|WikiProject Molecular and Cell Biology||(Rated Start-class, Mid-importance)|
- 1 Definition
- 2 Merge from Beta-hydroxybutyrate
- 3 The Long Thin Axon!
- 4 "-ate(-oate-"esters")" is not the same thing as "-ic acid(-oic acid-"carboxylic acids")"
- 5 Are there any studies of the effect on intelligence?
- 6 Effects on Heart
- 7 Ketones in Sweat
- 8 Is Ketosis Really "Abnormal"?
- 9 Ketogenic amino acids
- 10 Omission and contradiction in article
- 11 Assessment comment
- 12 Exclusivity of the liver for gluconeogenesis and oxaloacetate diversion
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF KETONE?
- "Ketone" is a term from organic chemistry. It is a functional group composed of a carbon-oxygen double bond attached to two R groups. Acetone is the simplest molecule containing a ketone; in it, its two R groups are methyls. Hope that helps, David Iberri (talk) 19:15, 18 March 2007 (UTC)
The nomenclature is really confusing. "Ketone bodies" is a term that was probably originated by clinical chemists, and is very useful in the context of physiological chemistry. An organic chemist would call acetone a ketone, beta-hydroxybutyrate a beta-hydroxyacid, and beta-ketoacetate a beta-ketoacid. Biochemists also use the terms "acetoacetate" and "acetoacetic acid" interchangeably when the ionic form is not important to the disucssion.
the nomenclature is "really confusing" because of the redundant jargon phrase "ketone bodies". The chemicals being discussed are ketones that are involved in human (mammalian ?) biochemistry. That they are found in humans is obvious from the context and does not need the addition of "bodies" any more than "fatty acid bodies" or "sugar bodies. 22.214.171.124 (talk) 10:11, 28 August 2017 (UTC)
- "Ketone bodies" is the scientific term used regularly in the scientifici literature. See this link, for many examples. If you wish to change the article to avoid using this term, please get consensus to do so first. ChemNerd (talk) 12:11, 3 September 2017 (UTC)
I didn't say it wasn't popular(wildly so, with some people) just that it was an un"scientifici" and redundant habit. This claim isn't invalidated by showing how popular it is but by proving it adds "scientifici" value to ketone(that it doesn't add to any other chemical structure) — Preceding unsigned comment added by 126.96.36.199 (talk) 20:11, 7 September 2017 (UTC)
Merge from Beta-hydroxybutyrate
The article currently at Beta-hydroxybutyrate is really about ketone bodies in general and has nothing specifically about Beta-hydroxybutyrate. It should therefore be merged into this article. --Ed (Edgar181) 20:38, 8 August 2006 (UTC)
The material currently at Beta-hydroxybutyrate is definitely redundant with ketone bodies. However, separate articles on the acetone & acetoacetate are able to exist independently of the article on "ketone bodies". This indicates to me that enough material might exist for Beta-hydroxybutyrate to stand on its own. --Uthbrian (talk) 01:02, 18 October 2006 (UTC)
The Long Thin Axon!
I added a cn template to The brain retains some need for glucose, because ketone bodies can be broken down for energy only in the mitochondria, and brain cells' long thin axons are too far from mitochondria. because it doesn't specify what exactly is going on at the other end of the long thin axon that changes glucose into energy without mitochondria in a manner that makes it superior to intercellular propagation of ATP from the mitochondria. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Zaphraud (talk • contribs) 22:35, 14 October 2007 (UTC)
Reference, please. I never heard of this; it is not in any biochemistry text I have.
"-ate(-oate-"esters")" is not the same thing as "-ic acid(-oic acid-"carboxylic acids")"
This article refers to the molecule name "acetoacetate" as a synonym for "acetoacetic acid" (similar treatment for ß-hydroxybutyrate). It's not. Acetoacetate is not acidic. Acetoacetate is the 'conjugate base' of acetic acid and does not contribute to acidosis. If, for example, a quantity of sodium acetoacetate was introduced into the body, it would result in a 'higher' pH. It's perhaps a small distinction, but in the interest of being encyclopedic... 188.8.131.52 (talk) 03:26, 19 December 2007 (UTC)
Are there any studies of the effect on intelligence?
I'm wondering if switching from glucose to ketones has any effect on the brain's efficiency -- i.e., on a person's intelligence. Have any studies been done? --Geoff Canyon (talk) 21:47, 1 January 2009 (UTC)
Effects on Heart
The article on Acetyl-CoA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetyl-CoA) states that "both the skeletal and cardiac muscles satisfy their energy requirement mainly through oxidation of ketone bodies." This is contrary to the current article's the "heart gets little energy from ketone bodies; it uses mainly fatty acids." I don't know which one is right (did look in PubMed and found some articles suggesting limited ketone body usage by skeletal muscle). Clarify. 184.108.40.206 (talk) 04:47, 4 December 2009 (UTC)
Ketones in Sweat
I find it unusual that there is no mention of ketones being secreted in sweat, despite the recent study that found that people with high levels of ketones in their sweat are less likely to get bitten by mosquitoes.
<a href="http://www.thefreelibrary.com/People+with+fruity+smelling+sweat+get+bitten+less+by+mosquitoes-a0207336375">People with fruity smelling sweat get bitten less by mosquitoes.</a>
Is Ketosis Really "Abnormal"?
The article states:
"However, when excess ketone bodies accumulate, this abnormal (but not necessarily harmful) state is called ketosis."
But "normal" is not clearly defined and is a matter of debate. In the standard American diet, it's normal to eat a lot of carbohydrates and therefore not be using ketones as the primary source of energy. But Paleo nutritionists point out that ketosis may have been the body's most common state throughout most of evolution.
I suggest that any claim that ketosis is "normal" or "abnormal" clearly state what is meant and that it be accompanied by a citation of a credible source.
Ketogenic amino acids
Omission and contradiction in article
Firstly, there is an omission. The beginning of the article, second sentence, says: Two of the three are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain while the third is a waste product excreted from the body. However, it doesn't say which one is excreted. Having made a statement like this, it ought to say. Secondly, the rest of the article contradicts this statement. It states that acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate can be reconverted to acetyl-CoA to produce energy, thus both can be used for energy. It also states that: Acetone is produced by spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate (meaning this ketone body will break down in five hours if it is not needed for energy and be removed as waste. This states that acetone can be used for energy, but will be lost if it isn't used. Thus, the article says that all 3 can be used for energy, but the second sentence says that only 2 of the 3 are used for energy - a contradiction. Ynotna (talk) 22:48, 20 February 2012 (UTC)
The comment(s) below were originally left at several discussions in past years, these subpages are now deprecated. The comments may be irrelevant or outdated; if so, please feel free to remove this section., and are posted here for posterity. Following
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|I am a biochemistry professor who teaches this material to medical students. The article needs work, in part because there are a lot of things that are not quite right. Contrary to what the article says or implies: (1) Many tissues use ketone bodies as a fuel, not just the heart and brain; (2)Blood glucose does not drop during a fast, but stays remarkably constant; the rise in ketone bodies can be traced back to an increased in fatty acid release by adipose tissue; (3) The percentage of energy the brain gets from ketone bodies does reach 70% after a prolonged fast, but I don't know where the author got the numbers for 3 and 4 days of fasting; (4)The comment about needing glucose for long thin axons is something I have never seen before.
The references are really weak. The author of this article should be working from a textbook of medical biochemistry, such as "Mark's Basic Medical Biochemistry."
Last edited at 22:34, 8 October 2013 (UTC). Substituted at 21:09, 29 April 2016 (UTC)
Exclusivity of the liver for gluconeogenesis and oxaloacetate diversion
This article states that only the liver is capable of diverting TCA cycle oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis, but the article on gluconeogenesis states that GNG can be performed in mammals in liver, kidney, small intestine, muscle, and possibly even astrocytes. Are these non-liver sites diverting oxaloacetate as well?