|WikiProject Education||(Rated Start-class, High-importance)|
|WikiProject Alternative education||(Rated Start-class)|
The Instructional Theory is the concept of presenting information in the most effective and encouraging way for others to learn. Instructional learning is divided into two fields, which are the cognitive and behaviorist ways of learning. One of the pioneers of the Instructional Theory is Robert M. Gagne, who in 1965 published Conditions of Learning for the Florida State University's Department of Educational Research. There are different terms used for Instructional Learning, including the following: Heutagogy, Pedagogy, and Andragogy.
Heutagogy is a learning theory that is a process of self-motivated learning that correlates with Andragogy. In this process, the instructor only offers what to do. The learner has complete freedom with how to learn the material and what they will gain from it. According to Blaschke (2012), a chief concept of Heautagogy is double-looping and self-reflection. Double loopers take a look at the situation at hand and consider all the possible outcomes and results. As well as how the process affects their reasoning and actions. When it comes to self paced learning, environmental and self-proficiency skills are gained. Blaschke (2012) says that,” Through the process of double-looping, learners become more aware of their preferred learning style and can easily adapt new learning situations to their learning styles, thus making them more capable learners.” This is a very important learning approach when it comes to teaching adults, especially in the workplace.
Andragogy focuses solely on adults. Websters dictionary defines andragogy as “the methods or techniques used to teach adults”. A key factor in the birth of andragogy was the educator Malcolm Knowles. Knowles took the teaching of Alexander Kapp and changed the foundations so that it was easier adopted by modern founders of education. Kapp was primarily talking about the theory behind andragogy and made many references that go back to Greek philosophers. The word andragogy actually comes from Greek and means, “man-leading”, compared to its opposite, pedagogy, which means “Child-Learning”. Knowles brook the fundamentals of Andragogy into six assumptions. It is broken into; 1) Need to Know, 2) Foundation, 3) Self-Concept, 4) Readiness, 5) Orientation, 6) Motivation. This field of knowledge has potentially had the largest impact on the education of the modern world. Especially now, as adults are going back to receive undergraduate degrees, the theories of andragogy shape the stance education.
Pedagogy, as mentioned earlier, is taken from the Greek word meaning “Child-Learning”. This is a form of education where the instructor has a much larger emphasis on how the learning takes place. In andragogy, the person who is interested in learning has more to do with how they are educated. The background and education of the instructor in pedagogy will help shape the way the person absorbs the information. Pedagogy can be traced back all the way to Socratic teachings in Greece. Given that Greece was one of the first cultures that had a large emphasis on education, there is no surprise that many of these learning theories can be traced back to that time. Another person who played a large part in the formation of the pedagogy of today is John Dewey. John Dewey was an American philosopher in education reform and adopted the teaching of pedagogy to help form his beliefs. In fact, the name of his most famous piece of work is, My Pedagogic Creed(1897). This creed, is where the beginnings of the American school system originated. He also had another publication, called The Child and the Curriculum(1902). He has gone down in history as one of the founders of education. His namesake, Dewey, is commonly mistaken as the origin of the Dewey Decimal System. Although, he had a huge impact on the reform of education, the man behind that achievement is actually Melvil Dewey.
All three of these forms of education have formed into parts of Instructional Theory. Now, in the modern age, we have the technology to learn in hands full of ways. The introduction of new technologies makes the education field change at an astronomical way. The concept of E-Learning and Distributed Learning Courses are brand new in the past fifteen years. The fact that people are walking around with mobile technology and have the ease of access to an abundance of information is continuing to change education as we know it. All of this falls under the field of Instructional Distribution.
There are actually 4 dominant "fields" or perspectives which include behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, and constructivism. Behaviorists look at learning as an aspect of conditioning and will advocate a system of rewards and targets in education. Educators who embrace cognitive theory believe that the definition of learning as a change in behavior is too narrow and prefer to study the learner rather than the environment, and in particular the complexities of human memory. Humanists emphasize the importance of self-knowledge and relationships in the learning process. Those who advocate constructivism believe that a learner's ability to learn relies to a large extent on what he already knows and understands, and that the acquisition of knowledge should be an individually tailored process of construction. Learning theory and Instructional theory are not the same, one describes the other prescribes.22.214.171.124 (talk) 01:16, 6 November 2013 (UTC)
Freire's work appears to critique instructional approaches that adhere to the knowledge acquisition stance, and his work Pedagogy of the Oppressed has had a broad influence over a generation of American educators with his critique of various "banking" models of education and analysis of the teacher-student relationship. http://www.dsa-atlanta.org/pdf_docs/Macedo_intro_POTO.pdf Freire explains, "Narration (with the teacher as narrator) leads the students to memorize mechanically the narrated content. Worse yet, it turns them into “containers,” into “receptacles” to be “filled” by the teacher. The more completely she fills the receptacles, the better a teacher she is. The more meekly the receptacles permit themselves to be filled, the better students they are." http://www.dsa-atlanta.org/pdf_docs/Macedo_intro_POTO.pdf . In this way he explains educator creates an act of depositing knowledge in a student. The student thus becomes a repository of knowledge. Freire explains that this system that diminishes creativity and knowledge suffers. Knowledge, according to Freire, comes about only through the learner by inquiry and pursuing the subjects in the world and through interpersonal interaction. further states, "In the banking concept of education, knowledge is a gift bestowed by those who consider themselves knowledgeable upon those whom they consider to know nothing. Projecting an absolute ignorance onto others, a characteristic of the ideology of oppression, negates education and knowledge as processes of inquiry. The teacher presents himself to his students as their necessary opposite; by considering their ignorance absolute, he justifies his own existence. The students, alienated like the slave in the Hegelian dialectic, accept their ignorance as justifying the teacher’s existence — but, unlike the slave, they never discover that they educate the teacher." Freire then offered an alternative stance and wrote, "The raison d'etre of libertarian education, on the other hand, lies in its drive towards reconciliation. Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students. " http://www.dsa-atlanta.org/pdf_docs/Macedo_intro_POTO.pdf — Preceding unsigned
In the context of e-learning, a major discussion in instructional theory is the potential of learning objects to structure and deliver content. A stand-alone educational animation is an example of a learning object that can be re-used as the basis for different learning experiences. There are currently many groups trying to set standards for the development and implementation of learning objects. At the forefront of the standards groups is the Department of Defense's Advanced Distributed Learning initiative with its SCORM standards. SCORM stands for Shareable Content Object Reference Model.
Socrates instructional theories preceded Gagne's
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Prior content in this article duplicated one or more previously published sources. The material was copied from: http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.16/6826/1/etd.pdf (removed by DGG); http://infed.org/mobi/paulo-freire-dialogue-praxis-and-education/; https://web.archive.org/web/20120316211848/http://technology4kids.info/preschool_4to6.html; and probably others too. Copied or closely paraphrased material has been rewritten or removed and must not be restored, unless it is duly released under a compatible license. (For more information, please see "using copyrighted works from others" if you are not the copyright holder of this material, or "donating copyrighted materials" if you are.) For legal reasons, we cannot accept copyrighted text or images borrowed from other web sites or published material; such additions will be deleted. Contributors may use copyrighted publications as a source of information, but not as a source of sentences or phrases. Accordingly, the material may be rewritten, but only if it does not infringe on the copyright of the original or plagiarize from that source. Please see our guideline on non-free text for how to properly implement limited quotations of copyrighted text. Wikipedia takes copyright violations very seriously, and persistent violators will be blocked from editing. While we appreciate contributions, we must require all contributors to understand and comply with these policies. Thank you. Justlettersandnumbers (talk) 22:24, 25 April 2014 (UTC)
- Wiley, D. A. (2000). Learning object design and sequencing theory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University. Available: http://opencontent.org/docs/dissertation.pdf