Talk:Nigerian Civil War

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Actually, the BAF consisted of more Biafrans than the two initial who flew under the beginning phase, in which the Swedes were involved. The Swedes left Biafra after some time, but the BAF continued to function, although the media wasn't interested in that and subsequently didn't report that.

  • Soviet Ambassador in Nigeria claimed in his book about NCW, that one of Biafrian bombers (I don't know how much bombers were there in BAF, maybe that was the only one?) exploded in the sky over Lagos because of an airbomb malfunction - no one of crew members survived. 13:16, 30 November 2005 (UTC)
In the 'Shadows' book, mostly on the airlift operations, this was put down to a home-made bomb that upset the centre of gravity as they attempted to push it out of the ?Dakota?, leading to a crash. Granted, with no survivors, everything is guesswork, but 'Shadows' describes it as having crashed, rather than exploded mid-air.

It would be nice to get a map of the different regions. Valkotukka 15:11, 30 June 2006 (UTC)


Would people realise that if they wish to have comments about contributions that this is the purpose of the talk page? Discussion about bias of contributions do not belong embedded in the main article. Bendel boy (talk) 10:41, 26 July 2009 (UTC)

"With the conflict was the result of economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria. Like many other African nations, Nigeria was an artificial structure initiated by the British which had neglected to consider religious, linguistic, and ethnic differences." - this statement may be referenced but is in direct oposition to the Wiki page on the colonial leadership of Britian in Nigeria. While the statement is true that there where many parties, the British did not neglect this, as it was part of their ruling policy to have "sub-ruling" local leaders because they knew it would cause problems. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:17, 3 March 2010 (UTC)


"...only four countries recognized the new republic"

The article for Biafra says that five countries gave recognition: Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Zambia. Which is correct? Molinari 20:03, 12 January 2006 (UTC)

Map needed[edit]

A map of Biafra would be a good addition to this article.

Here is a good one: (Mendali (talk) 23:13, 26 September 2009 (UTC))

Aftermath - Currency[edit]

The article mentions "offering only N£20 to easterners on exchange of their Biafran currency". What is meant by this? Is it 1 Naira per £20 (I'd use a Naira symbol but few fonts contain it). I found some information at Biafraland about the currency but nothing about exchange rates, only a limit of exchanging £30 per person and £500 for businesses. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by Orourkek (talkcontribs) 09:32, 9 May 2007 (UTC).

£ usually means British pound, or Italian lira. N£ is used to indicate Nigerian pound. At the time the exchange rate was fixed as 1 N£ = 1 £. In ?1972? Nigerian replaced the pound with the Naira, set at 2 Naira to the pound. What you are referring to was a similar exchange, during the war, for those areas of Eastern Nigeria recaptured by the Nigerian army. But after the war there was this general offer, although sadly limited. In 1970 a high salary was N£1,000, so assuming that a more typical salary would be half that then N£20 was about two weeks of 'average' pay, and maybe 1 - 2 months at the 'servant' level. Remember, these figures are (educated) guesses, so I don't have access to the needed statistics - the statistics that I have post-date the Naira & periods of high inflation. The only value I have is that a senior lecturer was paid c. N£1,000 per year, and that a bottle of coke/pepsi was 10 d.

In 1969-1970, N£1.00 = US$2.80, while £1.00 = US$2.40. Citation: sorry, I have none but my childhood memories. Woodlore (talk) 11:38, 27 May 2008 (UTC)

The Economist quotes that in 2007 70% of Nigerians exist on less than $1 a day. Working with crude approximations, call it $400/year. N£20 would buy 480 bottles of coke, while $400 will buy c. 400 bottles of coke - so the N£20 works out crudely as the 70%-ile income level of Nigerians today. Maybe not so bad for the 1970s government, then, and a damning level of achievement for the Nigerian economy over nearly 40 years.Bendel boy 10:00, 14 May 2007 (UTC)

Ibo or Igbo?[edit]

Whatever it is, shouldn't it be consistent throughout the article??? Woodlore (talk) 21:40, 22 May 2008 (UTC)

Image copyright problem with Image:JTUAguiyiIronsi.JPG[edit]

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Problem with dates[edit]

On the section where the list of cities captured is noted, it states that Enugu and Calabar fell in October, and Port Harcourt in June, which is true. However, Enugu and Calabar fell in 1967, while Port Harcourt and the Delta cities fell in 1968. Kopitarian (talk) 21:40, 7 November 2008 (UTC)

Problem with Distances[edit]

The article describes Ore as being past Benin City, "just over the state boundary". According to a measurement done on Google Earth, Ore is approximately 138 miles from Onitsha, a city on the western Biafran border. By no means is 138 miles "just over the state boundary". In fact, it's more than halfway to Lagos, which is only 108 miles from Ore, not 130 as the article claims. I will make these corrections to the article after this addition has had a chance to be discussed. (Mendali (talk) 23:22, 26 September 2009 (UTC))

My reading is that it is just over the state boundary of the Mid-Western State, i.e. just inside Western State. You took it as eastern State. Your measurements reinforce the article. Bendel boy (talk) 10:35, 27 September 2009 (UTC)

The claim of 130 miles is probably (I don't know!) made in the era of using paper maps and taking off the distance - issues of measurement, conversion, and flat maps to represent a curved surface. By all means change that. Bendel boy (talk) 10:35, 27 September 2009 (UTC)


'30,000 Ibos killed out of 1.3 million.' 1.3 million what? Ibos in the North? Ibos in the area were the killings took place? Since there were subsequently claimed to be 1.8 million refugees, a simplistic reading is that the 'statistics' are untrustworthy, created for shock value. Bendel boy (talk) 22:50, 16 June 2009 (UTC)

'Pogroms' has been updated, to change the number of Ibos from 1.3 million to 13 million. 13 million sounds more like the number of Ibos in Nigeria, and does not appear to be of relevance to the area where the killings took place. Where are these figures coming from? If from Frederick Forsyth, where do his figures come from?

Fall of Port-Harcourt[edit]

Different dates were given for the fall of Port-Harcourt in much the same paragraph. Which would it be? SR —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:15, 31 July 2009 (UTC)


Why has the belligerent list been expanded to include the UK, USSR, Egypt & the Republic of Benin?

The UK & USSR supplied arms - should we include Sweden & France? Egypt *officially* provided volunteers/mercenaries - should we include RSA and whatever countries provided mercenaries?

The Republic of Benin was a created state, but never really took part in any meaningful sense. Bendel boy (talk) —Preceding undated comment added 08:38, 15 September 2009 (UTC).


'By whom?'

I'll need to locate definitive resources. But 'whom' was pretty much every book & article I have read on the subject - so I need to check that (a) my recollection is correct (b) get the relevant titles, authors, page numbers, etc.

The sadness, to me, is that 'whom' assumed that because it was mainly Igbos involved in the coup, aimed at a civilian sector, that it was an Igbo affair - when it was also Igbos who stopped it, and that the 'ethic' aspect was probably a side-effect of the nature of the composition of the armed forces and political power within Nigeria. Had the newspapers regarded it as 'idealists' versus 'power opportunists' rather than 'Igbo' versus 'Northerners' how different things might have been.

Islamic virtues?[edit]

"This highly centralized and authoritarian political system elevated to positions of leadership persons willing to be subservient and loyal to superiors, the same virtues required by Islam for eternal salvation."

I suspect the second part of the sentence isn't really accurate. Loyalty and subservience to God, yes, but to men? I don't think it's true, or then only on certain grounds. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 18:37, 5 February 2010 (UTC)

Literacy and development[edit]

"In this division, the North, at the time of independence in 1960, was by far the most underdeveloped area in Nigeria, with a literacy rate of 2% as compared to 19.2% in the East (literacy in Arabic script, learned in connection with religious education, was higher)" Literacy is arguably not a good indicator of development, and the parenthetical statement further blurs the point. The coastal regions were more developed, regardless of any literacy indicator. If there is a reference for stating that the North was the least developed at the time of independance, I would just point to the reference and strip the literacy part all together. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Nrlsouza (talkcontribs) 05:36, 21 August 2010 (UTC)

Three changes Reverted[edit]

Please let's try to discuss and NOT scream.

Hallo everyone,

the following is an invitation to discuss the recent reverts applied by Pinkville (talk) yesterday:
  1. deletion of the [[Category: Cold War]],
  2. deletion of the hyperlink to severe hunger and
  3. deletion of the added link to Niger uranium forgeries in the == See also section ==
Thanks for your attention.

Maurice Carbonaro (talk) 07:35, 26 February 2011 (UTC)

Hi. I deleted the Cold War category because it is not particularly related to the Nigerian Civil War. I deleted the wikilink to starvation because it didn't seem necessary (any reader should understand the meaning of "severe hunger"). I deleted the wikiling to Niger uranium forgeries because it has literally nothing to do with the Nigerian Civil War (for one thing, Niger is a different country). Hope that's all clear. Pinkville (talk) 13:14, 26 February 2011 (UTC)
Hi there Pinkville (talk). Thanks very much for answering. What about adding Uranium in Africa in the "See also section" then? Cheers. Maurice Carbonaro (talk) 07:54, 28 February 2011 (UTC)
Well, I wouldn't, because there's no relevance to this article, the Nigerian Civil War. List of civil wars is linked in the See Also because it's a relevant list that couldn't otherwise be included in the Nigerian Civil War article. Pinkville (talk) 02:16, 9 March 2011 (UTC)
Would you prefer a link to the "Resource curse" article in the == See also == section then? Maurice Carbonaro (talk) 10:33, 18 March 2011 (UTC)

Aid to Biafra[edit]

Were there evidence from Biafran military people, during the war, that they continued the war because knew that starving people would be fed, then the assertion that aid continued the war would be valid. As it stands, it relies, for validity, on itself, as there are only statements from a Biafran politician who can have been convinced by anti-aid propaganda, or be propagating such, himself, after the war, as Smillie himself points out.

"Writing after the war, NU Akpan, head of Biafra's civil service said, 'The efforts of the relief agencies did in fact help prolong the war'." -The alms bazaar:altruism under fire : non-profit organizations and international development, Ian Smillie
Anarchangel (talk) 04:23, 16 October 2011 (UTC)
The logic of aid=war is obviously ridiculous on its face, but it is also disproven here by facts, while it relies on assertions. The Biafran military carried on the war while people were starving. Withholding aid would have made no difference at all. Wikipedia should not be parroting the speculations of right-wing think tanks. Anarchangel (talk) 04:29, 16 October 2011 (UTC)
But one of the allegations - I can't remember the source, but given the context Akpan seems likely - was that food aid was diverted to the use of the military. A different allegation (See 'Shadows') is that the aircraft providing military aid flew in making use of the food aid aircraft to provide cover, and further allegations (same book) that some of the load carried by the relief aircraft was military aid. NOTE: There are no claims that the relief agencies knowingly flew in military aid; only that some of the cargo was not available for inspection by the flight crew. Bendel boy (talk) 14:52, 16 October 2011 (UTC)

more info on foreign support[edit]

I think we really need some info on how/why outside nations, particularly South Africa and Israel, were involved. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 17:06, 1 January 2012 (UTC)

Their 'involvement' was mainly in the form of providing material. Aside from the mercenaries, and the 'volunteer' Egyptian air force pilots, there was no direct involvement. Why was South Africa involved in fomenting anything that would eaken Black African nations? I think that the answer is obvious. For other nations, it was the hope that they would aid the victoriuous side and would have access, on preferential terms, somehow, to the oil reserbes of Eastern Nigeria. It is worth remembering that the oil reserves were not in the Ibo heartland, as Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni have reminded people. Bendel boy (talk) 23:02, 3 January 2012 (UTC)

Benin in infobox[edit]

It seems misleading to include Benin in the infobox as a belligerent. First of all, most people (I'm assuming, like myself) would assume that meant the Republic of Benin to the west. I clicked to find out, first of all, it wasn't named that back then, but also that it refers to a country that existed for the better part of a day. It was not a country, in any sense of the word. One man proclaimed it, no one cared it existed, and it ceased to exist hours later. Why does this get any mention at all in the infobox?

I'm not saying it doesn't warrant mention in the article, far from it, it existing is important. But it seems excessive to label it as a "belligerent" in the infobox. --Golbez (talk) 15:04, 9 January 2013 (UTC)

I think that it should be included as I had included, that's it, as part of Biafra (only during some time in 1967). What is not logic is to not include the Re. of Benin but put a Rep. of Benin flag next to Albert Okonkwo at the infobox. Or Rep. of Benin had to be included or the flag next to Albert Okonkwo had to be changed to a Biafra one. Also, Im gonna add "citation needed" to all the supposedly supporter countries with no sources. Regards,--HCPUNXKID (talk) 16:24, 15 April 2013 (UTC)
But it really did not exist in any significant way. A random guy wandering in from Cameroon and shooting someone would have had more impact on the war than the Republic of Benin did (and would have survived longer). If it had any impact it was as part of Biafra, not as an independent country, which is never functionally was, either from Biafra or Nigeria. It's an historical footnote, not something that needs equal footing in the infobox. --Golbez (talk) 16:31, 15 April 2013 (UTC)
Ok, I had done the changes, hope you agree...--HCPUNXKID (talk) 16:56, 15 April 2013 (UTC)

Citation request[edit]

A citation request for foreign supporters of the secessionists was made in April. The citation request specifically referred to Portugal, South Africa, Israel and Rhodesia. Four months have elapsed since the request was made and no citation has been forthcoming.--Jiujitsuguy (talk) 15:09, 29 August 2013 (UTC)


I have problem with the mostly southern sources used in this article. It is extremely unbalanced and seems to favour what is considered "Biafran Propaganda" in Nigerian circles Alaminalpha (talk) —Preceding undated comment added 16:53, 19 September 2016 (UTC)