct BS. The article needs to be re-done. Gladifer (talk) 09:32, 19 March 2016 (UTC)

Sorry, stopped paying attention when you used the phrase "politically correct" like it actually meant something.
Got any sources? Ironholds (talk) 17:49, 19 March 2016 (UTC)
Gladifer is correct, the article above consistently conflates two very different concepts, which are both called a 'Pay gap'. But one is the average of the pay of all women compared to all men across all jobs, (more accurately referred to as a 'gender income gap'), the other is the difference in pay between women and men that work the same jobs, for the same hours (which can be accurately called a 'pay gap'). InsertCleverPhraseHere 16:03, 16 May 2016 (UTC)

Wages, Earning, Pay, and Income[edit]

As I read through this article these words are used interchangeably. The blanket application of these terms results in a confusing, and sometimes incorrect portrayal of reality. My primary criticism is the use of the term "wages."
Wages: A regular payment, usually on an hourly, daily, or weekly basis, made by an employer to an employee...

By definition wage is dependent upon time. I argue that colloquial it is also dependent upon type of labor. ie) Terms like "wage scale" are dependent upon type of job. (a schedule of wages paid for different jobs) "Wage Parity" similarly is pendent upon both type of labor and hours.

"Wage" generally carries a more specific connotation that is interdependent with external factors. In spite of this, terms like "wage gap," and other uses of "wage" in this article, are used to describe an unadjusted mean that doesn't account for time or type of labor.

Here is an example in the introductory paragraph.

"It is suggested that the wage gap is due to a variety of causes, such as ... differences in preferred job and industry, ... differences in the types of positions held by men and women, ... differences in the type of jobs men typically go into as opposed to women (especially highly paid high risk jobs), ... difference in length of work week, and breaks in employment."

The introductory paragraph states that the wage gap may be due to difference in job selected and time worked, though by definition wages includes type of job and time worked. "Earnings Gap" or "Pay Gap" would be more accurate and more easily understood. I may come back and speak to other specific instances, but for now I'm leaving this comment for active wikipedia editors to consider this.

Thank you for you consideration.

Can I suggest that we make a change in the terminology used throughout this article? 'Pay gap' is a very bad term due to it being consistently used in the media for two very different concepts. These two concepts can largely be referred to as the 'average income gap across all jobs' and the 'wage gap for the same work'. I suggest that we avoid using the term 'pay gap' in the article, except where it is referenced as a quote, and instead use the terms 'income gap' and 'wage gap' where appropriate. If there are no serious objections to this, i will begin copy editing the article tomorrow. InsertCleverPhraseHere 16:09, 16 May 2016 (UTC)

Overview Unclear and Missing Citations[edit]

The overview section of the article is unclear. It begins with the European Commission's definition of gender pay gap and offers statistics on the gap. The second paragraph then discusses the gap in the United States. As is, it is unclear whether the statistics in the first paragraph refer to Europe specifically, or whether they cover the United States. If it is Europe specifically, I would suggest adding an introduction paragraph before these two paragraphs. The lack of clarity may also be a product of the lack of citations. Medleya (talk) 02:10, 9 April 2016 (UTC)

Dr. Baloch's comment on this article[edit]

Dr. Baloch has reviewed this Wikipedia page, and provided us with the following comments to improve its quality:

Para 1, Sentence 1: European union use "gross hourly earning" NOT "aggregate hourly earning".

Para 1: the statement "These factors resolve 60% to 75% of the pay gap, depending on the source. Various explanations for the remaining 25% to 40% have been suggested, including women's lower willingness and ability to negotiate salaries or else due to discrimination." is not for the world it seems only for the European Union. There is need to mention which region is referred here. Para 2: The first line of para 2 can be replaced be with some other reference. CNN reference may be too speculated and it is not coincide with empirical evidence. By country: At least one or an aggregate analysis from developing countries should be included. Economic Theories: Oaxaca (1973) and Cotton (1988) should be added.

We hope Wikipedians on this talk page can take advantage of these comments and improve the quality of the article accordingly.

Dr. Baloch has published scholarly research which seems to be relevant to this Wikipedia article:

  • Reference : Hyder, Asma, 2007. "Wage Differentials, Rate of Return toEducation, and Occupational WageShare in the Labour Market of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2224, University Library of Munich, Germany.

ExpertIdeasBot (talk) 11:10, 28 May 2016 (UTC)

Dr. Schnabel's comment on this article[edit]

Dr. Schnabel has reviewed this Wikipedia page, and provided us with the following comments to improve its quality:

The distinction between the raw pay gap and the adjusted pay gap (not "revised" gap!) should be made clearer from the beginning.

The graphs and figures from OECD and Eurostat could be updated.

The section on economic theories is deficient, missing aspects like statistical discrimination and segregation. It could also be noted that there is some empirical evidence in favor of Becker's view of preference-based discrimination being weaker in competitive markets; see the paper by Hirsch et al. in IZA Journal of Labor Economics 2014.

We hope Wikipedians on this talk page can take advantage of these comments and improve the quality of the article accordingly.

Dr. Schnabel has published scholarly research which seems to be relevant to this Wikipedia article:

  • Reference : Hirsch, Boris & Oberfichtner, Michael & Schnabel, Claus, 2014. "The levelling effect of product market competition on gender wage discrimination," Discussion Papers 94, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.

ExpertIdeasBot (talk) 13:39, 11 June 2016 (UTC)

Dr. Balafoutas's comment on this article[edit]

Dr. Balafoutas has reviewed this Wikipedia page, and provided us with the following comments to improve its quality:

Here is one more suggestion for a reference on the gender pay gap:

Bertrand, M. and Hallock, K.F. (2001). “The gender gap in top corporate jobs”, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, vol. 55, pp. 3-21.

I found the sections "Effect of job choice" and "Effect of socialization" not very informative, and I think they do not deal with the respective issues in sufficient depth. For instance, job choices are only discussed based on one study in Canada. I would even consider dropping those two sections since they do not add much to the broad picture.

Similarly, the section Economic Theories is also too short. Discrimination, for instance, is a huge topic with plenty of literature and it is dealt with very superficially. I would at least add and briefly discuss the following survey on more recent theories of discrimination and affirmative action: Theories of Statistical Discrimination and Affirmative Action: A Survey, by Hanming Fang and Andrea Moro. in Jess Benhabib, Matthew Jackson and Alberto Bisin editors: Handbook of Social Economics, Vol. 1A, Chapter 5, The Netherlands: North Holland, 2011, pp. 133-200.

We hope Wikipedians on this talk page can take advantage of these comments and improve the quality of the article accordingly.

Dr. Balafoutas has published scholarly research which seems to be relevant to this Wikipedia article:

  • Reference : Balafoutas, Loukas & Sutter, Matthias, 2010. "Gender, Competition and the Efficiency of Policy Intervention," Working Papers in Economics 450, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.

ExpertIdeasBot (talk) 18:45, 27 June 2016 (UTC)

Dr. Dreber's comment on this article[edit]

Dr. Dreber has reviewed this Wikipedia page, and provided us with the following comments to improve its quality:

”The remaining 6% of the gap has been speculated to originate from deficiency in salary negotiating skills and sexual discrimination.”

I would change ”deficiency in salary negotiating skills” to ”gender differences in negotiation behavior” and also add that studies suggest that women who negotiate are socially punished by in particular male evaluators (see, e.g., Bowles et al. 2007). I quote the abstract of Bowles et al: ” Four experiments show that gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiations may be explained by differential treatment of men and women when they attempt to negotiate. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants evaluated written accounts of candidates who did or did not initiate negotiations for higher compensation. Evaluators penalized female candidates more than male candidates for initiating negotiations. In Experiment 3, participants evaluated videotapes of candidates who accepted compensation offers or initiated negotiations. Male evaluators penalized female candidates more than male candidates for initiating negotiations; female evaluators penalized all candidates for initiating negotiations. Perceptions of niceness and demandingness explained resistance to female negotiators. In Experiment 4, participants adopted the candidate’s perspective and assessed whether to initiate negotiations in same scenario used in Experiment 3. With male evaluators, women were less inclined than men to negotiate, and nervousness explained this effect. There was no gender difference when evaluator was female.”

” Another study showed more jobs for women when orchestras moved to blind auditions although, in normal orchestra interviews, women were preferentially chosen over men for some instruments, such as the flute.” The first part of the sentence appears to refer to Goldin and Rouse (2000) but I cannot see any discussion of e.g. the flute.

“A 2015 study showed that women were preferred by a factor of 2 for academic roles in STEM subjects.[53]” There is also a study from 2012 that basically finds the opposite, i.e. that women are discriminated against in STEM jobs (Moss-Racusin et al. 2012). I quote from the abstract of Moss-Racusin et al.: “In a randomized double-blind study (n = 127), science faculty from research-intensive universities rated the application materials of a student—who was randomly assigned either a male or female name—for a laboratory manager position. Faculty participants rated the male applicant as significantly more competent and hireable than the (identical) female applicant. These participants also selected a higher starting salary and offered more career mentoring to the male applicant. The gender of the faculty participants did not affect responses, such that female and male faculty were equally likely to exhibit bias against the female student. Mediation analyses indicated that the female student was less likely to be hired because she was viewed as less competent.”


Bowles, Hannah Riley, Linda Babcock, and Lei Lai. "Social Incentives for Gender Differences in the Propensity to Initiate Negotiations: Sometimes It Does Hurt to Ask." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 103.1 (May 2007): 84-103.

Goldin C, Rouse C. (2000) Orchestrating Impartiality: The Effect of 'Blind' Auditions on Female Musicians. American Economic Review 90(4): 715-741.

Moss-Racusin, Corinne A., John F. Dovidio, Victoria L. Brescoll, Mark J. Graham, and Jo Handelsman. (2012). “Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students.” PNAS 109 (41) 16474-16479;

We hope Wikipedians on this talk page can take advantage of these comments and improve the quality of the article accordingly.

We believe Dr. Dreber has expertise on the topic of this article, since he has published relevant scholarly research:

  • Reference : Boschini, Anne & Dreber, Anna & von Essen, Emma & Muren, Astri & Ranehill, Eva, 2014. "Gender and economic preferences in a large random sample," Research Papers in Economics 2014:6, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.

ExpertIdeasBot (talk) 22:29, 9 July 2016 (UTC)

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Value Statements[edit]

In the "Criticism of the famous 77% number" section, there is usage of value words in the statement: "Most notably, equity feminist and philosopher Christina Hoff Sommers has repeatedly criticized the estimate, describing it as a 'wage gap myth'.[73][74][75]" I propose that "most notably" be removed to avoid any bias and stay consistent with an encyclopedic tone. Any comments to this type of revision? Cardinal0205 (talk) 19:15, 9 September 2016 (UTC)

Seems ok to me, though you would need to be careful not to just remove those words, as the meaning is then slightly distorted. It appears to me that that language is used to single Sommers out as being the most prominent voice, while removing "most notably" would make it read as they are a singular voice. Arkon (talk) 20:12, 9 September 2016 (UTC)
I think "most notably" should be removed still. Sommers's criticism is different in content than Rosin's or Kessler's critiques in the section. The wording is misleading to say that Sommers is more prominent than the other critics. Also, when searching for gender pay gap criticism in academic databases, Sommers isn't represented more than other critics. Cardinal0205 (talk) 20:07, 13 September 2016 (UTC)

Citation in the "Anti-Discrimination legislation" Section[edit]

In the last sentence of this section there is a reference to a 2016 EEOC proposal, however there is no citation to support this. Are there any objections to adding a citation at this point? (talk) 03:40, 13 September 2016 (UTC)

Oops, forgot to log in, the question above is from me. AKAnthony (talk) 03:43, 13 September 2016 (UTC)

Addition to the "Dominican Republic" Section[edit]

I propose adding the following new information to this section: "The Global Gender Gap ranking, found by compiling economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment scores, in 2009 was 67th out of 134 countries representing 90% of the globe, and its ranking has dropped to 86th out of 145 countries in 2015.[1][2]" Cardinal0205 (talk) 03:14, 22 September 2016 (UTC)

Gender Pay Gap Sources[edit]

Here are my sources for contributing to this page, specifically focusing on the by country section: "Gender Earnings Discrimination in Jordan: Good Intentions Are Not Enough,"[3] The Global Gender Gap Report 2009,[4] "Gender Wage Gap and Earnings: Predicted by Tenure in the Czech Republic," [5] "Sectoral Gender Wage Gap in Vietnam,"[6] “Gender and the Wage Gap in Turkish Academia,”[7] "Gender Earning Gaps Around the World: A Study of 64 Countries,"[8] The Global Gender Gap Report 2015,[9] and "Labor Market Outcomes for Women in East Asia."[10] Does anyone have any recommendations? Cardinal0205 (talk) 19:29, 29 September 2016 (UTC)

Proposals for by country section[edit]

At the end of the introduction, I propose the following addition to link to a table of 145 countries within The Global Gender Gap Report 2015: Internationally, the World Economic Forum provides global gender gap rankings and scores from 2015 for 145 countries based on economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment scores.[11] Within the by country section, I propose adding the following new countries:


Using the gaps between men and women in economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment, The Global Gender Gap Report 2015 ranks China’s gender gap at 91 out of 145 countries (the lower the ranking, the narrower the gender gap), which is four rankings below 2014’s global index. China's 2015 gender gap score was 0.681 (1.00 being equality). As an upper middle income country, as classified by the World Bank, China is the “third-least improved country in the world” on the gender gap. The health and survival subindex is the lowest within the countries listed; this subindex takes into account the gender differences of life expectancy and sex ratio at birth (the ratio of male to female children to depict the preferences of sons in accordance with China’s One Child Policy) [12] In particular, Jayoung Yoon claims the women's employment rate is decreasing. However, several of the contributing factors might be expected to increase women's participation. Yoon's contributing factors include: the traditional gender roles; the abundance of childcare services provided by the state; the obstacle of childrearing; and the prevalence of highly educated, unmarried women, or “leftover women.” In alignment with the traditional gender roles, the “Women Return to the Home” movement by the government encouraged women to leave their jobs to alleviate the men’s unemployment rate.[13]


Jayoung Yoon analyzes Japan’s culture of the traditional male breadwinner model, where the husband works outside of the house while the wife is the caretaker. Despite these traditional gender roles for women, Japan aims to enhance the economy by improving the labor policies for mothers with Abenomix (2013), an economy revitalization strategy. Yoon believes Abenomix represents a desire to remedy the effects of an aging population rather than a desire to promote gender equality. Evidence for the conclusion is the finding that women are entering the workforce in contingent positions. Women's participation rates do not seem to be influenced by government policies.[13] The Global Gender Gap Report 2015 established that Japan’s economic participation and opportunity ranking (106th), 145th being the broadest gender gap, dropped from 2014 “due to lower wage equality for similar work and fewer female legislators, senior officials and managers."[14]


From a total of 145 states, the World Economic Forum calculates Jordan’s gender gap ranking for 2015 as 140th through economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment evaluations. Jordan is the “world’s second-least improved country” for the overall gender gap.[14] The ranking dropped from 93rd in 2006.[15] In contradiction to Jordan’s provisions within its constitution and being signatory to multiple conventions for improving the gender pay gap, there is no legislation aimed at gender equality in the workforce.[16] According to The Global Gender Gap Report 2015, 35% of the gender pay gap has been resolved.[14]


According to Jayoung Yoon, Singapore’s aging population and low fertility rates are resulting in more women joining the labor force in response to the government’s desire to improve the economy. The government provides tax relief to mothers in the workforce to encourage them to continue working. Yoon states that “as female employment increases, the gender gap in employment rates…narrows down” in Singapore.[13] As a matter of fact, The Global Gender Gap Report 2015 ranks Singapore’s gender gap at 54th out of 145 states globally based on the economic participation and opportunity, the educational attainment, the health and survival, and the political empowerment subindexes (a lower rank means a smaller gender gap). The gender gap narrowed from 2014 with the ranking of 59. In the Asia and Pacific region, Singapore has evolved the most in the economic participation and opportunity subindex, yet it is lower than the region’s means in educational attainment and political empowerment.[14]

South Korea[edit]

As stated by Jayoung Yoon, South Korea’s female employment rate has increased since the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis as a result of women 25 to 34 years old leaving the workforce later to become pregnant and women 45 to 49 years old returning to the workforce. Mothers are more likely to continue working after child rearing on account of the availability of affordable childcare services or the difficulty to be rehired after child rearing.[13] The World Economic Forum found that, in 2015, 65% of the gender gap was closed. From a total of 145 countries, South Korea had a gender gap ranking of 115th (the lower the ranking, the narrower the gender gap). On the other hand, political empowerment dropped to half of the percentage of women in the government in 2014.[14] Any suggestions for these additions?Cardinal0205 (talk) 15:28, 13 October 2016 (UTC)

I've fixed some grammatical errors and syntax issues to give more clarity to my above proposals.Cardinal0205 (talk) 14:34, 20 October 2016 (UTC)
I made some minor revisions to my proposal.Cardinal0205 (talk) 18:29, 28 October 2016 (UTC)

Citations to Add[edit]

I am planning on adding the following citations:

  • Sandberg, Sheryl (2013). Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0385349947.
  • Burns, Dasha. "What Jennifer Lawrence reveals about women, equal pay". CNN. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
  • Janssen, Simon, Simone Tuor Sartore, and Uschi Backes-Gellner. "Discriminatory Social Attitudes and Varying Gender Pay Gaps within Firms." ILR Review 69.1 (2016): 253-79. Business Source Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2016.
  • Misra, Joya, and Eiko Strader. "Gender Pay Equity in Advanced Countries: The Role of Parenthood and Policies." Journal of International Affairs 67.1 (2013): 27. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Oct. 2016.
  • Reporter, Lydia O'Connor; Post, The Huffington (2016-04-12). "The Wage Gap: Terrible For All Women, Even Worse For Women Of Color". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-10-26.M.nie (talk) 07:24, 26 October 2016 (UTC)


Here is a list of sources that will be helpful in editing this article.

  • Agesa, Richard U., Jacqueline Agesa, and Andrew Dabalen. “Sources of the Persistent Gender Wage Gap along the Unconditional Earnings Distribution: Findings from Kenya.” Oxford Developmental Studies, vol. 41, no. 1, 2013, pp. 76-103, doi: 10.1080/13600818.2013.770304. Accessed 25 Oct. 2016.
  • Alfarhan, Usamah F. "Gender Earnings Discrimination in Jordan: Good Intentions Are Not Enough." International Labour Review, vol. 154, no. 4, 2015, pp. 563-580. Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  • Hausmann, Ricardo, Lauren D. Tyson, and Saadia Zahidi. The Global Gender Gap Report 2009. World Economic Forum, 2009, Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  • Hyder, Asma, and Barry Reilly. “The Public and Private Sector Pay Gap in Pakistan: A Quantile Regression Analysis.” The Pakistan Development Review, vol. 44, no. 3, 2005, pp. 271-306. Accessed 25 Oct. 2016.
  • Liu, Amy Y. C. "Sectoral Gender Wage Gap in Vietnam." Oxford Development Studies, vol. 32, no. 2, 2004, pp. 225-239. Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  • Schwab, Klaus, et al. The Global Gender Gap Report 2015. World Economic Forum, 2015, Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  • Ucal, Meltem, Mary Lou O'Neil, and Sule Toktas. “Gender and the Wage Gap in Turkish Academia.” Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, vol. 17, no. 4, 2015, pp. 447-464, doi: 10.1080/19448953.2015.1063309. Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  • Yoon, Jayoung. "Labor Market Outcomes for Women in East Asia." Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 21, no. 4, 2015, pp. 384-408. Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.

Cardinal0205 (talk) 16:17, 27 October 2016 (UTC)

  1. ^ Hausmann, Ricardo; Tyson, Laura D.; Zahidi, Saadia; Schwab, Klaus; Papoutsakis, Damaris; Bekhouche, Yasmina (2009). The Global Gende Gap Report 2009. World Economic Forum. pp. 4–8. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  2. ^ Schwab, Klaus; Samans, Richard; Zahidi, Saadia; Bekhouche, Yasmina; Ugarte, Paulina Padilla; Ratcheva, Vesselina; Hausmann, Ricardo; Tyson, Laura D'Andrea (2015). Global Gender Gap Report 2015 (PDF) (10th ed.). World Economic Forum. pp. 15–17. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  3. ^ Alfarhan, Usamah F. "Gender Earnings Discrimination in Jordan: Good Intentions Are Not Enough." International Labour Review, vol. 154, no. 4, 2015, pp. 563-580.
  4. ^ Hausmann, Ricardo, Lauren D. Tyson, and Saadia Zahidi. The Global Gender Gap Report 2009. World Economic Forum, 2009, Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  5. ^ Ioakimidis, Marilou. "Gender Wage Gap and Earnings: Predicted by Tenure in the Czech Republic" Journal Of Developing Areas, vol. 46, no. 1, 2012, pp. 31-43.
  6. ^ Liu, Amy Y. C. "Sectoral Gender Wage Gap in Vietnam." Oxford Development Studies, vol. 32, no. 2, 2004, pp. 225-239.
  7. ^ Meltem Ucal, Mary Lou O'Neil, and Sule Toktas. “Gender and the Wage Gap in Turkish Academia.” Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, vol. 17, no. 4, 2015, pp. 447-464, doi: 10.1080/19448953.2015.1063309.
  8. ^ Ñopo, Hugo, Nancy Daza, Johanna Ramos. "Gender Earning Gaps Around the World: A Study of 64 Countries." International Journal of Manpower, vol. 33, no. 5, 2012, pp. 464 – 513.
  9. ^ Schwab, Klaus, et al. The Global Gender Gap Report 2015. World Economic Forum, 2015, Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  10. ^ Yoon, Jayoung. "Labor Market Outcomes for Women in East Asia." Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 21, no. 4, 2015, pp. 384-408.
  11. ^ Schwab, Klaus, et al. The Global Gender Gap Report 2015. World Economic Forum, 2015, pp. 8-9. Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  12. ^ Schwab, Klaus, et al. The Global Gender Gap Report 2015. World Economic Forum, 2015, pp. 4,26. Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  13. ^ a b c d Yoon, Jayoung. "Labor Market Outcomes for Women in East Asia." Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 21, no. 4, 2015, pp. 384-408.
  14. ^ a b c d e Schwab, Klaus, et al. The Global Gender Gap Report 2015. World Economic Forum, 2015, pp. 25-27. Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  15. ^ Hausmann, Ricardo, Lauren D. Tyson, and Saadia Zahidi. The Global Gender Gap Report 2009. World Economic Forum, 2009, pp. 9. Accessed 29 Sept. 2016.
  16. ^ Alfarhan, Usamah F. "Gender Earnings Discrimination in Jordan: Good Intentions Are Not Enough." International Labour Review, vol. 154, no. 4, 2015, pp. 563-580.