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- 1 Some additional source material for an article
- 2 Translation of the Russian article
- 2.1 History Gostinodvorskaya trade
- 2.2 Architecture
- 2.3 Seating yard
- 2.4 Living in Moscow courtyards
- 2.5 Guest court of St. Petersburg
- 2.6 Arkhangelsk
- 2.7 Astrakhan
- 2.8 Verkhneudinsk
- 2.9 Yeisk
- 2.10 Kazan
- 2.11 Kostroma
- 2.12 Pskov
- 2.13 Saratov
- 2.14 Tobolsk
- 2.15 Ufa
- 2.16 Kaluga
- 2.17 Living yards in the new trading environment
Some additional source material for an article
Fyodor Dostoevsky made numerous mentions of Gostiny Dvor in his works, identifying them in Crime and Punishment for example as places where items of symbolic significance were bought.
"The Gostiny Dvor is an indoor mall with lots of small shops".<ref>Deborah A. Martinsen, Constance Garnett, ''Notes From Underground, The Double, And Other Stories'' (2003), p. 429.</ref>
"The unfortunate effect of Gostiny Dvor is that it does not blend in with the otherwise picturesque panorama of the area. Typical of nineteenth-century Russian provincial life, the function of Gostiny Dvor was more social than commercial".<ref>Eugenie Harris Gross, Jeffrey Gross, ''The Soviet Union: A Guide for Travelers'' (1977), p. 291.</ref>
Translation of the Russian article
This is an extremely rough Google translation of the Russian Wikipedia article on this topic, which can be used to improve our own presentation:
Seating yard (from the word Guest) (the eastern nations market) - a complex of buildings, which provides services for the wholesale goods and life of merchants (usually from other regions). In large cities, there are usually a few arcades, practiced division geographical coverage (located in different areas of the city), by industry, by ethnicity.
Seating yard are usually included:
- Shopping malls, stores, which concentrates various goods wholesale.
Place for storage of goods, traders living and storage transport . These features were attributed to the low rate of transport: merchants came into the living room with plenty of yard goods and held them for a long time required for the marketing of the whole lot. After that, the party merchants bought local goods and shipped back.
History Gostinodvorskaya trade
Along with the establishment of the government opened the bargaining Customs. The collected fees a living house for merchants. Since living in the living room hut x merchants, is going to pay: izbnaya and polavochnaya.
Seating yard represented the space, surrounded by fence om. In the center of the yard and build custom coaching hut hut. For horses built horse barns. To establish an essential area - area with scales.
Guest house - storage product s. Long building with a gallery barn s and shops, often two-story. Barns - common areas for storage of goods. Shop for one or more owners. Shop by size were divided into complete and polulavki. Size of the full bench - two fathoms. Polulavka had one size fathom. Size stores can differ slightly from the standard.
Items stored in a barn in the boxes and nosiltsah. Some goods were stored without boxes - they were hung on poles (such as boots).
Janitors arcade watched the procedure is going to pay for the room, were responsible for the safety of goods, issued locks for individual tenant stores. Janitors collected from visitors for traders izbnoe house, barn or barns for ambarschinu for polavochnoe shops.
Often living yards and customs were given in farming. Sometimes they took mercy on a separate form of taxes or duties.
All passing merchants should have stayed in the arcade, if they do not have their own yard in Posad is Trader could sell the goods of the sledge, or a ship without unloading the goods in the arcade. But in this case, he had to pay the fee swivel.
In XVI - XVII century s living courtyards built as the area with galleries. In XVIII century s gallery building on the perimeter of the square. In the center of the square (in the courtyard) arrange warehouses. Galleries are built as arcades. The galleries are located shops of merchants and shops. Sometimes, instead of Arcade a colonnade. Kostroma court yard - one of the largest of this type.
Seating yard built in urban areas, at least on the main streets.
Seating yard formed due to the same conditions as the stalls and markets. They have always stood apart from the other buildings of the city and did not belong to urban communities, and constituted a separate social group, manager of special rules and customs.
In Novgorod German merchants had the right to visit with their goods twice a year, for a certain period in especially designated court, which is at the end of XV century and in the city there were two: German and gotesky (Gotland). Around foreign guest court was undeveloped strip of land. The internal affairs of the German court was not subject to review and intervention Novgorod government they charge an elected Alderman, four Rathmann s.
Germans were trading in the Middle Ages with Venice, had there own Seating yard («fondaco di Tedeschi»); Venetians traded with Kipchak Tatars had in Thane Seating yard and barns, Genoese had Seating yard in Messina, in the particular part of the city. For Cologne skih merchants in London e was allotted a special Arcade, called the "Guild of the House of» («Gildeballe»), subsequently extended under the new name "steel yard" Hanseatic merchants.
Retail trade in the guest court was prohibited.
In Russia, foreign merchants, except Novgorod and also had guest court and elsewhere.
Living in Moscow courtyards
In Moscow every nation - British, Greek, etc. - Had their decorations. Herberstein, describing the city, mentions a massive stone arcade, where the merchants lived, and their products exhibited for sale, pepper, saffron, silk scarves and others sold here is cheaper than in German. Seating yard this was an area of China Town and a Tsar Feodor Ioannovich divided by 20 special series. In 1791 - 1805 years. Old Arcade, fronted by one party to Ilinka, on the other Barbarian, was rebuilt by the architect Quarenghi (building has remained).
Guest court of St. Petersburg
In St. Petersburg e first Seating yard was built by Peter I to Trinity Square Petersburg Side, which consists of hundreds of log stores, burned in 1710 y. Seating yard was next on Vasilievsky Island, a fragment preserved.
When the population in the Admiralty side began to increase and the trade was to focus here, Seating yard stone was erected (in 1719 y) on the shore of [[Sink (River) | Moika] ], the current Green Bridge, this Court was burned in fire in 1736.
In 1758 in the decree "on the structure of the stone arcade on the plan of architect Rastrelli"; shop, built by merchants, was ordered to pay them in perpetuity and hereditary possession. Seating yard at Nevsky Prospekt, house number 35 completely rebuilt to 1785 in the project JB Vallin de la Mothe (keeping the overall layout of Rastrelli), facade from the Nevsky Prospekt decor structed in 1886 - 1887 s project H. L. Benoit. The names of its four lines: Cloth (now Neva goes to Nevsky Prospekt), Mirror (now Garden, published in the Sadovaya Street) , Big Surovskaya (now' Perino, goes to Dumskoye street), Surovskaya Malaya (now Lomonosov, published in the Street University, former Chernyshev Lane) pointed to the appointment series.
In Astrakhan had several guest court - specific to each nation.
Verkhneudinsk nd the fair was the largest for Baikal nd fair. The first wooden building arcade was built in 1791 y. June 3, 1803 at a meeting of merchants and wealthy burghers Verkhneudinsk decided to build stone decorations. Construction started in 1804 y. Seating yard built by the Irkutsk province architect Anton Ivanovich Losev (1763-1829). Construction continued at long intervals, and only in 1856 was made outside eaves and roof.
In Yeisk s court yard was built in 1848. Now part of the city's main market.
In Kazan Seating yard located on once the main socio-trade area (now Square May 1). The first reference is from 1566. There is a theory that it was held in place market and time Khanate of Kazan. Since 1895, the building is the city museum (now - National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan).
The building is not just undergoing a devastating fires. In Soviet times, the available on two floors of the buildings were built on top two, which significantly changed its architectural appearance. These floors were demolished during the reconstruction of the building at the end of XX century.
As part of the Kazan once operated arcade Gostinodvorskaya Church of St. Nicholas, which was closed and devoid of the top in the Soviet period.
Seating yard in Kostroma - one of the main architectural and historical monuments and tourist attractions.
In Pskov e Seating yard located behind the city.
In the past the "capital of the Volga Region" Saratov e for the main Moscow street existed, but had been lost two living yard - on the Old-Old Cathedral (now the Museum) and New Square in the grain ( now the Theatre) Square.
In Tobolsk e Seating yard located in the historic center of the city. Home construction is necessary decree Peter I in 1702 y. Today is one of historical and architectural ensemble of the Tobolsk Kremlin.
Stone Seating yard Ufa was opened in summer 1866. In 1941, when the city of Ufa were evacuated Serpukhovskaya Yartsevskaya weaving and spinning mills in the building arcade formed Ufa Cotton Mill. Started the revival put Bashkortostan presidential decree "On measures to ensure rapid reconstruction of the former trade rows in Ufa" of 11 August 1995. Seating yard Ufa re opened on 11 October 1999, he is now a center of trade, not only in Ufa, but the whole of the Republic.
Arcade, which occupies an entire block - the only facility in Kaluga, which combines motifs of Russian architecture of the pre-Petrine time and "Gothic." Despite the attempts of many researchers to set the name of the original author of this band, it is still unknown. Project of his, according to Professor SV Bessonova was made one of the architects in Moscow between 1777 - 1782 years. According to another version of its basic concept owned by the city architect PR Nikitin.
The general layout of the city Seating yard was intended to build on the site of the old stalls, consisting of an infinite number of individual stores and little shops. Construction of the arcade began during the life of Nikitin, with the construction of the two southern corps (1785 - 1789 years), while continuing Yasnygine ID, and the last building was completed in 1824, NF Sokolov.
In the century and a half of its existence the ensemble arcade has undergone many alterations. Significant damage was inflicted to him during World War II. Currently we are the restoration of the object.
Living yards in the new trading environment
Seating yard survived and later, when the situation changed and the nature of trade, they were privileged, favored by trade, quite independently of the nationality of traders. Seating yard to top XX century and were almost in any more or less important cities.
In the XX century, Seating yard served as a starting point for creating a shopping and entertainment centers.
- Unlike Markets, which were daily shopping mall
- Kostomarov NI Essay Trade Moskovskago state in the XVI and XVII centuries. Saint-Petersburg. In type. N. Tiblena and Comp., 1862