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- 1 Unit Error
- 2 Health benefits, nutritional support, layman's explanation
- 3 Biosynthesis by what organism?
- 4 Supplements?
- 5 Dosage
- 6 Oral supplementation.
- 7 Asthma link
- 8 Immunocal
- 9 Skin Whitening
- 10 Pathway diagram
- 11 Use as a supplement
- 12 Proton Donor?
- 13 L(-)-Glutathione
- 14 Unapproved use of glutathione injections for skin whitening
- 15 Mustq
- 16 Bad Citation?
"Thiol groups are kept in a reduced state within ~5 mM in animal cells."
This is supposed to read 5 milimoles, but the capital M denotes molar, as in moles per dm³. I will change to the correct symbol for milimoles: mmol. 126.96.36.199 01:05, 30 March 2006 (UTC)
- 5 mmol in a cell is a rediculously large amount, surely millimolar was meant. Narayanese 22:00, 11 October 2007 (UTC)
Health benefits, nutritional support, layman's explanation
This article needs a laymans explanation. I've heard it called the "master anti-oxidant" but I don't know why. It seems like the current article launches right into biochemistry. I would like someone to cover the various ways that Glutathione can be increased in the body by means that we can take ourselves --Rjms 11:26, 13 April 2006 (UTC)
Biosynthesis by what organism?
To what organism does the biosynthesis section apply? To what phylogenic branches does this extend? More specifically, do Bacteria and/or Archaea synthesize glutathione, and do they use the same pathway? Asteen 13:59, 11 July 2007 (UTC)
- Bacteria do synthesize glutathione, and the pathway seems to be about the same: .
- Almost all archaea, some bacteria (e.g. most Gram+) and some eukaryotes (e.g. Leguminosae and Giardia) lack glutathione.  Narayanese 00:34, 2 December 2007 (UTC)
- A few protozoic eukaryotes use trypanothione instead of glutathione. Icek (talk) 18:47, 5 December 2007 (UTC)
That looks like copyrighted text that's been rewritten (poorly) into the top of the section. Can anyone verify that it's not? At the least it needs cleaning up and referencing. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 188.8.131.52 (talk) 10:45, 28 June 2008 (UTC)
- Yep, Glutguy is pushing a specific brand of glutathione supplement. I've started trying to clean up here. I had a quick look but I can't find any studies that contradict the 7-person study that found no clinically relevant increase in circulating glutathione after oral supplementation, except for some work in rats, some in vitro stuff and one study (of which I could only see the abstract) which showed absorption through the buccal mucosa, none of which convinces me. I also see there some stuff about "immunocal", claiming that all the references to whey protein (which I have trimmed somewhat, as we don't need a comprehensive literature survey to support a simple point) referred to "immunocal". I can't find that in the abstracts of the references that I left, but I don't have online access to journals since I completed my degree. Can someone please check it out? --Slashme (talk) 10:01, 30 June 2008 (UTC)
I am looking for some one that has information on the dosage that of this glutathione that was given a couple of years ago to my sister umbrella cockatoo. for some disorder. the vet is no longer in this area and she is unable to locate her. her bird is now sick again with a liver count of 139.
Log on to the3aminos.com for the answer. [www.the3aminos.com]
Please do not add advertisements for a specific company's product. Wikipedia is not an advertising service. With that out of the way, some more specific questions:
- Do you have a reference to a study which shows that human oral supplementation of glutathione leads to increased circulating glutathione levels?
- Do you have a reference to a study which shows any toxic effects from acetylcysteine supplementation?
I have once again reverted your edits. The fact that only one blood sample was taken doesn't invalidate the study, and personal communication from two researchers isn't good enough. Give references please. I am open to persuasion that oral supplementation of glutathione is useful if I can see the research, but I will not stop reverting your advertisements for a specific supplement company. --Slashme (talk) 06:18, 2 July 2008 (UTC)
- That is a popular press article stating that there is a link between paracetamol and asthma. Not very relevant to the topic of glutathione: glutathione is only mentioned as a marker for oxidative stress.--Slashme (talk) 17:27, 21 October 2008 (UTC)
At one time, there was a reference to a whey protein product called Immunocal. It was subsequently deleted. If the article mentions glutathione supplementation with whey protein, a reference to this particular product would be appropriate and helpful. The reasons are:
1. Immunocal is the best validated example of a whey protein powder intended for GSH supplementation. (i) It has an entry in the 2009 Physician's Desktop Reference and it has been included for a number of years. (ii) Use and formula is covered by 5 US patents. (iii) On Pubmed I counted 10 articles in peer-review medical literature describing studies of whey protein, in which the specific whey protein evaluated was Immunocal and the product was referred to by that name. There are no other whey protein powders that even come close to being this well validated.
2. In contrast, nutraceutical products in general are subject to a comparatively low level of validation. A nutraceutical only needs to meet requirements of a GRAS classification. To use the term "whey protein" without any qualification might suggest that whey protein is a standardized commodity - it certainly is not. There is a great deal of variance in the protein composition of whey protein powders. It is not entirely certain how this impacts effectiveness as a GSH supplement but animal studies suggest that higher percentages of bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulins result in a more effective supplement. These tend to be the percentages that many brands of whey protein will skimp in order to improve yields and reduce costs and some of these brands are not necessarily less expensive. A person interested in such supplementation should be made aware of the best validated product.
3. Immunocal does have brand name recognition among persons familiar with nutritional GSH supplementation. Some might suggest that discussing whey protein GSH supplements without mentioning Immunocal would be akin to discussing diazepam without ever commenting that it is marketed under the name of Valium, a brand-name product. The Wikipedia article on diazepam certainly does mention this fact.
Thanks for reading this comment. I have researched the subject extensively and I realized I have so much material on my hard drive, I might as well do an article about glutathione supplements. So never mind about the glutathione article. Entropy7 (talk) 19:37, 3 February 2009 (UTC)
RandyGrover Comment :
Immunocal is now Adressed by Health Canada as the Only Proven Nutraceutical to boost your immune system naturally.
Quote: "Recommended Use or Purpose: Natural source of the glutathione precursor cysteine for the maintenance of a strong immune system." ((You may need to refresh Health Canada Page a few times.)) 
- You can use: commons:File:One-carbon metabolism and the transsulfuration pathway.jpg. Best regards,--CopperKettle 06:18, 14 August 2009 (UTC)
Use as a supplement
It says in the text that: "The sulfhydryl (thiol) group (SH) of cysteine serves as a proton donor" which i think means that it's positively charged. But if it binds with electrophillic compounds, surely it must be negatively charged? I'm not much of a chemist so I don't feel comfortable changing it myself. Abergabe (talk) 11:52, 11 April 2011 (UTC)
- Glutathione is a mild proton donor (i.e. a weak acid). It releases H+ and becomes negatively charged:
- RSH(aq) → RS−(aq) + H+(aq)
- Glutathione is like most thiols. It does all of the following things that other thiols do well:
- Thiols are also good nucleophiles, meaning they react readily with electrophiles (EX):
- RSH + EX → RSE + HX
- Thiolate anions are even better nucleophiles:
- RS− + E+ → RSE
- RSH + HSR → RSSR + 2H+ + 2e−
- If the H+ ions and the electrons are not kept separate, the overall reaction is loss of hydrogen gas:
- RSH + HSR → RSSR + H2
- Hope this answers your question and briefly summarises the chemistry of glutathione.
L-glutathione is sold for health benefits, presumably that is using the L- forms of the amino acid components, and is distinct from L(-)-glutathione as shown at L(-)-Glutathione with disulphide link between two tripeptides forming Glutathione disulfide that has same structure. - Rod57 (talk) 16:33, 11 May 2011 (UTC)
Unapproved use of glutathione injections for skin whitening
The Philippine Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory in May 2011 against taking regular injections of the glutathione due to claims that the drug whitened the skin by deactivating the enzyme tyrosinase, which helps produce melanin. The agency suspects that the chemical is being injected in high doses and monitored many cases of glutathione use resulting in ailments. It warned that repeated injections of the drug could lead to kidney failure, blood poisoning and toxic epidermal necrolysis, in which a large portion of the skin peels off, exposing the human body to many infections. Edzitor (talk) 07:11, 21 January 2012 (UTC)
The Function section contains the sentence:
"Regulation of the nitric oxide cycle is critical for life, but can be problematic if unregulated."
with footnote 20. The footnote gives the following reference:
Clementi, Emilio; Smith, Guy Charles; Howden, Martin; Dietrich, Salvador; Bugg, S; O'Connell, MJ; Goldsbrough, PB; Cobbett, CS (1999). "Phytochelatin synthase genes from Arabidopsis and the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe". The Plant cell 11 (6): 1153–64. doi:10.1105/tpc.11.6.1153. JSTOR 3870806. PMC 144235. PMID 10368185.
This article does not appear to have any direct bearing on nitric oxide biochemistry. It does not appear to support the statement about regulation of the nitric oxide cycle.
On the face of it, the reference appears to be invalid, and the statement unsupported. The statement may be irrelevant, possibly misleading in the context of this article.