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G- bacteria don't have cell walls. Or am I missing something?

You are missing something. Gram negative bacteria DO have cell walls, these cell walls are just different than those of gram positive organisms. Tuckerekcut (talk) 15:56, 8 December 2007 (UTC)

The article said that small amounts of LPS could cause "illness but not disease" in humans. I've changed this so it just says it can cause illness. If you want to change it back you may want to be a little more specific as to what exactly you mean, as most of us use the words "illness" and "disease" interchangeably. Incidently, I noticed what appears to be a much more glaring contradiction earlier in the article. First, the claim is made the a species of Bacillus (a staunchly gram positive genus) makes a kind of endotoxin. Immediately afterwards comes the statement that the only gram positive organism with endotoxin is Listeria monocytogenes! I wasn't quite sure what to make of this so I left in alone. Dre William (talk) 01:05, 21 April 2008 (UTC)

Info about the definition for the topic.....[edit]

-- (talk) 02:15, 19 June 2010 (UTC)

-- (talk) 02:18, 19 June 2010 (UTC)


-- (talk) 03:08, 19 June 2010 (UTC)


-- (talk) 03:10, 19 June 2010 (UTC)

Re: article[edit]

can LPS really cause severe testicular damage in ICR mice? I am trying to do it but LPS damage is recovered after certain time period and I cannot work for breeding test......does anyone have any idea about it? ====Faiza====7:26, 30 Dec 2013. Would it be possible for someone to add a picture showing the chemical structure of LPS?? That would be very helpful in understanding the structure of this molecule.

Thank you. --LowLifer 00:53, 13 October 2006 (UTC)

I agree completly, that will make the page much more complete.


I am not convinced that these articles should be merged, LPS is not synonymous with endotoxin, LPS is merely one of many molecules that protrude from the surface of a bacterium. It is true that in clinically important bacteria it elicits an immune response, but in other situations the interactions are quite different. For example in rhizobia--legume symbiosis LPS on rhizobia is one of the determinants of host range. Onco_p53 05:55, 18 March 2006 (UTC)

I have changed my mind, go a head and merge, but have endotoxin as the redirect and I will write something about non-clinical interactions. Onco_p53 06:02, 18 March 2006 (UTC)

I am in aggreement with the start of the former article. Do not merge the articles, is endotoxins require usage of lipopolysaccharides then add it but keep this stub here. (User: Descardo)

I agree with Descardo. Do not merge the two articles as some will search for LPS independently of endotoxin and will be happy to read LPS info without being overwhelmed by tomes regarding endotoxin.

Agree. People search online often because systemetic study is not affordable at that moment. And we don't need to understand "endotoxin" to understand LPS, right?

LPS has a chemical meaning that is distinct from endotoxin. The word endotoxin generally refers to toxins that cannot be separated from the bacterial cell; for example, Bacillus thuringiensis has an endotoxin that is used in biological insecticides but is a protein, completely unrelated to LPS. The word endotoxin has been used as shorthand for LPS but this comes from the days when we did not understand that there could be many types of endotoxin.

To add on the last point: the delta endotoxin on B.thuringiensis is called endotoxin because: 1) the broad classical meaning of "endotoxin" is a toxin which unlike exotoxins is not secreted by live bacteria, but is a structural component of the bacteria which is released mainly when bacteria are lysed. 2) B thuringiensis delta endotoxins are crystal like inclusion bodies, not even on the surface of the bacteria like the LPS which is sticking out the sugary part from the outer membrane. So I donot agree that endotoxin should be merged. LPS is the prototype example of endotoxin. But there are many other endotoxins of different nature, location, and function!

(I further add from stedman's dictionary:


1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium, in contrast to exotoxin. 2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral part of the cell wall of a variety of relatively avirulent as well as virulent strains of Gram-negative bacteria. The toxins are relatively heat-stable, are less potent than most exotoxins, are less specific, and do not form toxoids; on injection, they may cause a state of shock and, in smaller doses, fever and leukopenia followed by leukocytosis; they have the capacity of eliciting the Shwartzman and the Sanarelli-Shwartzman phenomena. SYN: intracellular toxin." Dr.saptarshi 21:28, 19 April 2006 (UTC)

For some reason the biological aspect here is neglected. Endotoxins exist but LPS is an essential Structure in Bacteria, and not even the whole LPS is responsible for the toxic activity -- 17:38, 1 June 2006 (UTC)


The current article states "LPS ...induces a strong response from normal animal immune systems." Is this accurate? It goes against my current knowledge of endotoxins, including LPS. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:28, 7 June 2008 (UTC)

Yes! LPS is very immunogenic. So much so that it can cause the immune system to become over stimulated and induce what is known as a cytokine storm. This can result in systemic shock and death. —Preceding unsigned comment added by JohnDoe001 (talkcontribs) 02:00, 14 August 2009 (UTC)

Adding stuff[edit]

Hello, I am currently studying for my PhD Comprehensive exam (aka qualifications exam or candidacy exam).

I thought a great way to study would be to put the material I read/study on to Wikipedia! LPS and Lipid A are subjects that I am covering. So in the next two weeks I will be dumping some content on to this article.

If anyone (or everyone) who knows anything on the subject, or just has a knack for writing would like to edit/reject/clean up/format/'make legible' anything I write, i'd appreciate it. I have gotten used to writing for professors and I don't think I am very good at writing to a general audience. Thanks!

Adenosinetalk 23:10, 17 May 2010 (UTC)

Horseshoe crab[edit]

I'm thinking there should be a short part on the Horseshoe crab and its use in screening for LPS. Jasoninkid (talk) 19:56, 22 September 2010 (UTC)

Mergers today[edit]

Happy new year everybody. The Endotoxin article was pretty terrible (lots of unsourced statements) and had been for a long time. It overlapped with this article almost completely, so I merged them. Likewise I stumbled over the Lipooligosaccharide article which was never incorporated here - it should have been split out only after this article became unwieldy. I need to go do some blending and I intend to add some assay information. That should do for today. Jytdog (talk) 21:24, 1 January 2014 (UTC)