|WikiProject Molecular and Cellular Biology||(Rated Stub-class)|
|WikiProject Ecology||(Rated Stub-class)|
There is one area in which Molecular Ecology is importantly distinct. Interactions between nucleons, atoms, electrons and molecules involves various quantities with dimensions such as interatomic distances and bond lengths, electron, bond, and thermodynamic energy, entropy, linear and angular momentum, rotation and spin, frequency and others. These are all connected, through momentum in its various forms, with the exterior universe. So Molecular Ecology takes place in a universal environment.
Theologians described what they saw as a "firmament" being something solid, unmoving, rather like Brahma in Hindu theology. It was supposed that something out there was umoving, and that fainter stars marked that well with that because they seemed to have no proper motion. Now of course it is known the Milky Way Galaxy rotates, yet concurrent with the discovery of its motion, uncountable numbers of exceedingly distant exterior galaxies were discovered. In an entire 220 million year orbit of the Sun around the Milky Way, most exterior galaxies will not move so much as their own diameter. Their speeds are less than a few hundred kilometers each second, because above that speed objects begin to lose significant amounts of energy as relativistic losses.
The question of whether or not a 'firmament' exists is completely bankrupt. The exterior galaxies are significantly stable and do constitute the equivalent of the theological 'firmament'. That means ecology does not need to argue the infinitely fine points of physics on whether it is legitimate or not. Earth's ecosystems now evolve molecule by molecule in galactic rotation, the motions of the planets, and equatorial rotation.
It means the galaxy has rotated about three times since the emergence of multi-celled organisms, and the fossil record maps fairly well onto Galactic rotation. Meanwhile the highly visible Andromeda Galaxy is stable enough to mark the exterior, and it may be significant that the last dinosaurs disappeared just about 65 million years ago when the Milky Way's galactic center was in conjunction with Andromeda's galaxy.