Talk:List of Internet top-level domains

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
WikiProject Computing (Rated List-class, Mid-importance)
WikiProject icon This article is within the scope of WikiProject Computing, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of computers, computing, and information technology on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.
 List  This article has been rated as List-Class on the project's quality scale.
 Mid  This article has been rated as Mid-importance on the project's importance scale.
WikiProject Internet (Rated List-class, Mid-importance)
WikiProject icon This article is within the scope of WikiProject Internet, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of the Internet on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.
 List  This article has been rated as List-Class on the project's quality scale.
 Mid  This article has been rated as Mid-importance on the project's importance scale.


Curacao .cw is not included[edit]

Curacao .cw is not included.

also .bq for Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba, which has not been in use yet.


Is there any reason .me is not included in the Generic TLDs? I'd put it in, but I'm awful with the tables here.

EDIT: Never mind, apparently it is just a misused country specific TLD. Maybe something that should be mentioned?

Taylor V (talk) 09:34, 18 February 2012 (UTC)


Zundark, why did remove the bullets from List of Internet TLDs GTLDs? Noldoaran 20:41, Nov 27, 2003 (UTC)

Because it looks better when everything lines up properly. --Zundark 08:22, 28 Nov 2003 (UTC)
It looks grea now! But the prefix dot is really not part of the TLD, is it?
Not really, and we didn't have them originally. But it makes linking convenient. --Zundark (talk) 18:29, 29 June 2008 (UTC)


Is the .sj domain not in use? Google lists one domain name. ᚣᚷᚷᛞᚱᚫᛋᛁᛚ 03:07, 19 May 2004 (UTC)

That URL doesn't resolve. See here.
According to Norid, to whom it is assigned, .sj is not in use. I get a DNS look-up failure for, don't you? Google lists three .sj pages, but it has no cache of these pages, and none of them work for me. Further experimentation shows that Google lists pages with TLDs that don't exist at all. It has no cache of such pages, of course. Perhaps non-existent pages are listed if there are links to them (though I can't find any such links at the moment). --Zundark 07:23, 19 May 2004 (UTC)

.something links[edit]

Why some TLDs are links and others aren't?

Because those with links have articles regarding that particular TLD? I don't think there are articles for most TLDs, and if they were all links it would be a big sea of red. --kjd 06:54, 24 Aug 2004 (UTC)

Assigned but not used[edit]

How come .eh (for Western Sahara) is not shown here? - FrancisTyers 20:39, 17 January 2006 (UTC)

There is no .eh, as can be seen by querying the root nameservers. (It hasn't been assigned either. This is clearly stated on the on the IANA website, and while I don't really trust the IANA website these days, I'm pretty sure it's correct in this case, because there is no organisation to which .eh could reasonably be assigned given the political situation in Western Sahara.) --Zundark 19:59, 18 January 2006 (UTC)

Why is there no listing for ".nt", which was assigned to the Neutral Territories between Iraq and Saudi Arabia?

Jim Welch

There is no .nt, as can be seen by querying the root nameservers. (Nor was it ever assigned. I think you are confusing it with the corresponding ISO 3166 code, which did once exist.) --Zundark 10:20, 25 October 2006 (UTC)

Converted to table[edit]

I've recently written quick programs to convert text data presented in tabular form into tables to improve accessibility. Here's the program I used on this article:

 // File:    convert-tld.cpp
 // License: Public domain
 // Author:  Ardonik
 #include <fstream>
 #include <iostream>
 #include <string>
 using namespace std;

 void generate(istream& in, ostream& out) {
   out << "{| border=\"1px\" cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"2px\"\n";
   out << "|- style=\"background-color: #a0d0ff;\"\n";
   out << "!TLD!!Country or entity!!Notes\n";
   out << "|-\n";

   string line;
   while (getline(in, line)) {
     // If the line begins with [[, the TLD is linked, and we need to find the
     // end of it.  Otherwise, search for whitespace.
     string tld, remainder;
     size_t tld_start = 1, remainder_start;
     if (line.substr(tld_start, 2) == "[[")
       tld = line.substr(tld_start, line.find("]]", tld_start) + 2 - tld_start);
       tld = line.substr(tld_start, line.find(" ", tld_start) - tld_start);
     remainder_start = line.find_first_not_of(" ", tld_start + tld.length());
     remainder = line.substr(remainder_start);
     out << "|" << tld << "||" << remainder << "|| \n"; // Will fill in 3rd
     out << "|-\n";                                          // columns by hand
   out << "|}\n";
   if ( && !in.eof()) cout << "Could not read from input\n";
   if ( cout << "Could not write to output\n";  

 int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
   if (argc != 3) {
     cout << "Usage: " << argv[0] << " [infile] [outfile]\n";
     cout << "  If infile is \"-\", input will be read from stdin.\n";
     cout << "  If outfile is \"-\", output will be written to stdout.\n";
     return 0;
   string infile = argv[1], outfile = argv[2];
   if (infile == "-" && outfile == "-") {
     generate(cin, cout);
   } else if (infile == "-") {
     ofstream out(outfile.c_str());
     generate(cin, out);
   } else if (outfile == "-") {
     ifstream in(infile.c_str());    
     generate(in, cout);
   } else {
     ifstream in(infile.c_str());    
     ofstream out(outfile.c_str());    
     generate(in, out);
   return 0;

To use it, copy the tld text from the pre-table version of the page into a text file. Run convert-iso on it and the Wikified table will be printed to stdout. You'll still have to copy the parenthetical information into the third columns by hand--they were too inconsistent for me to automate their parsing without expending more than a minimal effort. 01:32, Sep 8, 2004 (UTC)

New TLDS[edit]

.xxx Pornography: (BR Portuguese)
.mobi Cell-phones: (BR Portuguese)


Obvious lack when I see this table, is any background:

  • when and why a TLD was created
  • link to discussion/controversy

Historically interesting for TLDs like .org, but virtually essential for things like .mobi which are very new... --Snori 22:03, 11 March 2006 (UTC)

This sort of thing belongs in the individual articles on each TLD, not in this list. --Zundark 12:44, 12 March 2006 (UTC)
Could we / should we also link to uncoventional usage such as in domain hacks? 17:50, 26 May 2006 (UTC)
Again, this is something that's best covered in the article on the TLD in question. Actually, I'm not sure the Notes column serves any real purpose now - maybe we should remove it. When the Notes column was originally added there were hardly any articles on individual TLDs, but now every TLD has its own article. If we do keep this column, we should decide what its purpose is and what sort of thing should be mentioned in it. Currently it isn't used very consistently. --Zundark 18:20, 26 May 2006 (UTC)[edit]

What about -- 05:22, 23 August 2006 (UTC)

That's a second-level domain. --Zundark 08:25, 23 August 2006 (UTC)
Yes but all uk domain names have to be So shouldnt be listed instead, as .uk is not used? --Izax143 11:34, 13 September 2006 (UTC)
It's simply not true that all .uk domain names have to be Even if it were true it would not be a reason to list instead of .uk - this is a list of existing TLDs, which .uk is and isn't. --Zundark 11:20, 13 September 2006 (UTC)
You have etc. Maxt 15:41, 4 October 2006 (UTC)
If the original poster had actually looked at the .uk article, they'd see where it has an extensive list of the second-level domains within .uk, including active ones, formerly-used inactive ones, proposed ones, and a few specific institutions that have managed to obtain their own second-level name (including Parliament and the British Library). It's certainly not limited to by any means. At any rate, the article exists as a redirect to .uk. *Dan T.* 16:05, 4 October 2006 (UTC)


.fr added- Only companies or persons in France have a right to use the .FR domain.


Where is the .nt? A lot of sites mention .nt as a now defunct TLD, .nt was intended for Neutral Zone. Its exact purposes remain unknown to me. Try searching Google for ".nt neutral zone", a list of pages should list TLDs, and include .nt. --[Svippong - Talk] 19:19, 6 January 2007 (UTC)

NT was the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the Saudi-Iraqi neutral zone, until it was withdrawn in 1993. No .nt TLD was ever created (which is not surprising, as it was desert region with no government, and even most real countries didn't have TLDs that far back), so it's incorrect to call it a "now defunct TLD". (There are lots of inaccurate TLD lists on the web. Some people can't tell the difference between ISO 3166 and TLDs, and they often use ISO 3166 lists that are about 20 years out-of-date.) --Zundark 20:05, 6 January 2007 (UTC)

Edit history[edit]

Just to let you know, M79_Specialist started this article. It does not show up in the article's history. user:M79_specialist

No, the article you started was List of domain extensions. Your article was a duplicate of this one (which was started almost 5 years earlier), so someone redirected it here. The edit histories of both articles show the correct creator. --Zundark 22:59, 9 January 2007 (UTC)


Whoever labeled Taiwan a “Province of China” needs to get over it. Taiwan is its own country now. You might be offended by the fact they have more liberty than people on the mainland but your opinion does not change the fact that Taiwan is no more a “Province of China” than the Philippine Islands are a “Province of the USA” or New Zealand is a “Province of the UK.” Get over it, Taiwan is an independent country and apparently most Taiwanese want it that way.

"Taiwan, Province of China " is the ISO name for Taiwan/ROC. This article is merely repeating what they say as they indirectly name the ccTLDs. Your issue should be directed towards them not here. -- (Shocktm | Talk | contribs.) 00:14, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
But it's IANA, not ISO, that assigns TLDs - and IANA says "Taiwan". --Zundark 09:00, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
It appears that while IANA uses the ISO code for ccTLD it looks like they changed the name of .tw to Taiwan. I have changed the article to reflect that. I may have reverted too quickly here but that is due to the many changes made related to ROC/Taiwan that are incorrect. Some organizations use different names for ROC/Taiwan (ISO uses the name Taiwan, Province of China, IOC uses Chinese Taipei, etc.) and on those articles the name should remain as is rather than what we feel it should be. -- (Shocktm | Talk | contribs.) 16:44, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
IANA sticks to ISO terminology. It's that simple. See the official 2007 report of IANA on the request to delegate certain Chinese characters as “country-code top-level domains representing Taiwan, Province of China to Taiwan Network Information Center." The report is at [1]. The report says and I quote here "The “TW” ISO 3166-1 code, from which this application’s eligibility derives, is designated for use to represent Taiwan, Province of China." Taiwan is referred to as “Taiwan, Province of China” throughout the report.
I appreciate some people may like and some may not like the official position but that is IANA’s official position. They simply stick to ISO and treat “TW” as representing “Taiwan, Province of China”. The list should reflect this, unless politics is to be prevail over fact. Frenchmalawi (talk) 04:27, 23 December 2012 (UTC)
IANA has not always stuck to ISO terminology - Shocktm and I weren't hallucinating back in January 2007. We should obviously follow IANA terminology in this article, whether or not it accords with ISO terminology (though IANA no longer seems to name the territories that ccTLDs represent - it just names the sponsoring organizations - and while this remains the case it makes sense for this article to use the ISO names). --Zundark (talk) 08:53, 11 August 2015 (UTC)


Is Samoa/W. Samoa correct for .ws? I've seen a U.S. site use it and thought it was a general-purpose TLD for "website." Update: I see on IANA it is Samoa, yet I'm still confused by the aforementioned use as well as the frequent "website" references. Perhaps it is changing? --Insomniduck 22:36, 28 March 2007 (UTC)

Anyone can register a .ws domain (because the Samoan authorities consider this a good way to make money), and many people like to think of .ws as representing "website", but that doesn't change the fact that it's assigned to Samoa. --Zundark 08:04, 29 March 2007 (UTC)
It is a marketing gimmick just as Moldova sells .md to medical doctors or Colombia at one time tried to sell .co as company. -- (Shocktm | Talk | contribs.) 22:36, 29 March 2007 (UTC)
I think you mean Colombia. --Thnidu (talk) 19:12, 4 March 2009 (UTC)

reserved TLDs[edit]

The title of the article does not indicate that only existing TLDs should be mentioned. But I do not see there ever was a discussion here how to handle the whole thing. Now I guess I should start it to get thins even. It looks to me that some user had the idea to make it that way but it never was discussed. I believe reserved TLDs should also be mentioned, but however, with the remark that they are just reserved and don't exist. What's wrong with that? The title of this article is "List of Internet top-level domains" and not "List of existing Internet top level domains". Those reserved TLDs are certainliy not in use. But you still can't call them non-existant since they are reserved. --Maxl 22:13, 7 April 2007 (UTC)

The things that you were adding are not TLDs. Maybe they will be some day, but they are not at present. This list is one of the very few correct TLD lists in existence. (In fact, last time I checked, I couldn't find another such list - the web is full of incorrect TLD lists.) It would be a great shame to turn it into just another list of TLDs-and-things-aren't-TLDs. Also note that the current list is completely objective: either the TLD is in the root, or it isn't. As soon as you start talking about "reserved TLDs" this objectivity is lost (What does "reserved" mean? Who says it's reserved? Aren't all unused 2-letter codes reserved? Is .xxx reserved? Is .invalid reserved? ...). Please don't start adding things like this amongst the real TLDs. A separate table for such things would be OK, but it should be on a separate page - the list of TLDs is so long that people scrolling quickly to the bottom may not realise that they've strayed into a list of non-TLDs.
In short, a list of (real!) TLDs is an important thing to have, and this article is the obvious place to have it. By all means make a separate table, as a separate article, and add a link to it at the top of this article. --Zundark 08:57, 8 April 2007 (UTC)

Article Name Change[edit]

I suggest that the article's name be changed from 'list of top level domains' to 'list of domain suffixes' as I do believe the term 'domain suffix' better describes a top level domain as the term domain is now generally accepted as a website's url and adding top level in front of domain confuses people that would be looking at this article. I do believe that the definition of 'domain suffix' is more widely accepted than 'top level domain.' Best, --M79 specialist 02:30, 18 April 2007 (UTC)

But "domain suffix" isn't the proper technical terminology (and it's not the ending part of many URLs anyway; if they have a path and filename in them, the last part will be a file extension, which is an entirely different thing). Top level domain is the correct term for a domain at the top level of the DNS. *Dan T.* 02:36, 18 April 2007 (UTC)

".tel" domain?[edit]

Is there a reason this hasn't been added to the table yet? Vulcan's Forge 04:14, 28 April 2007 (UTC)

Oversight. Thanks for pointing it out. --Zundark 07:07, 28 April 2007 (UTC)

Proposed TLDs[edit]

Is there a similar list for proposed TLDs like .sco, .bzh, .gal, .naa? And does anybody know whether the proposal for .naa (domain for content from/for/about North American indigenous peoples) still is effective? --::Slomox:: >< 14:08, 1 June 2007 (UTC)

There's no such list, but you could make one if you like. But the four you cite were never official proposals as far as I know, so what exactly would be the criteria for inclusion in such a list? Would you include all the official proposals from 2000 (nearly 200 different proposed TLDs, often with several different proposals for the same TLD)? --Zundark 14:54, 1 June 2007 (UTC)
I have no knowledge of the topic. I only saw the existing articles and wondered, where to learn more about other proposed TLDs. Well, if the unofficial proposals are noteworthy enough for an article, they are noteworthy enough for a list, I guess, but that's all, I can say ;-)
If you know, where ICANN lists the official proposals, this would be nice to include in the article, I think. --::Slomox:: >< 16:13, 1 June 2007 (UTC)

.bzh - Proposed for deletion[edit]


I am proposing the article .bzh for deletion. Please see for explanation. Your input is welcome. --Amir E. Aharoni 07:23, 20 October 2007 (UTC)

Only Estonians allowed .ie![edit]

Not sure what the exact wording should be, but the article claims only Estonian companies can register Irish domains ;). I'm guessing this should be Irish companies (or individuals?) (talk) 16:16, 22 November 2007 (UTC)

Some missing stuff[edit]

What about .localhost .example, .invalid, and .test? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:57, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

None of those exist (see the IANA list). In fact, because of RFC 2606, they should never exist. --Zundark (talk) 08:58, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

"Open" registration of new Top-level domains[edit]

Has anyone been keeping on top of the new "open" TLD registration debacle (opinions expressed herein do not represent the opinion of anyone other than myself, etc) described here[2]? If so, is there an established protocol for how and when this page will be updated about it? (talk) 10:01, 29 June 2008 (UTC)

I think we will just have to wait and see how this goes. If the number of TLDs becomes too large, then we will need to reconsider the purpose of this page, rather than just continuing to list every TLD that exists. But there's no immediate problem, as ICANN isn't planning to start accepting applications for new TLDs until the second quarter of 2009. --Zundark (talk) 10:51, 29 June 2008 (UTC)
Awesome. Thanks, Zundark. (talk) 12:30, 29 June 2008 (UTC)


The page says

The .gov TLD is limited to U.S. governmental entities and agencies (commonly federal-level).

According to the .gov article,

all governments in the U.S. are allowed to use .gov, such as [] for the city of Atlanta, [] for the county of Loudoun, Virginia and [] for the U.S. state of Georgia

and the US Federal website for .gov registrations confirms this:

Registrations that qualify for a .gov domain
  • Federally recognized Indian Tribes ( domain)
  • State governmental entities/programs
  • Cities and townships represented by an elected body of officials
  • Counties and parishes* represented by an elected body of officials
  • U.S. territories

* "Parish" is the word used in the US state of Louisiana for the governmental unit called "county" in the other states.

Is there data to show how many of the .gov sites are Federal level? Unless most of them are, "(commonly federal-level)" should be deleted.

Thnidu (talk) 20:22, 1 July 2008 (UTC)

Feel free to delete the comment. There's no need for it to be there even if it's correct, since we have .gov article for that sort of detail. --Zundark (talk) 20:35, 1 July 2008 (UTC)

.cat, .gov, .mil and .eu - gTLD or ccTLD?[edit]

Shouldn't .cat be listed as a ccTLD? That seems rather obvious to me. But also .gov and .mil. Even though they sound general, they're reserved for the US, so country-specific. For comparison, .eu is for organisations that are EU-related. Such as .mil is US-related. Not quite the same, but very similar. So either .eu or .gov and .mil should move to the other list, I'd say. DirkvdM (talk) 07:31, 13 September 2008 (UTC)

Why do we even have separate lists? It used to be a single list, but was changed without explanation or discussion. The article title says "list", not "lists". I say we change it back to a single list. --Zundark (talk) 08:12, 13 September 2008 (UTC)
ccTLD's are for Country codes, not just for "countries" in general. "cat" is not a country code TLD. Just like .mil and .gov and .eu- those aren't country codes, even though they may be specific to a country. Having a single list would be weird. There's only 3 categories. I think the categorized list is logical. --Dan LeveilleTALK 17:25, 13 September 2008 (UTC)
(Sorry about the delayed response.)
If one takes 'country code' literally, then only countries would apply. But the second header says 'Country/dependency/region'. And Cataluña qualifies as a region. Also, several regions in the second list are not countries, such as (based on a quick scan) the Netherlands Antilles, the EU, the Falklands, Hong Kong and the Isle of Man. And probably several more. The most distinguishing feature is that those codes are two-letter. Shouldn't that be presented as the distinguishing feature then?
But maybe the issue would be best helped with the use of sub-lists. If certain gTLD's have geographic restrictions, just like the ccTLD's, then maybe those should be put in between the first two lists (in other words separately at the end of the first list), because they are somewhat intermediary, with the same functional characteristics as ccTLD's, but not the same 'look' (two letters). And in the ccTLD list, the items that are not country-specific could be put at the top, as another type of intermediarity (is that an English word? :) ). That would place .gov and .eu, which are very similar in use, close together.
Btw, there are not three but 4 lists. Well, not really, because the fourth has only one item, so that's not much of a list. :) Shouldn't that be added to the first list? Or maybe at the very top, given it's status. Where it is now it will easily get missed. DirkvdM (talk) 18:39, 22 September 2008 (UTC)
As wikipedia editors, we're reporting what's already been decided. We can't change the way they're listed, because they're listed as gTLD's and ccTLD's - which are terms that are already solidly decided. Catalan is a region, but it isn't a ccTLD. Puting it under the ccTLD's would be incorrect, since "CAT" is not a country code. And again, .arpa isn't a gTLD, so it cannot be combined with the gTLD's. This list is probably the most intuitive it can be, from the facts we are given. I believe it is fine the way it is. --Dan LeveilleTALK 20:21, 22 September 2008 (UTC)
Note that I already moved away from the idea of moving entries to different lists. My new suggestion is to move some items within the existing lists, to move related entries closer together. DirkvdM (talk) 09:11, 26 September 2008 (UTC)

New Discussion[edit]

A discussion has been started at Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Countries/Lists of countries which could affect the inclusion criteria and title of this and other lists of countries. Editors are invited to participate. Pfainuk talk 11:24, 17 December 2008 (UTC)


What do the flags add exactly? --John (talk) 16:37, 28 April 2009 (UTC)

Agreed, They only add an inaccuracy. For example, the ISO/IANNA would not be ones to display the Republic of China flag. Yet, it's on our list for Taiwan, Province of China. But this is WP and editors rarely miss a chance to add flags. Frenchmalawi (talk) 14:56, 12 January 2013 (UTC)

.edu not strictly limited[edit]

"The .edu TLD is limited to institutions of learning ..." Well, maybe, but the definition is loosely interpreted, as somehow qualifies. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:58, 14 May 2009 (UTC)

What about .art?[edit]

Anybody knows what happened to .art domain? I clearly remember there was such a domain a few years ago. Goodcoin (talk) 03:15, 6 September 2009 (UTC)

Sorry, it clearly never existed. Kbrose (talk) 03:28, 6 September 2009 (UTC)

Registration restrictions columns?[edit]

I was thinking that it might be a good idea to include a list of what restrictions are placed on registration, such as price, location restriction, intended use, etc. Additionally, a column that tells what the lowest level of registration a member of the general public can obtain. For example, .com would have 2, but .uk would have 3 (.com allows second level registrations, while the .uk tld requires third or higher). Opinions? Phuzion (talk) 06:24, 3 December 2009 (UTC)

Citations for ".ls" being used for Los Angeles area websites.[edit]

See #Citations for ".la" being used for Los Angeles area websites. Evidently the person who added that section mistyped the section header; but I'm not deleting it b/c there might be links to it. -- Thnidu (talk) 22:15, 23 July 2010 (UTC)

Citations for ".la" being used for Los Angeles area websites.[edit]

These are car dealerships in Los Angeles. (talk) 18:05, 30 June 2010 (UTC)


.co is now available to the public. I am not familiar with how it should be classed, gTLD or ccTLD It is currently listed as ccTLD for Colombia. Which still appears valid. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 19:40, 20 July 2010 (UTC)

Yes, it's still a ccTLD. There's nothing special about it - many ccTLDs allow anyone in the world to register a domain. --Zundark (talk) 22:38, 20 July 2010 (UTC)

Although in the form of, lets say it's a ccTLD, i do believe .co by itself has became a gTLD? I'm not sure. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:13, 14 August 2010 (UTC)

No, it hasn't. What makes you think it might have? --Zundark (talk) 20:26, 14 August 2010 (UTC)

Category:Country codes[edit]

Adding this category because this article has a clean layout and additional info that isn't as easy to find on Country code top-level domain. --Thnidu (talk) 22:20, 23 July 2010 (UTC)


I consider DNSSEC==yes as having a DS record present in root zone. If there is a TLD which use DNSSEC, but has no DS record in parent zone, then it's unverifiable, therefore DNSSEC==no. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Psz (talkcontribs) 10:47, 12 August 2010 (UTC)

By this definition there were no signed TLDs prior to the signing of the root. This is at odds with the information provided in Domain Name System Security Extensions. --Futhark|Talk 12:47, 12 August 2010 (UTC)--Futhark|Talk 12:41, 12 August 2010 (UTC)
True. There were subdomains signed under TLDs, not TLDs themselves. DNSSEC is designed to work on authentication chains up to root zone. The root zone is authenticated by trust anchor in resolving software itself (just like named.cache file in BIND9). If there is no full chain, you need intermediate trust anchors which is against the original goal. See "Recursive name servers" step 2. --Psz (talk) 14:03, 12 August 2010 (UTC)
You are conflating the signing of a zone with its placement in a chain of trust. To be sure, the former isn't of particular value without the latter, but the definitive act of signing is intrinsic to a zone, as is the data needed for its verification. Try, for example,
dig +dnssec se.
The operator of a zone on any level in the DNS can sign it without either including DS records for its children, or adding a DS record to its parent. A number of TLDs were signed prior to the signing of the root, without accepting DS records for their subdomains. The main WP article is fully consistent with this and the idiosyncratic definition you are imposing on the present article is not helpful. --Futhark|Talk 17:11, 12 August 2010 (UTC)

DNSSEC and Country code top-level domains[edit]

I'm working on filling in the DNSSEC column of this table by checking each TLD at I'm through letter M already and should have the rest soon. Can someone please explain what the note "Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone is not yet published." means on about 9 entries here. I can't monitor the progress of those servers until I understand a bit more. Thanks Awg1010 (talk) 00:21, 3 September 2010 (UTC)

Sorry for the delay I'm finished now. Those domains N - Z that tested Positive are already listed here as either "Yes" or "Partial". The remaining 80 tested negative and I have labeled them "No". Anybody have a good resource for IDN? Awg1010 (talk) 18:00, 15 September 2010 (UTC)

The shell script

#! /bin/sh

TLDS="academy actor aero agency arpa asia axa"
TLDS="$TLDS bar bargains berlin best bike bid biz blue boutique build builders buzz"
TLDS="$TLDS cab camera camp cards careers cat catering center ceo cheap christmas"
TLDS="$TLDS cleaning clothing club codes coffee cologne com community company"
TLDS="$TLDS computer condos contractors cool construction coop cruises"
TLDS="$TLDS dance dating democrat diamonds directory dnp domains"
TLDS="$TLDS edu education email enterprises equipment estate eus events expert exposed"
TLDS="$TLDS farm fish flights florist foundation futbol"
TLDS="$TLDS gallery gift glass gov graphics guitars guru"
TLDS="$TLDS holdings holiday house"
TLDS="$TLDS immobilien industries info ink institute int international"
TLDS="$TLDS jetzt jobs"
TLDS="$TLDS kaufen kim kitchen kiwi koeln kred land lighting limo link luxury"
TLDS="$TLDS maison management mango marketing menu mil mobi moda monash museum"
TLDS="$TLDS nagoya name net neustar ninja nyc okinawa onl org"
TLDS="$TLDS partners parts photo photos photography pics pink plumbing post pro"
TLDS="$TLDS productions properties pub"
TLDS="$TLDS qpon recipes red rentals repair report reviews rich ruhr"
TLDS="$TLDS sexy shiksha shoes singles social solar solutions supplies supply support systems"
TLDS="$TLDS tattoo technology tel tienda tips today tools trade training travel tokyo"
TLDS="$TLDS uno vacations ventures viajes villas vision voting vote voto"
TLDS="$TLDS wang watch webcam wed wien wiki works xxx xyz zone"
TLDS="$TLDS ac ad ae af ag ai al am an ao aq ar as at au aw ax az"
TLDS="$TLDS ba bb bd be bf bg bh bi bj bm bn bo br bs bt bv bw by bz"
TLDS="$TLDS ca cc cd cf cg ch ci ck cl cm cn co cr cu cv cw cx cy cz"
TLDS="$TLDS de dj dk dm do dz"
TLDS="$TLDS ec ee eg eh er es et eu"
TLDS="$TLDS fi fj fk fm fo fr"
TLDS="$TLDS ga gal gb gd ge gf gg gh gi gl gm gn gp gq gr gs gt gu gw gy"
TLDS="$TLDS hk hm hn hr ht hu"
TLDS="$TLDS id ie il im in io iq ir is it"
TLDS="$TLDS je jm jo jp"
TLDS="$TLDS ke kg kh ki km kn kp kr kw ky kz"
TLDS="$TLDS la lb lc li lk lr ls lt lu lv ly"
TLDS="$TLDS ma mc md me mg mh mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz"
TLDS="$TLDS na nc ne nf ng ni nl no np nr nu nz"
TLDS="$TLDS pa pe pf pg ph pk pl pm pn pr pt pw py"
TLDS="$TLDS re ro rs ru rw"
TLDS="$TLDS sa sb sc se sg sh si sj sk sl sm sn so sr ss st su sv sx sy sz"
TLDS="$TLDS tc td tf tg th tj tk tm tn to tp tr tt tv tw tz"
TLDS="$TLDS ua ug uk us uy uz"
TLDS="$TLDS va vc ve vg vi vn"
TLDS="$TLDS wf ws"
TLDS="$TLDS ye yt"
TLDS="$TLDS za zm zw"
TLDS="$TLDS xn--unup4y xn--80aswg xn--80asehdb xn--ngbc5azd xn--q9jyb4c xn--zfr164b xn--55qw42g xn--3ds443g"
TLDS="$TLDS xn--fiq228c5hs xn--6qq986b3xl xn--3bst00m xn--fiq64b xn--55qx5d xn--io0a7i xn--6frz82g xn--6frz82g"
TLDS="$TLDS xn--mgbab2bd xn―cg4bki xn--d1acj3b xn--c1avg xn--nqv7fs00ema xn--i1b6b1a6a2e xn--nqv7f xn--rhqv96g"

TLDS="$TLDS xn--lgbbat1ad8j xn--54b7fta0cc xn--fiqs8s xn--fiqz9s xn--wgbh1c xn--node xn--j6w193g xn--h2brj9c"
TLDS="$TLDS xn--mgbbh1a71e xn--fpcrj9c3d xn--gecrj9c xn--s9brj9c xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h xn--45brj9c"
TLDS="$TLDS xn--mgba3a4f16a xn--mgbayh7gpa xn--80ao21a xn--mgbx4cd0ab xn--l1acc xn--mgbc0a9azcg xn--mgb9awbf"
TLDS="$TLDS xn--mgbai9azgqp6j xn--ygbi2ammx xn--wgbl6a xn--p1ai xn--mgberp4a5d4ar xn--90a3ac xn--yfro4i67o"
TLDS="$TLDS xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd xn--3e0b707e xn--fzc2c9e2c xn--xkc2al3hye2a xn--mgbpl2fh xn--mgbtf8fl"
TLDS="$TLDS xn--kprw13d xn--kpry57d xn--o3cw4h xn--pgbs0dh xn--j1amh xn--mgbaam7a8h xn--mgb2ddes"

for TLD in $TLDS
  if [ `drill @localhost $TLD. DS | grep "^$TLD.*IN.*.DS" | wc -l` -gt 0 ]
echo "$SIGNED"

checks via a local DNSSEC-enabled named daemon if a TLD's DS record has been signed by the root zone, returning the following 290 root-zone-signed TLDs:

academy actor agency arpa asia axa
bar bargains berlin best bike bid biz blue boutique build builders buzz
cab camera camp cards careers cat catering center ceo cheap christmas cleaning clothing club
codes coffee cologne com community company computer condos contractors cool construction cruises
dance dating democrat diamonds directory dnp
domains edu education email enterprises equipment estate events expert exposed
farm fish flights florist foundation futbol
gallery gift glass gov graphics guitars guru
holdings holiday house
immobilien industries info ink institute international jetzt
kaufen kim kitchen kiwi koeln kred
land lighting limo link luxury
maison management mango marketing menu mil moda monash museum
nagoya name net neustar ninja nyc
okinawa onl org
partners parts photo photos photography pics pink plumbing post productions properties pub qpon
recipes red rentals repair report reviews rich ruhr
sexy shiksha shoes singles social solar solutions supplies supply support systems
tattoo technology tienda tips today tools trade training tokyo uno
vacations ventures viajes villas vision voting vote voto
wang watch webcam wed wien wiki works xyz zone

ac af ag am at be bg br by bz ca cc ch cl cn co cr cx cz de dk ee eu fi fo fr gi gl gn gr gs
hn in io is jp ke kg ki kr la lb lc li lk lt lu lv me mm mn my na nc nf nl nu nz pe pl pm pr pt pw
re ru sb sc se sh si su sx tf th tm tt tv tw tz ua ug uk us wf yt

xn--unup4y xn--80aswg xn--80asehdb xn--ngbc5azd xn--q9jyb4c xn--zfr164b xn--55qw42g xn--3ds443g
xn--fiq228c5hs xn--6qq986b3xl xn--3bst00m xn--fiq64b xn--55qx5d xn--io0a7i xn--6frz82g xn--6frz82g
xn--mgbab2bd xn--d1acj3b xn--c1avg xn--nqv7fs00ema xn--i1b6b1a6a2e xn--nqv7f xn--rhqv96g 

xn--fiqs8s xn--fiqz9s xn--h2brj9c xn--mgbx4cd0ab xn--l1acc
xn--p1ai xn--3e0b707e xn--kprw13d xn--kpry57d xn--o3cw4h 

Thus these TLDs should be unconditionally marked green whereas the 7 TLDs

id iq lr ma vc xn--fzc2c9e2c xn--xkc2al3hye2a

possess a valid KSK and/or a ZSK DNSKEY record but no signed DS record in the root zone. By replacing "DS" by "DNSKEY" in the above script, all TLDs that generated a KSK and/or a ZSK can easily be determined. --Asteffen (talk) 16:26, 23 March 2014 (UTC)

non-ICANN TLDs such as .42[edit]

Should this page mention (perhaps at the end) some non-ICANN TLDs? I'm thinking about the new .42 domain for free software / free culture sites, see (edited by Benoit Jacob, 2 January 2010) —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 18:22, 2 January 2011 (UTC)

Need to add 3 ccTLDs bq, .cw, .sx[edit]

IANA quietly created three new country-code top-level domains shortly before Christmas, to represent the new nations created by the breakup of the [Netherlands Antilles] last year.

The new ccTLDs are: .bq for Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba, .cw for Curacao and .sx for Sint Maarten (Dutch part). All three appeared in IANA’s database December 20.

None of the strings are currently delegated. The governments of the respective nations will have to apply to IANA if they want to start using their TLDs on the internet. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Betawatcher (talkcontribs) 08:31, 12 January 2011 (UTC)

.ge restrictions[edit]

According to the linked policy from the .ge page, .ge can only be used by people living in Georgia, or who have a legal presence there. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 19:40, 6 March 2011 (UTC)

DNSSEC enabled for .uk[edit]

Ref: "DNSSEC launched at .uk second level" (May 18, 2011) --John Nagle (talk) 03:52, 5 July 2011 (UTC)

List of Internet second-level domains managed by registrars?[edit]

Is there a list of second-level domains which are managed by registrars, such as ""? Is there any central source for that data? Thanks. --John Nagle (talk) 17:17, 5 July 2011 (UTC)

I thinks it's true to add column to the Country code top-level domains that include the list of the Second level domains... --Inon (talk) 20:51, 10 July 2011 (UTC)
While I personally would like to see such a list, this is not the right place for it, as this page is clearly for the top-level-domains, not the second-level-domains. BTW the discretion of which SLDs are offered is on one hand in the hand of the registries and on the other hand possibly in the hand of any entity registering a domain at the second level and marketing it as a SLD (if registry policies do not right out preclude this). --mhi (talk) 13:58, 12 September 2011 (UTC)

Incomplete Sentence[edit]

The notes text on Nepal said: "Restricted to registration by a company in [[Nepal]]. Individuals in the country can only register under". Could someone fix that? -- (talk) 06:05, 8 August 2011 (UTC)

That seems to have been a copy/paste error. Has been removed as there is no mention of such a restriction under the .np page. --mhi (talk) 14:18, 12 September 2011 (UTC)

Historic TLDs[edit]

The main country code table currently has some historic TLDs such as .dd. Others, such as .yu, are not listed. Perhaps there should be a separate table for historic TLDs? Other examples include .cs (deleted twice), .zr, .nato, .tp (being phased out) and .an (being phased out). • cygri (talk) 21:34, 22 November 2011 (UTC)

.com domain seizures by US Govt and claims[edit]

Since, US government has been seizing .com domains and claiming that they come under US laws and jurisdiction, should those domains be moved from "Generic top-level domains" to US top?

I am just contemplating and wanted to know if this is true.

Source(s): — Preceding unsigned comment added by Amanjsingh (talkcontribs) 16:42, 26 March 2012 (UTC)

ICANN's new TLD list[edit]

Here's the first round of ICANN's list of new TLDs applied for.

We probably don't want to put all the new TLDs in the article, per WP:LIST. --John Nagle (talk) 22:03, 14 June 2012 (UTC)

deviantART is applying to manage .art[edit]

deviantART published an article about their application to ICANN, in order to buy the gTLD ".art". Should it be reminded in the article? I tried going to, and currectly it doesn't work, so the application provably hasn't been approved yet. Galzigler (talk) 14:38, 3 July 2012 (UTC)

See the list of applied-for TLDs above. It's big. And that's just the first round. --John Nagle (talk) 18:38, 11 July 2012 (UTC)

.cs (Czechoslovakia)[edit]

I don't see the .cs t.l.d. on the IANA list. Any reason to keep it here? Stefán Örvarr Sigmundsson (talk) 05:43, 25 July 2012 (UTC)

.ie is assigned to the State named Ireland[edit]

I would like to try to put what appears to be a bit of a myth to bed. Some places in Wikipedia suggest that the “.ie” domain name is somehow assigned to the island of Ireland. Unsurprisingly, that is not in fact the position. It is assigned to the State named Ireland:

(1) “.ie” is a country-code top-level domain (ccTLD) – so it is a 2 letter domain established for a country (the Irish State) based on ISO 3166, the standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO); and

(2) registration of a “.ie” is governed by the laws of the Irish State (and no other State) – primarily the Electronic Commerce Act 2000 of Ireland (as amended, notably by the Communications Regulation (Amendment) Act 2007 of Ireland (as amended in 2007)). Section 31 of the Electronic Commerce Act 2000 provides:

““.ie” domain name’ means the top level of the global domain name system assigned to Ireland according to the two-letter code in the International Standard ISO 3166-1 (Codes for Representation of Names of Countries and their Subdivision) of the International Organisation for Standardisation.”

Section 32 continues:

“A person shall not use an ‘.ie’ domain name unless the name is registered in accordance with regulations made under this section.”

It is therefore pretty plain that “.ie” is assigned to the State named Ireland (and not the island!). The fact that it is Ireland’s policy to permit registration of “.ie” by persons with a connection to Ireland and/or Northern Ireland does not change the fact that the “.ie” is the domain name of the Irish State. It is not somehow assigned to “the island of Ireland” or to Ireland and the United Kingdom.

I will make a few amends accordingly. Frenchmalawi (talk) 03:34, 23 December 2012 (UTC)

.ps is assigned to "Palestinian Territory, Occupied[edit]

I've swapped "Palestinian Territories" for "Palestinian Territory, Occupied". This is as per ISO and other sources e.g.[ttp://]. I was actually surprised that that is the official term. I thought it would be "Palestine" at this point (in line with what I understand is UN usage - maybe it's more nuanced than I thought). I think it's interstsing and worth reflecting in the article. Frenchmalawi (talk) 18:14, 1 January 2013 (UTC)

This list on the ISO Web site (currently, it is noted that it was last updated on 2013-02-06) now lists the name as PALESTINE, STATE OF. (By the way, I forgot to check this Talk page prior to updating the name in the list of Internationalized country code top-level domains or verifying that the earlier update in the list of Country code top-level domains was justified. Fortunately, my edit turned out to be justified.) --anon. (talk) 21:05, 16 August 2013 (UTC)

.jp TLD allows second-level domain registration[edit]

It seems to me that .jp does not allow second-level registration, but the article states otherwise. Could someone more knowledgeable check or add a clarification in the table? (For example, I am looking at email addresses of the form — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:23, 8 May 2013 (UTC)

New Top-level Domains (TLDs)[edit]

New Top-level Domains (TLDs) may need to be added to the article soon. An A-Z list of at least some of them: .app .blog .buy .car .cars .church .eat .hotel .inc .mail .mobile .music .news .online .restaurant .school .shop .site .tech .web --Thanks! Misty MH (talk) 22:53, 10 July 2013 (UTC) Misty MH (talk) 23:03, 10 July 2013 (UTC) I just noticed the SOURCE of this list here (alphabetized by me) is actually from a pre-registration page; so these may not be available to BUY as yet. (I edited my new addition to reflect this.) I also just noticed this: "choose from over 500 new top-level domains". So, wow. And talk about confusing. Misty MH (talk) 23:03, 10 July 2013 (UTC)

suggested additional notes for .tf[edit]

The .tf TLD is now commonly used for websites related to Team Fortress 2. Perhaps this should be noted on this page? It is noted on the .tf wiki page. For examples, see and I am not familiar with Wikipedia reference policy, so I don't know if the sites themselves count as sufficient reference material. (talk) 02:44, 22 November 2013 (UTC)

Early TLDs separated out from new gTLDs[edit]

I have separated the "original seven" TLDs from the new ICANN-era TLDs, as these are distinct from the new TLDs, not only by virtue of their history, but also, in the case of the "big three" (.com, .org, .net) by their much greater adoption over time: the uptake of these domains dwarfs that of the ICANN-era branded gTLDs, and is likely to do so for the foreseeable future: see, for example the actual adoption rate of .xxx compared to similar .com domains. — The Anome (talk) 23:00, 5 April 2014 (UTC)

I like that, thank you. However, the "Notes" sections need to be adjusted to keep each note within each section that uses it. — 15:27, 24 April 2014 (UTC)

Newest gTLDs[edit] --Kirov Airship (talk) 00:13, 4 May 2014 (UTC)

Note on .as (American Samoa)[edit]

I would like to add a note to the TLD .as in a similar way as is done for .ag (Antigua and Barbuda) used in Germany, with the main difference being that the TLD .as is unofficially used in Norway for stock market registered companies using the abbreviation AS (Aksjeselskap). Are there any requirements for this information to 1) cite external verifiable references, 2) follow specific guidelines? TrondBK (talk) 03:40, 9 October 2014 (UTC)


To add: .design. ---Another Believer (Talk) 17:25, 21 October 2014 (UTC)

Although the auction for .design has been won by Top Level Design[1], the string has not yet been delegated[2]. I personally would like to wait until the TLD is in General Availability before adding to this list, but we certainly can't add a TLD that has not been officially delegated. (talk) 15:58, 15 January 2015 (UTC)


IPv6 Support[edit]

.uy supports IPv6, yet it is not marked as such

TLDs without own article[edit]

Currently, the situation is a mess, as some of them have redirect pages to this list, some to the article on (new) GTLDs and some have no page at all and appear red. Shouldn't there be some uniformity? The list itself would probably be best if we deleted all the redirects, though it might be counter-intuitive for people searching. Argymeg (talk) 00:41, 25 November 2014 (UTC)

I'm re-opening this discussion. This is something that needs to be addressed. Most of the entire list is made up of either red links or links that don't actually go anywhere and just loop you back to the main list. If no one objects I suggest we just remove all of the links on the article that don't go anywhere. We don't have to delete the redirects, really, since they're still useful for searching purposes. As it stands, we could shave a decent amount of unnecessary file size from this list by removing the links. Crawldragon (talk) 18:48, 6 March 2015 (UTC)
I have no objection. Pathore (talk) 00:00, 7 March 2015 (UTC)
What about the template? (I started a discussion in its talk page before I found this page) Bennylin (talk) 20:16, 5 May 2015 (UTC)


What happened to .lol? Marc Gutt (talk) 21:52, 27 February 2015 (UTC)

Missing entries[edit]

On this list, anything newer than .capetown:

On this list, anything newer than .garden:

--Ysangkok (talk) 10:42, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

.go confusion[edit]

In the ".gov" section this part about ".go" is confusing:

"The .gov TLD is limited to governmental entities and agencies in the U.S. There is also .go which is similar to .gov but can only be used in connection with .jp[12] and .kr.[13]"

The examples lead to sites where .go is not the TLD. Am I misunderstanding something here?

As far as I know, there is no such thing as .go and this information is confusing as there are clearly other second level domains called "go" not in connection with .jp or .kr.

I think what the original author wanted to say is something like: "Other countries have their own .gov equivalent like or" — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:12, 2 June 2015 (UTC)


There is still vandalism in the page, search for "RuLing". — Preceding unsigned comment added by Éréohalm (talkcontribs) 10:34, 10 July 2015 (UTC)

.frl in list of countries[edit]

Someone added .frl in the country list, but it's a region. It's probably a joke/vandalism. It's already mentioned in the geographic regions. I can't find the edit, so I cannot easily revert it. --Jeroen (talk) 07:38, 19 July 2015 (UTC)

External links modified[edit]

Hello fellow Wikipedians,

I have just added archive links to one external link on List of Internet top-level domains. Please take a moment to review my edit. If necessary, add {{cbignore}} after the link to keep me from modifying it. Alternatively, you can add {{nobots|deny=InternetArchiveBot}} to keep me off the page altogether. I made the following changes:

When you have finished reviewing my changes, please set the checked parameter below to true to let others know.

N Archived sources still need to be checked

Cheers. —cyberbot IITalk to my owner:Online 10:46, 26 August 2015 (UTC)


What is meant by "translingual"? Actually all of these (except .cafe) are Italian spellings. Feangio (talk) —Preceding undated comment added 17:27, 5 September 2015 (UTC)

.健康 (health)[edit]

Apparently .健康 (health) is in sunrise: "A healthy extension, .健康, is entering the Sunrise phase". Gandi. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015. OwenBlacker (Talk) 15:37, 24 September 2015 (UTC)

TLD Registry Correction[edit]

Donuts is listed at the Registry for .design, when in fact it is Top Level Design. Top Level Design is also the registry for .ink which is correctly listed and as well .wiki which is blank. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Raymond King (talkcontribs) 00:52, 19 November 2015 (UTC)