month of prohibition ?
Isn't there a month during which all fighting is prohibited ? I thought that i read that in the Qur'an (long ago). If so, which month is that ? --Jerome Potts (talk) 00:48, 18 June 2016 (UTC)
Kashmir is not a country...
The section on Azzam has the following sentence: Azzam saw Afghanistan as the beginning of jihad to repel unbelievers from many countries—the southern Soviet Republics of Central Asia, Bosnia, the Philippines, Kashmir, Somalia, Eritrea, Spain, and especially his home country of Palestine. Out of these: Soviet Republics of Central Asia, Bosnia, the Philippines, Somalia, Eritrea, Spain, and Palestine - all these are countries, barring Kashmir.
This sentence looks like England, France, Germany, Spain and Utah!
Not expected from wikipedia. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 18.104.22.168 (talk) 19:04, 16 July 2016 (UTC)
Its not a country but respective state
Salamo cool (talk) 03:41, 11 August 2016 (UTC)
Removing links to other articles because lack of sources
I would like to ask Eperoton why is he deleting edits that are linking to other articles on the grounds that they do not have sources? First of all, the edit contains links to articles with plenty of sources. Second, even if we agree that dubbing sources is required, wouldn't it be much better for Wikipedia that insted of undoing edits, Eperoton just add the sources himself? --Stalik (talk) 15:13, 1 August 2016 (UTC)
- @Stalik: Please consult WP:V. Wikilinks are not citations and you shouldn't expect other editors to source your edits for you. If you're aware of citations in another article, add them or expect the material to be removed per policy. Eperoton (talk) 15:29, 1 August 2016 (UTC)
Jihad by the sword
The section on Jihad by the Sword adopts an entirely benign and defensive interpretation of jihad. That is not the mainstream view. There are two main interpretations, which could be called defensive and offensive. The article essentially omits reference to the latter, despite it being the majority interpretation amongst Islamic scholars.Royalcourtier (talk) 23:02, 5 August 2016 (UTC)
- The expansionist conception of jihad was mainstream in the classical era, and this is reflected in the history section, though it could be more clearly organized. In current usage, to which the "Warfare (Jihad bil Saif)" section refers, it is mainly associated with some circles which are not exactly mainstream. However, this section does look odd, as it seems to discuss classical and not current usage. We need to verify the sources and sort out this confusion. Eperoton (talk) 23:51, 5 August 2016 (UTC)
The lead has serious problems, both before and after the latest edit. The first sentence arbitrarily pushes a particular intepretation of the term, contrary to the broader range of meanings discussed in the article, and is moreover unsourced. The rest of lead gives undue weight to views of certain authors, in particular the reliable but non-prominent source by Diane Morgan and some web links of unclear reliability and/or notability. There's also a mysterious unsourced reference to a "Dictionary of Islam". I'm proposing to rewrite its first two paragraphs based on how academic encyclopedias treat the subject in the opening of their entries on jihad, keeping the opinions of Lewis and Ghamidi in the lead, but putting them in refs alongside the views expressed in the encyclopedias for due weight. Below are some excerpts I've collected, arranged roughly according to my estimate of their academic prominence, from highest to lowest. Several major encyclopedias with different editors have commissioned Rudolph Peters to write the entry, and the opening paragraphs are identical in three of them (even though he co-authored one of them with David Cook, whose polemic against greater jihad "apologists" is prominently featured in our "Debate" section). I'll abridge some passages not directly relevant here.
Connoting an endeavor toward a praiseworthy aim, the word jihād bears many shades of meaning in the Islamic context. It may express a struggle against one's evil inclinations or an exertion for the sake of Islam and the ummah (Islamic community), for example, in trying to convert unbelievers or working for the moral betterment of Islamic society (“jihād of the tongue” and “jihād of the pen”). In books on Islamic law and commonly in the Qurʿān, the word means an armed struggle against the unbelievers. Sometimes the “jihād of the sword” is called “the lesser jihād,” in opposition to the peaceful forms named “the greater jihād.” Often used today without religious connotation, its meaning is roughly equivalent to the English word crusade (“a crusade against drugs”). Either “Islamic” or “holy” is currently added to the word when it is used in a religious context (al-jihād al-Islāmī or al-jihād al-muqaddas). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women
DJIHAD etymologically signifies an effort directed towards a determined objective. (Cf. [...] mujahada or, again, djihad: an effort directed upon oneself for the attainment of moral and religious perfection. Certain writers, particularly among those of Shiite persuasion, qualify this djihad as "spiritual djihad" and as "the greater djihad", in opposition to the djihad which is our present concern and which is called "physical djihad" or "the lesser djihad". It is, however, very much more usual for the term djihad to denote this latter form of "effort"). In law, according to general doctrine and in historical tradition, the djihad consists of military action with the object of the expansion of Islam and, if need be, of its defence. Encyclopedia of Islam 2nd ed, Brill
The entry in the Oxford dictionary of Islam is freely available here
JIHA¯D is the verbal noun of the Arabic verb jahada, meaning “to endeavor, to strive, to struggle.” It is generally used to denote an effort toward a commendable aim. In religious contexts it can mean the struggle against one’s evil inclinations or efforts toward the moral uplift of society or toward the spread of Islam. This last undertaking can be peaceful (“jiha¯d of the tongue” or “jiha¯d of the pen”), in accordance with [Quranic quotations]. In pious and mystical circles spiritual and moral jihadis emphasized. This they call “greater jiha¯d” on the strength of the following tradition (h: ad¯ıth) of the prophet Muhammad [quoted hadith]. Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan Reference USA, v. 7, p. 4917
The Arabic term jihad is properly defined as “struggle” or “striving” and is generally described as taking place at two levels: the inner (or greater) and the outer (or lesser). According to the hadith (records of the sayings and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad), inner jihad is the struggle within oneself to avoid sinful behavior and live according to the principles of the Qurʾan, Sunna (example of the Prophet Muhammad), and Sharia (Islamic law). Outer jihad, on the other hand, refers to the defense of the Muslim community under attack. This can be a “soft defense,” such as through verbal or written debate or persuasion (jihad of the tongue, or jihad of the pen), or “hard defense” (also known as “jihad of the sword”), such as through physical or military defense of a community. Oxford Bibliographies
Literally meaning “struggle,” jihad may be associated with almost any activity by which Muslims attempt to bring personal and social life into a pattern of conformity with the guidance of God. Nevertheless, early in the development of Islam, jihad came to be associated particularly with fighting or making war “in the path of God.” In thinking about jihad, then, we may learn a great deal through a focus on war. Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought
The word jihad is derived from the Arabic root jahada, meaning “to strive” or “to exert oneself” toward some goal. In this general sense, jihad could mean striving to achieve something with no particular moral value, or even a negative value. The Qur�an itself twice uses the verb when describing the efforts of pagan parents to induce their Muslim-convert children to return to polytheism (29:8, 31:15). Other occurrences of this verbal form and its derivatives, however, are limited to the struggle of the Muslims to attain and maintain their faith. Thus, jihad has come to mean in the Islamic context only a virtuous struggle, toward some praiseworthy end, as defined by religion. It is therefore often linked with the phrase fi sabil Allah, meaning “struggle in the path of God.” Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world, MacMillan Reference USA
A term that derives from the Arabic word jahada, meaning “to strive.” The Arabic nouns juhd, mujahid, jihad, and ijtihad mean endeavor, training, exertion, effort, diligence, and fighting. “Traditionally jihad was understood to be justified for three reasons: to repel invasion or its threat, to punish those who had violated treaties, and to guarantee freedom for the propagation of Islam” (Abedi). The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (2nd Edition), MacMillan Reference USA
Literally, the Arabic word jihad means to strive or struggle (in the path of God); it often refers to religiously sanctioned warfare. Encyclopedia of Islam, Infobase
In light of this, I'm planning to reflect the following aspects of these sources:
- The opening statement should not arbitrarily restrict the meaning of the term
- The difference in emphasis on militaristic vs. non-militaristic interpretations should be reflected
- For militaristic interpretation, the difference of emphasis on the expansionist vs defensive interpretations should be reflected
Thoughts? Eperoton (talk) 18:16, 6 August 2016 (UTC)