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Gluten toxicity and "Gluten-Free" foods[edit]

This section is a turkey , makes little sense and makes claims that the references don't back up. I'm refering mainly to the "indicating a selective evolution for toxic motifs" section. The references in the Lancet and JI are nothing more than interesting observations that are taken out of context in this article.

Finally, gluten is not "toxic" per se, intolerance to it is the result of an autoimmune response, not any direct effect of the gluten protiens on the gut. Kantokano 15:00, 10 September 2007 (UTC)

A March, 2015 PBS special "Brain Change" features Dr. David Perlmutter, a practicing, board certified neurologist, who cites gluten as a promoter of inflammation in the body, and the brain in particular, and cites it as a cause of brain damage including Alzheimer's disease. Presumably fact-checkers at PBS did their homework before engaging him for a 90-minute special and if someone with access to the literature can cite support for Perlmutter's contentions, this thesis should be added to the article. Perlmutter also cites sugar and carbs as similar promoters of inflammation. Frankatca (talk) 01:57, 13 March 2015 (UTC)

Despite Perlmutter's physician-scientist credentials, his reputation is tarnished by preposterous exaggerations and frequent misrepresentations of data, such as the ludicrous concept that gluten causes brain damage in Alzheimer's disease. The PBS interview is opinion only, and comments he made are mainly unsupportable by peer-reviewed science and WP:SECONDARY sources. It should not go into the article. --Zefr (talk) 03:14, 13 March 2015 (UTC)


working at the Pike Place Market today a customer came by and asked if wheat in Europe contains gluten, I answered it did but after his next comment I had to take to the wiki. This man had been told that wheat has been cross-polinated with tumbleweeds during the depression. Can anyone shine any light on this for me, and is there any validity to his statement? Feb 26, 2007

American wheat and tumbleweeds are Not exactly cross pollinated according to Texan author and historian C.F Eckhardt, but they do have a history together. You can read about it in the following link (look under tumbleweeds):[1]Wellesradio 03:25, 30 October 2007 (UTC)Wellesradio

History & Extraction[edit]

The two sections overlap. I find nothing in "Extraction" that is not already said in "History." There the stated activities of the Bhuddist Monks apparently are suppostitious; I can find no reliable authority as support. Does anyone object to removing "History" completely and adding its scanty verifiable content to the "Extraction" section? Wugo 02:17, 8 August 2007 (UTC)

Since no one has objected, I am moving the scanty informational content of "History" to "Extraction" and eliminating "History." I have been unable to verify the story of the inventive monks.

Wugo 20:55, 11 August 2007 (UTC)

The article says: "If a saline solution is used instead of water, a purer protein is obtained, with certain harmless impurities departing to the solution with the starch. Where starch is the prime product, cold water is the favored solvent because the impurities depart from the gluten.". I read this multiple times, but it didn't make sense. It seems to say that when gluten (not starch) is the target product, a saline solution is used because the impurities will leave the gluten and go with the start; and when starch (not gluten) is the target, pure water is used because the impurities will leave the gluten and go with the starch (sic). Should the wording in the final sentence be changed to "impurities *remain with* the gluten"?? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 21:37, 15 October 2015 (UTC)

Allergies and intolerances[edit]

To some extent the article conflates allergy and intolerance ... I'm certainly no medical person, but I believe there is an important distinction to be made regarding the body's allergic response (histamines, and so on) and the immune response of the celiac.
- Scrafford

I agree... an allergy is a specific response (raised histamine levels) to the allergic agent. Coeliac disease is not an allergic response to Gluten and I propose this article is edited accordingly. CustardJack

Done. As far as I know, what people call "allergy to gluten" is really celiac disease, which most definately is not an allergy. I've fixed this now. Also, I'm pretty sure spelt is fine for people with celiac disease - the page on spelt seems to think so. I changed the last line in the article to reflect this, but it'd be great if an MD could weigh in on the subject. --Eirinn 09:40, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

The page on spelt is wrong as far as I know. I'm gluten intollerant and have always been told that spelt is off limits. Just my two cents

everday more and more people are asking for gluten free products, I am certain the information they are receiving is incorrect,, just as spelt is off limits.. spelt,epeautre,dinkel (the same grain) is water soluble. however I would not advise anyone with celiac to use it,¬¬¬¬ — Preceding unsigned comment added by Catweasel (talkcontribs) 07:31, 30 July 2013 (UTC)

From looking around on the net it appears that spelt (and kamut) are bad for people with celiac disease (but not as bad as ordinary wheat it seems). I've updated the page to reflect this. --Eirinn 02:53, 27 November 2005 (UTC)

I think it would be worthwhile to mention differing levels of gluten sensitivity instead of jumping straight to cœliac disease. The last paragraph of the main section only mentions cœliac disease and it comes off as if all gluten sensitivity is under the umbrella of cœliac disease. Samewordberger (talk) 00:28, 14 December 2008 (UTC)

Shouldn't the reference to non-cœliac gluten sensitivity be removed? See for details. -- Resuna (talk) 19:19, 5 August 2014 (UTC)

We'd need an appropriate secondary source (i.e. a review article in a peer-reviewed journal) citing the study to include it here. If you give WP:MEDRS a read, we typically don't use primary sources when it comes to scientific research here, and especially not for health content. Give it time, and once we do have an appropriate source, that would be the time make the change. Kingofaces43 (talk) 19:38, 5 August 2014 (UTC)
Like (cited in the article I linked)? Edit - never mind, I see the distinction, though in this case it's unfortunate that this can't be used... since this is a followup study by the authors of the original study debunking their own work. -- Resuna (talk) 22:44, 7 August 2014 (UTC)
I assume you meannt not using the source as being unfortunate? I read your reply as it being unfortunate that they debunked their own previous work at first, which didn't make sense to me. I definitely agree with the the recent study as a scientist, but as Wikipedia editors we can't really assign proper weight to the study until it gets cited in the secondary literature. I don't imagine it would take long though since the study got a lot of attention. Kingofaces43 (talk) 02:12, 8 August 2014 (UTC)
Sorry, clarified. -- Resuna (talk) 13:31, 8 August 2014 (UTC)

Terminology problems[edit]

From Coeliac disease:

Maize (corn), sorghum, and rice are considered safe for a patient to consume. They contain types of gluten that do not trigger the disease.

This contradicts this article, which states:

No gluten is contained in rice (even glutinous rice), wild rice, maize (corn), millets, buckwheat, quinoa, or amaranth.

It appears the word gluten is being used in two different ways.

The applicable definition given in the Oxford English Dictionary is:

3. The nitrogenous part of the flour of wheat or other grain, which remains behind as a viscid substance when the starch is removed by kneading the flour in a current of water.

Further to this, the American Heritage Dictionary (which is known for using corpus linguistics and combining prescriptive and descriptive elements) gives the following definition:

A mixture of plant proteins occurring in cereal grains, chiefly corn and wheat, used as an adhesive and as a flour substitute.

This article defines gluten as "composed of the proteins gliadin and glutenin". This is a definition which appears from my research to be a common one among food scientists and celiac patients, but it is not the usual dictionary definition. I can find many cases of the broader definition in present use; for example, there are agricultural by-products called "corn gluten meal" and "rice gluten meal" which are used as animal feed. Also, the OED notes a historical precedent:

1876 HARLEY Mat. Med. (ed. 6) 371 Oats contain a larger proportion of gluten than any of the other cereals in use.

Comments? --Dforest 16:48, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Don't forget corn gluten as herbicide! There is clearly a distinction between the modern scientific meaning of "gluten" as spelled out in the article and what's been loosely called gluten in the past ("the stuff that makes dough sticky" back to the 18th century) and the recent present ("corn gluten"). This article very much should mention the different use of the terms, as the confusion leads to incorrect conclusions (for example, is corn gluten bad for celiac patients? No, not at all -- people avoiding gluten can eat all the corn tortillas they want, like I did yesterday for lunch.) But thanks for raising this question; I'm fairly new at the gluten-avoidance game, and myself was puzzled by the other uses of "gluten". --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 17:27, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

--- inconsistency between this page and regarding whether kamut is or is not gluten-free (i.e. acceptable in a gluten-free diet). I have no idea what the truth might be.

visitor - Scott Carter

Kamut is wheat, and thus has gluten. However, for some reason, it appears to be suitable for people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 00:12, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Just an FYI: whet, rye, and barley are angiosperms and therefore have fruit NOT seeds (seeds are restricted to gymnosperms). I have thus corrected the two places I found where you used seeds instead of fruit. TheBryologist (talk) 18:09, 3 April 2013 (UTC)

Factually incorrect, medical misinformation[edit]

"Some varieties of wheat, including kamut and spelt, naturally have low contents of gluten.[12] The gluten in spelt is more fragile than that found in ordinary wheat, so dough made with it collapses when overkneaded.[13] Many gluten sensitive people can tolerate these varieties, but those with coeliac disease should avoid all food containing wheat derivatives.[citation needed]"

In fact, people with GSE who are CD- should avoid all Triticeae glutens, no matter the source, it is unclear whethere people with idiopathic gluten sensitivities should avoid rye and barley, and people with wheat-allergy-sensitive rheumatoid arthritis may be able to avoid exascerbating disease eating rye bread. The last sentence should be deleted.

"Rice (even the so-called glutinous rice) contains no gluten, nor do wild rice, maize (corn), millet, sorghum, buckwheat, quinoa, or amaranth. (the latter three being broad-leaf grains, and not true cereals).[citation needed] Oats and teff have no native gluten, but are sometimes contaminated by milling with equipment also used for wheat or other cereals."

There is no debate, this is incorrect, the current popular definition has no place in encyclopedia that strives for accuracy. Glutens are the seed storage proteins in plants. There are four groups:albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins. Each group is composed of many members. Oats have prolamins just as wheat and the dominant prolamins in oats are similar to the omega-glaidin component of wheat.Pdeitiker 02:48, 9 September 2007 (UTC) The issue of definitions was taken from a chemical point of veiw and not all points of veiw, this confusion is cleared up below.Pdeitiker

Pdeitiker, I am removing your requests for citations because the statements are sufficiently supported by the internal links within the sentences in question.
No they are not, review the literature on glutens and then correct these errors.
It would be most helpful to have a concise list of the errors you've discovered.
Fact, it is incorrect, in fact dangerous to encourage people who have gluten sensitivity to eat Triticeae glutens until the cause of that sensitivity has been determined. Not all gluten sensitivity can be defined by celiac disease, celiac disease is a specific clinical definition which involves the capability of the clinician as well as the disease advancement of the patient. It is the equivilent of encouraging people with a family history of lung cancer to smoke. Companies have been threatened with lawsuits for exactly such statements. This misinformation needs to be nipped in the bud, so to speak.
Fact the seed storage proteins have been defined and are not limited to either grasses, cereals or the grass tribe Triticeae. This is a common misconception. Any seed that contains albumin, globulin, prolamins or' glutelins contains gluten. On review the glutens referred to outside of wheat are the sticky or prolamin like proteins,this appears to be a central consistency in all definitions, based on the meaning of the word . In keeping with some level of consistency albumins and globulins should only be treated as essential components when they sufficiently copurify with gluten.Pdeitiker Basically glutens are dormant proteins in seeds that reactivate when hydrated by water and cause a seed to sproat. In principle they have nothing to do with bread or beer making. In principle it is the sticky proteins that give gluten its name so . . . . .
You've quoted paragraphs but not singled out your reasons for objecting to their content.
The whole paragraph is in error. If references cannot provided, then by wiki standards it should be deleted. The references you have provided are not from scientific journals and I can assure you I can provide scientific journal references that discuss the glutens from most of the mention examples that 'contain no gluten'. If this is such a difficult problem for you to repair I can replace the entire section. {cn} replaced. The problem has been fixed by placing appropriate items under appropriate definitions that support them. Pdeitiker
Do you, for example, maintain glutelins are found in grains other than those from the grass-related plants?
Logical error. The statement does not say glutelins, and a gluten is made up of any of 4 classed of proteins. Glutelins and prolamins are an abitrary subdivison of a single class of proteins. In some species of Triticeae the homologous proteins are alcohol soluble.

Pdeitiker, you are not signing your comments so I'm not certain which is yours. And interspersing them with mine makes the reading difficult. Let's do this systematically, one problem at a time. First the citations. You seem familiar with the subject, so you should add the ones you think are best. Please go ahead and do it, there's no reason why you shouldn't. Once that's done, we should talk about the gluten definitions. (I'm assuming you're the author of that section of this Discussion.) Wugo 23:49, 9 September 2007 (UTC)

Definitions of Gluten[edit]

20. Brown, A., Understanding Food Principles and Preparation, Second Ed., Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Belmont, CA, pp. 402-403 and 420-421, 2004.

Meaning of the Term "Gluten". There is no single definition of the term "gluten". [From the US government]

Strict Definition[edit]

The term "gluten" refers to a specific complex of proteins that forms when wheat flour is mixed with a liquid and physically manipulated, such as in the kneading of a bread. [Source US government] The complex is composed of all four classes of 'glutens' but the structural components are made up of prolamins and glutelins, and in fact with prolamins three distinct classes of proteins, alpha, gamma and omega gliadins- contributed by different genomes (AA,BB and DD) make up the largest group. Note a page on gluten (wheat) already exists. Protein extracts include over 200 proteins with similarity to other proteins in many other plants.

"Technically", rye nor barley contain gluten. For example rye requires an additional step, acidification, to activate its glutens, and barley cannot for bread because of the low level or protein. So that the technical definition is of little use unless you are discussing bread making.

..If this is the case, I must then ask, why is there an article titled Corn gluten meal? Weasel5i2 (talk) 17:47, 22 May 2011 (UTC)

Medical definition[edit]

Gluten in one context of medical treatment is an artefact of gluten sensitivity in the subclass of coeliac disease. It pertains to, in the order of significance, wheat, rye and barley. This type of gluten is specifically defined on the wiki page Triticeae glutens already exists and makes clear its definition. As it just so happens the three cereals with poisonous glutens fit nicely into a predefined taxa. The immunochemistry is defined on Gluten_sensitivity#HLA_class_II_restrictions of gluten sensitive enteropathy (which includes coeliac disease) is also defined.

Note: the medical definiton of gluten is only as precise as the immunochemistry. If tomorrow a new food grass appeared in Bromeae or Aveneae that had similarly toxic glutens the medical definition would be extended to cover those new CD causing glutens. Alternatively if it was shown the barley (pure) was free of toxic glutens it would be removed (over a decade of ranchorous discussion). What defines purity- serological approaches and thorough feild inspections. What defines reactivity- other than ambiguous biopsy results, T-cell assays and immunochemistry.

Note:Allergies to wheat albumins and globulins are also considered gluten allergies even though these allergies extend, often, over broad taxa. The medical definition of gluten is for clinical application of treatment, the Gluten-Free diet. A gluten-free diet that is strictly gluten-free (by the strinct definition) can contain rye and barley, therefore the strict is not being used.

The sentence "Allergies to wheat albumins and globulins are also considered gluten allergies..." doesn't jibe. Per the Triticeae glutens article, albumin is one of the four seed storage proteins in wheat, rye, and barley; but that article indicates that the promalin and glutelin proteins are the components involved in gluten sensitivity. But per the Mayo Clinic article on the causes of wheat allergy, all four can cause wheat allergies (with a distinction made between a food allergy and a food sensitivity). Per the Mayo Clinic article on food allergy, a food intolerance (e.g. celiac disease) is a food sensitivity but not a food allergy - though an individual may be both sensitive and allergic to a food. For example, a person may have celiac disease and also be allergic to wheat. I believe that this clarification would clear up the statements regarding a gluten-free diet (which contradict the gluten-free diet article and US FDA GF labeling guidelines. A wheat-free diet is designed for people with wheat allergies; a gluten-free diet is designed for people with gluten sensitivity.Penelope Gordon (talk) 09:23, 14 March 2013 (UTC)

Similarity (Structural) Definition[edit]

Glutens are defined by genetic relationships (Homologs) within plant phyla, which extends over the common seed producing plants, but especially cereal grasses. These definitions are in wide use in the literature. These definitions are largely based on the components of glutens within seeds of plants, most of which evolved from common ancestral seeds. For example the gamma gliadins in wheat are ancestral to omega and alpha gliadins. Though by definition none would be recognized as glutens, strictly, or gliadins in that ancestral species. In fact the prolamins contributed by aegilops tauschii strangulatum as a result of introgression into wheat (8000 years ago) are not recognized as terminologically as gliadins. but as A. tauschii prolamins and glutelins, none the less they are identical to that wheat subset.
Although, strictly speaking, "gluten" pertains only to wheat proteins, this term is frequently used to refer to the combination of prolamin and glutelin proteins naturally occurring in other grains, including those that have not been demonstrated to cause harmful effects in individuals with celiac disease (e.g., "corn gluten" and "rice gluten)

This definition is not restricted to both glutelin, prolamin but also includes albumins and globulins as cofactors. Gluten amylase is responsible for converting starch to sugar that allows a better rise, although amylase is now supplimented.

J Sci Food Agric. 1967 Sep;18(9):405-9. J Anim Sci. 1973 Dec;37(6):1351-5. J Anim Sci. 1974 Aug;39(2):335-7. Q J Med. 1978 Jan;47(185):101-110. J Chromatogr. 1983 Jan 21;255:219-38. J Mass Spectrom. 1998 Oct;33(10):1023-8. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Mar;71(3):694-703. Finding 8.The safety assessment-based approach is a viable approach to establish a threshold for gluten using currently available LOAEL data for celiac disease. An overall uncertainty factor should be estimated from the data and applied to the LOAEL to establish a threshold for gluten. Any threshold derived from this approach should be reevaluated as new research data become available. Available data are insufficient at the current time to use this approach to establish a threshold for oat gluten for those individuals with celiac disease who are also sensitive to oats. However, it is likely that a threshold based on wheat gluten would be protective for individuals susceptible to oat gluten.

When one uses the word [grain] gluten it is implicit that these are discussing the seed storage proteins (comparable to [wheat] gluten) of that plant.

Therefore if you want to discuss gluten in any of the various context it should be defined first. The error in this page from the beginning is that it does not define what specific gluten documentation it is refering to, so that we assume it is the general role. What the page should be is a calving of the definitions with appropriate links and scraping off the misinformation (such as, without references, the immunochemistry of oat avenins, spelt or kamut gliadins)

Another terminology problem[edit]

Re: "Wheat flour with a high gluten content is called "strong" flour, and is used for breads, whereas flour with a lower gluten content is called "soft" flour, and is used for cakes."

I have lived across Canada and high-gluten-content wheat has always been called "hard" not "strong".

I have editted as such.

Is Gluten suitable for vegans?

yes, it is strictly a plant-based protein source. -- phoebe/(talk) 17:16, 2 October 2007 (UTC)

Hard and soft are descriptions of wheat texture, not dough strength. Hard textured wheats can have strong or weak gluten on a continuous scale. Likewise, soft textured wheats can have strong gluten or weak gluten, but tend to have mostly weak gluten. Even in the soft wheats with strong gluten, the gluten tends to be weaker than most hard textured wheats.(I'm a soft wheat breeder)-- Edgeben (talk) 23:59, 16 January 2015 (UTC)User:edgeben

Pet food recalls[edit]

Should we put some info about the pet food recalls here? It appears that wheat gluten is the culprit, with either aminopterin or melamine being the specific agent found on the wheat gluten. --zandperl 13:32, 1 April 2007 (UTC)

An encyclopedia deals in facts, not news. Pointing out gluten and the suspect chemicals should wait until the connection is officially confoirmed. At this time the limited findings from necropsies suggest some other factor is the culprit. Wugo 20:02, 1 April 2007 (UTC)

Gliadin and Glutenin[edit]

As the Gluten article now stands, a reader might assume gliadin and glutenin are the names of two single proteins. In fact, both names encompass classes of proteins, grouped together because they have properties in common. I think discussing this complexity is beyond the scope of an encyclopedia, so have not attempted it. If outvoted, I will accept the task. {Note: The "Further Reading" section includes sufficient data for the purpose.)Wugo 02:50, 30 August 2007 (UTC)

Gluten is a mixture of the proteins gliadin and glutenin. These exist, conjoined with starch, in the endosperms of some grass-related grains, notably wheat, rye, and barley. Gliadin and glutenin comprise about 80% of the protein contained in wheat seed.
The proteins in rye are called secalins, not gliadin, the proteins in barley are called hordeins not gliadin.
To read more accurately it should say:
Wheat gluten is a mixture of the proteins gliadin and glutenin cojoined in starch within the seed's endosperm. Both gliadin and glutenin are composed of many protein isoforms and thus comprise a complex mixture of proteins.[1] Similar glutens, secalins and hordeins, also exist in the cultivated grains of rye and barley, respectively. (See also: Triticeae glutens).
(Optional) Oats also have a forms of gluten, avenin, that is similar to certain wheat gluten components.
Gliadin and glutenin comprise about 80% of the protein contained in wheat seed.[citation needed]
Pdeitiker 15:30, 14 September 2007 (UTC)
If "Gliadin and glutenin comprise about 80% of the protein contained in wheat seed.", is the other 20% considered Gluten as well, or is it "non-gluten wheat protein"? twfowler (talk) 02:01, 10 December 2008 (UTC)



I have assessed the article to a B level for the WikiProject Food and drink. Overall it is a decent article but certainly needs some work and expansion to bring it to the next level. Here are some suggestions that you should consider before submitting it for GA status.

  • Expand all single line paragraphs or combine them with other paragraphs where they fit
  • Avoid phrases such as "so called" which is used in the lead paragraph, such phrases lean toward bias
  • Under "Extraction" the use of the word Legend is not an appropriate word usage, it should be rephrased.
  • Work on grammar in the article, some parts could be written better for ease of understanding
I hope I have corrected some of this.Pdeitiker 15:39, 14 September 2007 (UTC)
  • Are there non-food uses for gluten?
Gluten is used in school paste and gluten hydrolysates are used in cosmetics. Gluten is also used as an agent in the making of soaps and other personal hygeine products. This is already covered in Triticeae glutens. Pdeitiker 15:39, 14 September 2007 (UTC)
  • Organize the usage section a little bit, perhaps using smaller headings to deal with certain baking topics, the section seems a little jumbled this is partly due to the usage of many single sentence paragraphs and the list incorporated into the center of the section.
  • Under occurrence the phrase "wheat and closely related cereals like rye and barley" should not be a full link, and as the link goes to an article that is unrelated to any of the specific words, perhaps the phrase in the linked article needs to be worked into this article to make the link make sense to those who do not understand gluten or cereals.
This has been repaired. Pdeitiker 15:39, 14 September 2007 (UTC)
  • I believe you could expand upon the actual "extraction" process under that heading.
  • The lead could be expanded a bit further to include a summary of everything in the article, this may help get rid of the lingering single sentence paragraphs.

--Christopher Tanner, CCC 22:21, 1 September 2007 (UTC)

Christopher- Thank you for the rating and, expecially, for your commentary. I shall begin incorporating your suggestions. I used Legend because the story is frequently repeated, with no source ever cited. I haven't been able to validate it either, but I don't doubt the story. Wugo 01:14, 2 September 2007 (UTC)

Could we add something in here about gluten substitutes (for bread, etc.). Is agar a possible substitute? talk 2:25, 24 October 2008 (UTC) —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk)

Non-food products with gluten[edit]

Elmer's finger paints. Traditional wheat pastes (often used in schools) Traditional soaps (See Korres Wheat Soaps) It is not uncommon for moisturizing creams and soaps to contain gluten [2] lists the following as possibly containing gluten Lotions, creams and cosmetics (primarily for those with dermatitis herpetaformis). Stamps, envelopes or other gummed labels. Toothpaste and mouthwash.Pdeitiker 16:16, 14 September 2007 (UTC)

List of gluten containing products not for consumptionUser:Pdeitiker 17:49, 4 October 2007 (UTC)

Further reading[edit]

I reformatted the refs as per WP:REFS using the citation template hoping to make a more readable layout. I am not sure it is any better. Triwbe 13:11, 2 November 2007 (UTC)

Pruning Proposal[edit]

This article is intended to be part of Wikipedia:WikiProject Food and drink and should be kept within that scope. Gluten pathologies have been extensively discussed in a series of articles listed in Gluten sensitivity and should only briefly mentioned in this one. Unless someone disagrees, I shall substantially reduce this article's discussion of celiac disease and other sensitivities. Wugo 04:40, 13 November 2007 (UTC) See Coeliac disease.

Second notice. The pruning will begin shortly. First I will unite and reorganize the sections titled "Occurence" and "Glutinous Cereals". Objections and suggestions, please.Wugo (talk) 04:01, 21 December 2007 (UTC)

I have greatly reduced the Adverse Reactions section. If you think I've gone too far, please review the Gluten sensitivity articles then restore as you see fit. Wugo (talk) 01:39, 8 January 2008 (UTC)

Gluten in ice cream[edit]

(Discussion moved here from User talk:Socrates2008#Gluten in ice cream)

Hello, Socrates- I'm trying to find a supporting reference for use of gluten as a stabilizer. Do you know one? I found a list of other uses at but no stabilizing.

Still looking, Wugo (talk) 01:10, 15 January 2008 (UTC)

Yeah, I found lots of references, but not a reliable one yet - will keep looking too. Socrates2008 (Talk) 07:46, 15 January 2008 (UTC)

The reference you supplied does not support the statement. It gives me an idea though: Let's look up lists of foods prohibited to celiac patients; they should include foods with gluten added. Wugo (talk) 14:55, 15 January 2008 (UTC)

Bingo! Read the Beware List at Wugo (talk) 18:00, 15 January 2008 (UTC)

Not sure I that agree with your summary that the reference does not support the statement about gluten as a stablizer in ice cream. The author states: "Even foods not thought of as baked products, like ice cream and catsup, often contain small amounts of gluten or wheat flour added as thickeners or stabilizers."
Prohibited foods is a good idea, but bear in mind that people with gluten intolerances might read this - i.e. you don't want to publish incomplete info that might cause someone to eat the wrong thing. Socrates2008 (Talk) 22:08, 15 January 2008 (UTC)


This is a fairly subtle example of the way food faddists and hucksters have learned to subvert Wikipedia to advance their own interests. Sentences like, “Enough of the human population suffers from gluten sensitivity of one kind or another that many foods are now labeled to clarify whether they contain gluten“ are questionable. “Enough” is hardly a scientific term. Further on the article claims that 0.5 to 1% of the population has celiac disease, a figure I believe to be five to ten times the actual number, closer to 0.01%. [I wish it were easier to comment here.] JohnFMayer (talk) 01:25, 5 January 2011 (UTC) John Mayer

'Enough', in this context, denotes a threshold. It simply means that the coeliac population is equal to or greater than the number of people necessary for companies to label to their needs.--THobern 08:20, 17 March 2012 (UTC)

Oral Sex claim probably trolling[edit]

This section is probably someone having a bit of fun: "Known examples occur when people share silverware or other eating instruments. There have also been confirmed reports of cross contamination through oral sex. Doctors have warned that this is possible for as many as 30 days after a person ingests gluten containing products. People known to be allergic to gluten often cite this as an area of "extreme frustration". [19] The source cited says no such thing (the link is dead, but the article is available elsewhere), and the gluten-in-semen report is probably fabricated, as I've found only a lot of debate and doctors suggesting that semen is too refined to maintain large protein molecules like gluten in it, but that as far as they know, no studies have been done. Mind you, it seems gluten can transfer through breast milk, so one never knows, but unless one's sensitivity is extreme it's unlikely to be an issue (or, as someone on Yahoo Answers said, "unless you're gonna be downing the stuff like Crystal Light,I wouldn't worry too much"). In any case, without evidence it should be removed. (talk) 12:39, 9 January 2012 (UTC)

Are advertisements actually permitted here?[edit]

The link under "Sources" and the link for "The Gluten Effect" are clearly nothing but blatant advertisements. I would remove them, but some jerk would probably just put them back. (talk) 09:57, 16 March 2012 (UTC)

No, this is not permitted. See WP:REFSPAM. I posted subst:welcomespam to the Erichealthnow's talk page and removed the reference. I believe a similar link in Further Reading qualifies as WP:BOOKSPAM, so I have removed it as well. Kullanari (talk) 22:08, 18 July 2012 (UTC)

Wheat starch redirects to here[edit]

Hello. Why is wheat starch redirecting here to gluten? It would be better to redirect to starch, as gluten and starch are pretty different.

lg --Crotha 11:45, 25 April 2013 (UTC)


  1. You are correct about the redirect. Wheat starch was directing here but now it is going to Starch.
  2. You are also correct in saying that "gluten" and "starch" are pretty different, if by "pretty" you mean "completely".

Peace, Dusty|💬|You can help! 18:58, 30 July 2013 (UTC)


I would like to know how I have read that Spelt(English),Epeautre (French),Dinkel (German)

gluten is water soluble and here I read it is not. More importantly it will be a response to my spelt bread customers of which I make my living from Catweasel (talk) 10:23, 17 June 2013 (UTC)

"Gluten is the composite of a gliadin and a glutenin, which is conjoined with starch in the endosperm of various grass-related grains. The prolamin and glutelin from wheat (gliadin, which is alcohol-soluble, and glutenin, which is only soluble in dilute acids or alkalis) constitute about 80% of the protein contained in wheat fruit.------- Being insoluble in water,-------- they can be purified by washing away the associated starch.

Perhaps spelt, if it is water soluble, paves the way for those that have celiac disease. As it seems the problem with those that have celiac disease stems from digestion because the wheat is not water soluble.Catweasel (talk) 12:29, 28 June 2013 (UTC)

I am not sure what changes to the article you are trying to suggest here. Do you have references for any of the statements here? Because if you do and they are reliable sources then we can change the article. (I have never seen any scientific literature stating that the gluten in spelt is soluble in water, but I haven't finished reading all of the scientific literature yet.) If the gluten in spelt is soluble in water then that implies that the composite proteins must be other than gliadin and glutenin which then calls into question whether it is really gluten at all. If you are merely curious then you can conduct your own test by trying to make gluten by washing spelt dough (the entire ball of dough should dissolve if your hypothesis is true), but if you are trying to suggest updates to this article (which is the sole purpose of this talk page btw) then you will need scientific references. Cheers, Dusty|💬|You can help! 14:22, 28 June 2013 (UTC)

discovery of gluten[edit]

the lede describes gluten being discovered by buddhist monks. per this Buzzle article. I don't think this source really meets RS, the site kinda looks like a wiki in that the articles are contributed by non-vetted authors. any opposition to removing this bit/retag it with a citation needed?Jonathanfu (talk) 07:44, 17 January 2014 (UTC)

Protein in Gluten[edit]

Is the protein in Gluten a complete protein? Many grains have incomplete proteins (the amino acid "profiles") in contrast to milk (cow juice)for example. I was wondering how the amino acid profile compares with whey isolate protein.....


Michael — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2601:7:9200:32:491C:CFCC:C551:46A4 (talk) 00:54, 11 May 2014 (UTC)

Article's emphasis makes gluten sound like an additive or byproduct[edit]

This whole article seems heavily biased in that it makes it makes it sound like gluten is primarily some sort of additive or food byproduct, rather than a basic component of certain grains (correct me if I'm wrong on the facts here). The reader could easily miss or lose sight of the basic facts about gluten's role in human diets--it's a part of certain grains and it is therefore a part of almost any food made from these grains.

For example look at the fact that "extraction" is at the very top of the article and also that it is followed by "uses: in bread products". Gluten is found in bread products because it is a part of bread because it is a part of flour because it is a part of these grains, right? So, except for the part on "added gluten" this should be called something like "function of gluten in bread-making", not "use of gluten in bread products".

This is just one example...there are issues throughout the article and bigger questions of balance/organization. I suspect this apparent bias is unintentional but it should really be fixed (by someone who knows a lot more than me!). I did change "found in foods processed from wheat and related grains" to "found in wheat and related grains".

Someone tell me if I'm totally off base here...there seems to be some confusion in the sources about whether "gluten" is "gluten" when its still in the grain, unprocessed. (talk) 07:47, 21 May 2014 (UTC)

Disgusting picture[edit]

This "duck" really looks like mock...has it been predigested by a cow or something? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 22:32, 10 June 2014 (UTC)

Gluten's importance in human diet[edit]

There has been much emphasis recently on people who have various problems with gluten in their diet. I think the article reflects this concern.

Is there any broad general statement that can be made in the lead of this article about the importance of gluten in the human diet, historically and currently? (I'm assuming that any such statement would be suitably qualified that gluten is a problem for some people.)

Thanks, CBHA (talk) 18:16, 11 June 2014 (UTC)

Autism link?[edit]

Does gluten have any link to autism? (talk) 01:32, 15 July 2014 (UTC)

Only if you are vaccintaed with it whilst not wearing your tinfoil hat. (talk) 18:28, 20 July 2015 (UTC)

Trying to understand this[edit]

Quoting the article: "Gluten is the composite of a gliadin and a glutenin, which is conjoined with starch in the endosperm of various grass-related grains. The prolamin and glutelin from wheat (gliadin, which is alcohol-soluble, and glutenin, which is only soluble in dilute acids or alkalis) constitute about 80% of the protein contained in wheat fruit. Being insoluble in water, they can be purified by washing away the associated starch."

I'm paraphrasing this. Please tell me if I get it right. (I'm not suggesting my wording is better, just trying to find out if I understand this.)

"Gluten is the composite of a gliadin and a glutenin, which is conjoined with starch in the endosperm of various grass-related grains." --> "Gluten is the combination of a gliadin and a glutenin. It is found, along with starch, in some grains. Gluten is not starch and starch is not gluten. But they are found together in grain."

"The prolamin and glutelin from wheat (gliadin, which is alcohol-soluble, and glutenin, which is only soluble in dilute acids or alkalis) constitute about 80% of the protein contained in wheat fruit. --> I'm puzzled here, is Prolamin another name for Gliadin? Is "wheat fruit" a synonym for "wheat endosperm"? And what is the other 20% of the protein that is NOT gluten?

"Being insoluble in water, they can be purified by washing away the associated starch." --> "Gluten can be separated from starch by grinding grain and dissolving it in water. The part that does not dissolve is the gluten." Does the other 20% of the protein dissolve?

Thanks, CBHA (talk) 19:12, 24 August 2014 (UTC)

Glad you came by. The scientific/medical aspects need expert attention. Coretheapple (talk) 20:47, 24 August 2014 (UTC)
Thank you. I'm still trying to grasp what is wrong in the part I quoted above, "Gluten is the composite of a gliadin and a glutenin, which is conjoined with starch in the endosperm of various grass-related grains." It now seems that this sentence (which covers various grains) is incorrect, that in fact only wheat contains gliadin, whereas other grains contain other types of prolamins. Can someone confirm this? CBHA (talk) 04:00, 30 August 2014 (UTC)

What is gluten free diet — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:53, 7 August 2015 (UTC)

Non-GI symptoms of NCGS[edit]

“foggy mind”, fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, peripheral neuropathy, dermatitis, atopic disorders, allergy to one or more inhalants, foods or metals, asthma, rhinitis, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, schizophrenia, autism, ataxia or attention-deficit disorders.

Extracted from the article as fringe topics per WP:UNDUE and WP:NOTJOURNAL. --Zefr (talk) 01:14, 29 December 2015 (UTC)

Zefr is oversimplifying the non-gastrointestinal symptoms of NCGS.
This list of symptoms do represents "all significant viewpoints that have been published by reliable sources, in proportion to the prominence of each viewpoint in the published, reliable sources."
However, I accept simplifying. This version is the most summarized, without distorting the information.
Best regards. --BallenaBlanca (talk) 01:58, 29 December 2015 (UTC)
I add that there are other users concerned by the fact that it talks of NCGS. This topic has already been discussed twice on Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Medicine:
Also, I have talked with Jfdwolff, who is an administrator and a member of WikiProject Medicine:
User talk:Jfdwolff/Archive 37#Coeliac disease
"BallenaBlanca Around the time when the CD article became FA, another editor wrote lots of immunology content into other articles. It is still a hugely controversial area where some vociferously dispute the non-classical gluten-related conditions such as ataxia, whereas others accept these entities. JFW | T@lk 14:15, 2 November 2015 (UTC)
Yes, I know that there is a dispute in cientific community about the gluten-related symptoms/disorders. The scientific literature is growing and providing more and more evidence in favor of these entities. But our mission in Wikipedia is to write from a "neutral point of view (NPOV), which means representing fairly, proportionately, and, as far as possible, without bias, all of the significant views that have been published by reliable sources on a topic." Thus, if we reflect the controversy, I think there is no problem. It is necessary to give the reader all the positions so that he can make his own decisions.
Best regards. --BallenaBlanca (talk) 15:27, 2 November 2015 (UTC)
BallenaBlanca I agree. The extended gluten sensitivity conditions have extensive secondary sources in their support. JFW | T@lk 20:35, 3 November 2015 (UTC)"
Best regards. --BallenaBlanca (talk) 02:37, 29 December 2015 (UTC)

Assessment comment[edit]

The comment(s) below were originally left at Talk:Gluten/Comments, and are posted here for posterity. Following several discussions in past years, these subpages are now deprecated. The comments may be irrelevant or outdated; if so, please feel free to remove this section.

This article does not deserve B scale rating as it has numerous factual errors.Pdeitiker 02:55, 9 September 2007 (UTC)CorrectedPdeitiker 17:12, 14 September 2007 (UTC)

Last edited at 17:12, 14 September 2007 (UTC). Substituted at 16:25, 29 April 2016 (UTC)

Gliadin & Intestinal permeability[edit]

Hi, I read that Gliadin, a component of gluten, interacts with Zonulin leading to Intestinal permeability (more significantly in sensitive people) and that this has a range of implications for health, in those who are sensitive. I'm not sure if this fits in with an existing section like gluten sensitivity. Perhaps a new sub-section under adverse reactions? What do you guys think? See: Zarkme (talk) 01:37, 18 August 2016 (UTC)

@Zarkme: Sorry for the delay in answering. I added a section with a brief sentence [3]. I hope you agree, but maybe it would be good to expand it a bit.
Best regards. --BallenaBlanca BallenaBlanca.jpg Blue Mars symbol.svg (Talk) 13:01, 1 December 2016 (UTC)
@Jytdog: Can you explain this, please? (→‎Increased intestinal permeability: OK, I am getting ready call this FRINGE and treat as such.)
Maybe you may want to check / adjust something, but again, I remember you we must maintain the appropriate content WP:PRESERVE.
Best regards. --BallenaBlanca BallenaBlanca.jpg Blue Mars symbol.svg (Talk) 11:29, 3 December 2016 (UTC)
Please read WP:PROMO and WP:UNDUE and follow them. Thanks. Jytdog (talk) 18:46, 3 December 2016 (UTC)

sentence from lead[edit]

The following is nonsense:

Gluten proteins have low biological and nutritional value, as opposed to the grains of pseudocereals (gluten free), which are rich in proteins with high biological value (albumins and globulins).

Comparing a kind of protein from X to whole grains of Y is just silly. Jytdog (talk) 04:03, 3 December 2016 (UTC)

Okay, but remember WP:PRESERVE [4]. Let's delete the comparison, but not the appropriate content properly supported by the source: "Though from a nutritional point of view, gluten exclusion does not entail particular problems, being a mixture of proteins with low nutritional and biological value"
Best regards. --BallenaBlanca BallenaBlanca.jpg Blue Mars symbol.svg (Talk) 11:17, 3 December 2016 (UTC)

Biological value[edit]

These edits [5] removed this sentence "Gluten proteins have low biological and nutritional value.[1]" and added these two paragraphs:

Lead: "Gluten comprises 75% of total wheat protein[2] and is a significant protein source of amino acids for human nutrition, particularly in underdeveloped countries where wheat food products are commonly consumed.[3]"

Bread products: "As the principal protein source in wheat, gluten contributes nutritional value to wheat food products, particularly in underdeveloped countries where wheat consumption is relatively high.[3]"

I agree to use these references to improve the information, but we must adjust. This reference states:[3]

"The data in Table 4 support the widely accepted view that the first limiting amino acid in wheat grain is lysine with other essential amino acids being present in adequate amounts, at least for adults. The lower contents of essential amino acids in white flour compared with wholegrain relate to the high content of lysine‐poor prolamin storage proteins (gluten proteins) in the starchy endosperm. These proteins are restricted to the starchy endosperm cells, where they account for about 80% of the total proteins, and have unusual amino acid compositions with high contents of glutamine and proline and low contents of lysine (reviewed by Shewry and Halford 2002; Shewry 2007; Shewry et al. 2009a). This contrasts with the proteins present in the other grain tissues which are more lysine‐rich."

Gluten has low content in the essential amino acid lysine and therefore, it has a low biological value (see Biological value#Properties of the protein source), as stated in the ref [1] ("From a nutritional point of view, gluten exclusion does not entail particular problems, being a mixture of proteins with low nutritional and biological value") and lower than the rest of proteins in wheat. We can not say that it is the most important source of protein in wheat from a nutritional point of view, but the most abundant.

Best regards. --BallenaBlanca BallenaBlanca.jpg Blue Mars symbol.svg (Talk) 00:47, 11 December 2016 (UTC)

Problems with the above analysis are as follows: 1) the quote from Shewry (2015) does not eliminate gluten's overall contribution of 11 amino acids to the diet, but rather is saying that the lysine content is less than optimal. This table from Shewry (2009), giving quantitative values for amino acids in wheat proteins (most of which is from gluten), shows whole wheat as an excellent source of amino acids compared to the FAO/WHO standards, i.e., evidence for wheat protein including gluten as a nutritious food source. Gluten is supplying most of those amino acid contents; 2) "low biological value" is only in comparison to other high-protein food sources shown in the table. Among all food sources, wheat has relatively high protein/amino acid value; 3) the Lamacchia reference cites no specific physiological evidence for "low biological value", an outdated, poorly defined and controversial measurement as presented here. There are no credible reviews supporting use of this term; 4) the current discussion on gluten as a significant source of amino acids for healthy human nutrition presented at the Wheat article should be duplicated here for balance. Summarizing, gluten is a) a valid, significant amino acid source from wheat as food for billions of people; and b) it causes serious adverse effects in a small percentage of the general population. The current article is heavily biased toward part b. --Zefr (talk) 21:41, 11 December 2016 (UTC)
If you read the ref, the paragraph above of which I quoted, you will see this:
The contribution of wheat to human diet and health
"Protein quality
Protein nutritional quality is determined by the proportions of essential amino acids, as these cannot be synthesized by animals and hence must be provided in the diet. If only one essential amino acid is limiting, the others will be broken down and excreted resulting in restricted growth in humans and loss of nitrogen present in the diet. Ten amino acids are strictly essential: lysine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, histidine, and methionine. However, cysteine is often also included as it can only be synthesized from methionine, with combined proportions of cysteine and methionine often being presented. The requirements for essential amino acids are lower for adults where amino acids are required only for maintenance, than for children where they are also required for growth.
This is a more recent review of 2015 from the same author (Shewry) than the other older ref you are mentioning, (Shewry 2009). And the continuous selection of wheat is increasing the gluten content, because of its unique viscoelastic properties, enabling the preparation of diverse nutritious foods such as breads, noodles, and pasta, which is what manufacturers demand. Anyway, in the table from Shewry (2009) we can see that both grain and flour are deficient in the strictly essential amino acid lysine:
[6] Recommended levels of essential amino acid lysine for adult humans FAO/WHO/UNU (expressed as mg g−1 protein)45; wheat grain: 28 flour: 22
To achieve the neutrality and balance you are asking for, we must include a summary of these paragraphs. The higher the amount of gluten, which is deficient in lysine, the lower nutritional value of wheat. "If only one essential amino acid is limiting, the others will be broken down and excreted resulting in restricted growth in humans and loss of nitrogen present in the diet" And "other essential amino acids being present in adequate amounts, at least for adults" means that is not clear in children.
"Lamacchia reference cites no specific physiological evidence for "low biological value"" It is clear that the reviewers of Lamacchia's article are specialist and therefore aware of this fact, whereby, despite not including references, gave the article's approval. But we have the Shewry reference of 2015 to use instead, with a broader explanation.
Best regards. --BallenaBlanca BallenaBlanca.jpg Blue Mars symbol.svg (Talk) 22:08, 11 December 2016 (UTC)
From the more rigorous Shewry references, we can acknowledge the "lysine limiting" effect qualitatively, but there are no quantitative data to confirm a deficiency effect on human nutrition and there is likely over-interpretation of the limiting effect because protein consumption via gluten does not occur in isolation, i.e., except in famine, the typical diet has varied protein sources allowing correction of gluten's lysine limiting effect. It would be misleading to state in the article that gluten in isolation has a negative impact on protein intake and overall nutrition. More here (although a poorly referenced article, likely because dietary metabolites like amino acid nitrogen are difficult to study in vivo), here, and here. --Zefr (talk) 00:07, 12 December 2016 (UTC)


  1. ^ a b Lamacchia C, Camarca A, Picascia S, Di Luccia A, Gianfrani C (Jan 29, 2014). "Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients". Nutrients (Review). 6 (2): 575–90. PMC 3942718Freely accessible. PMID 24481131. doi:10.3390/nu6020575. 
  2. ^ Shewry, P. R.; Halford, N. G.; Belton, P. S.; Tatham, A. S. (2002). "The structure and properties of gluten: An elastic protein from wheat grain" (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 357 (1418): 133–142. PMC 1692935Freely accessible. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.1024. 
  3. ^ a b c Shewry PR, Hey SJ (2015). "Review: The contribution of wheat to human diet and health". Food and Energy Security. 4 (3): 178–202. PMC 4998136Freely accessible. PMID 27610232. doi:10.1002/fes3.64. 

Sources and sub section[edit]


The first source from FDA is from 2007, it would be best to get an updated version if available since many changes could occur during 10 years of period. The information of source 14, 15, 19, 21 seem to from blog posts and webpages that could be replaced by peer-reviewed articles. The link to source 51,52,53 does not work. Another section that could be added to this article is how gluten is detected. For example an overview of immunological and spectroscopic methods such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, ELISA, and commercially available ELISA kit.

Jei1 08:43, 7 April 2017 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Jeileee (talkcontribs)