Talk:Advance-fee scam

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High traffic

On 2009, Advance-fee scam was linked from Yahoo Help, a high-traffic website. (See visitor traffic)

A sub-type of "419" letters[edit]

Quite often, if a person is _known_ to be male (e.q. has an account in a social network), "official's daughter" scheme can come in. This scheme often incorporates a photo of an attractive woman, who is a daughter of a rich person (sometimes the person is said to be dead). When an attractive woman wants your help in migrating to your country and promises a huge amount of cash, it's certainly an Advance-Fee Fraud. Just search the Internet for the email username (part before the @ symbol - e.q. in email 1@2.3, 1 is what you must search for). Yura87 (talk) —Preceding undated comment added 15:32, 10 December 2010 (UTC).

Smart enough people will have already learned to treat any proposal made by a person they've never heard of before as a 419 scam. JIP | Talk 19:08, 9 March 2011 (UTC)
There are quite a few types of current "419" letters. We find the "inheritance scam" where some party is claimed to have died and the potential victim's assistance is required to move the money from a bank account. Then there is the "dying widow" scam (e.g. search for "mariam abacha scam") where the widow of some wealthy persona that has previously died wishes to disburse her wealth for charitable purposes, "investment scam" where some unknown person seeks your assistance in investing and requires teh victims help in moving the money etc DerekSmythe (talk) 12:33, 14 December 2015 (UTC)

419 scam spelling mistakes are deliberate?[edit]

What proof or references are there to justify the article's assertion that the typical 419 emails' grammatical/spelling mistakes are deliberate? I see no logical reason to conclude this.

This is an analytical exposition, and from the way the author sounded it seems he had once been a victim of scam or he got his information first hand from a victim of fraudulent transactions involving Nigerian scammers. The word ‘419’ used by the author to explain the nature of the scam examined originally referred to section 419 of the Nigerian Criminal Code dealing with obtaining goods by false pretences. Although section 419 appeared in the footnote of the article the section was not properly examined to show that the word is used in reference to a section prohibiting the offence of obtaining by false pretences.

The author did not highlight the fact that due to the prominence of the offence which became an index with which Nigeria’s personality was defined globally constrained the Nigerian Legislature to enact an Act – Advance Fee Fraud and other Related Offences Act, 2006 which prohibits both the offences of obtaining property by false pretences and money laundering which enhanced the punishment to a term not more than 20 years and not less than 7 years without option of fine, as against the 3 years and 7 years imprisonment depending on the amount involved in the scam under the Criminal Code. This would have brought to the fore the efforts of the Nigerian government to curtail the menace of the offence.

The above would have led the author to examine the nexus between the offence of obtaining by false pretences and money laundering because those who obtain funds through such scams tend to disguise the nature, source and the origin of such funds by investing them in seemingly legitimate businesses. This would have had the effect of educating victims that they can trace their funds to such businesses.

The author also talked about ‘alert officials’ when it dawns on any victim that he has been duped. But he failed to mention the officials. These are the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC); the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA); and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). These are bodies charged with the responsibilities of monitoring all financial transactions in order to put any account under surveillance so as to trace the owners of any lodgment in a bank account. In fact section 12 of the Foreign Exchange (Monitoring and Miscellaneous Provision) Act 1995 empowers the Nigerian Customs Service to report any transactions to or from a foreign country made pursuant to this law when the funds or securities involves a sum greater than $10, 000.00. This is useful piece of information so that victims know where to run to in distressed periods.

The author should have used the appropriate words used for obtaining by false pretences in South Africa in the case of one Mr Osamai Hiromi, a Japanese business man lured to Johannesburg, South Africa by scammers instead of using 419scam a term popularly used in to Nigeria to refer to the offence of obtaining goods by false pretences under section 419 of the Criminal Code and now under Part 1 of the Advance Fee Fraud and other Related Offences Act, 2006.

The author examined the offence of kidnapping and, it is submitted that that did not derail the focus of the offence because in some cases the con men do lure their victims to their home countries who are eventually kidnapped and killed. On the whole the article is informative and educative as, it is a wake up call to users of the Internet and mobile phones to be wary of the email messages and text massages which offers them mouth watering deals.

Ikpe 00:00, 28 October 2011 (UTC)

Dr Suleiman Oji, Esq — Preceding unsigned comment added by Ikpe (talkcontribs) 00:00, 28 October 2011 (UTC)


WhisperToMe (talk) 17:45, 1 September 2011 (UTC)

Interesting quote, but I'm not really sure how that fits into the article nor would I say that the source really meets WP:RS. WTF? (talk) 19:44, 22 June 2012 (UTC)

Renaming per WP:COMMONNAME[edit]

The old name ("Advance-fee fraud") was in no way adequate to describe the variety of techniques used for fraud and only marginally known at best. As far as I can see Nigeria scam is the most widely used name. 419 fraud would another possible name however it seems less recognizable and although it may appear more "politically correct" at first glance it is still strongly linked to Nigeria. Richiez (talk) 23:02, 20 May 2012 (UTC)

Actually, based on most of the content in the article (which is very poorly organized), I would say that "advanced fee fraud" is the better term for this, as it is more all-encompassing. Referring to this specifically as "Nigerian 419" (or variants thereof) is somewhat misleading because the scam really didn't originate in Nigeria nor are a majority of the scammers actually in Nigeria. However, the name seems to have stuck because the country has developed a reputation for this type of thing, and a lot of scammers do come from there. Plus, it's a convenient label because 419 is their criminal code for fraud. But many examples cited in this article go way beyond "Nigerian 419", which is why I think the article would be better if moved to "advanced fee fraud". WTF? (talk) 19:43, 22 June 2012 (UTC)
There are many other internet fraud articles, perhaps too many. This article should be limitted to frauds that are commonly tied to that term, the rest moved to other fraud articles. However "advance fee fraud" is a really poor name and neither all-encompassing - varoius "romance scams" can have wildly different exploitation patterns. Regardless, the name should not be all-encompassing but instead content that does not fit Nigerian scam pattern moved to one of the dozens of other fraud articles. Richiez (talk) 17:17, 24 June 2012 (UTC)

Renaming per WP:Neutral point of view[edit]

The current name ("419 scams") does not conform to WP:Neutral point of view, a requirement for WP:COMMONNAME. 419 refers to Nigeria, and while it's better than "Nigerian scam," it still implies a strong connection with Nigeria. I'm in the anti-spam industry and I can definitely confirm that Nigeria is one of the biggest players in sending advance-fee fraud scams (likely #1, if you were to unwrap the true location or ethnicity of the webmail scammers). That said, I think it does the country a disservice to use this title. I suggest reverting the name of this article to "Advance-fee fraud." I also disagree with Richiez on the topic of applicability. All 419 scams are advance-fee fraud. Only some "romance scams" are 419/advance-fee fraud. Romance scams are often the build-up to advance-fee frauds (e.g. "Honey, I need a loan"), but they could also be build-up to blackmail, phishing, or even just porn ads. Adam KatzΔ 18:20, 26 February 2015 (UTC)

  • I agree that it should be moved to "Advanced fee-fraud", cos everything about this subject infact is advanced fee-fraud.--Jamie Tubers (talk) 00:03, 27 February 2015 (UTC)


I was gathering some material on this, however the sources that I found deal with all kinds of internet fraud (such as ebay nondelivery). It seems that most scammers operate from US and UK, while countries with disproportionately huge populations of scammers include Nigeria, Romania and Netherlands.

looking for more before I try to incorporate it into the article. Richiez (talk) 15:50, 21 May 2012 (UTC)

The article you give as a sources deals predominantly with scams other than advance fee fraud. Only relatively small numbers of advance feed fraudsters are based in the US (there are far more in Canada, Malaysia and other Commonwealth countries). This is evidenced for example by the distribution of phone numbers seen in advance fee fraud emails, where US numbers are relatively rare. Joewein (talk) 13:43, 18 March 2013 (UTC)


How do I convence tht he is being taken  ?? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:49, 1 June 2012 (UTC)

This is a talk page for the article on Nigerian 419 scams, for discussion about improving the article itself. It is not a discussion board for advice on dealing with actual fraud cases. If you suspect that you or a loved one is about to become involved in a complicated and illegal fraud, I would recommend contacting local law enforcement or the Better Business Bureau, or other authorities. If they don't have the resources available to help you, they will know who to contact. WTF? (talk) 19:37, 22 June 2012 (UTC)

American Dialect Society[edit]

I have removed the following information from the lead of the article:

The American Dialect Society has traced the term "419 fraud" back to 1992.[1]

I don't think that the statement is really backed up with what is provided in the link, which goes to an email mailing list posting by John Baker in 2005, citing an AFP article from 1992. The only time 1992 is mentioned in the link is at "The term dates back at least to this 2/21/1992 Agence France-Presse article:" and "A Business America article on 1/13/1992 described these scams in some detail." There is no information in the link suggesting that there is an American Dialect Society study tracing the origins of "419" to 1992, and there is no information suggesting who John Baker is or that he is a member or researcher in the organization (other than the fact that he's subscribed to the ADS-L listserv, which isn't confirmation of membership in the organization). There is also no information in the link that the ADS organized any such study (or paid for one) to trace "419" back to any particular date. It's not even clear the John Baker did this -- all he did was copy the contents of an AFP article (probably in violation of copyright law) from 1992, and send it to members of the list.

If anyone can find a citation for the statement, that meets WP:RS and actually backs up what is being said, I think it can be added back to an appropriate section of the article (although possibly the history section -- the lead is supposed to be an introduction, and citations of new information are not preferred there). WTF? (talk) 18:27, 22 June 2012 (UTC)

GMail masking senders IP / stripping headers[edit]

Is there a source on that? I never heard of that before and it sounds implausible to me. Could somebody clarify that, please? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Markus.lautenbach (talkcontribs) 14:33, 22 July 2012 (UTC)

There's actually quite a bit of information in that section that is not sourced or poorly sourced. A lot of it probably needs a good workover. As for Gmail, from experience, most of these messages don't even end up in the inbox because the spam filter catches them. WTF? (talk) 15:15, 22 July 2012 (UTC)
A few things come together in this allegation. GMail strips originating IP addresses. So do other popular services providers. This is done in an effort to protect the user's privacy. While certain types of scams most certainly never make it off GMail's services, the problem here lies in the types of scams and flow. In my personal work with victims, I've seen a dramatic shift to the services that provide these privacy features. Whereas the original scam email being sent out would hardly be on GMail's services, any follow-up communication is diverted to GMail, such as teh respond-to email address. Further we see GMail being used disproportionately in pet scams, black money scams, "Cameroonian scams" (which needs a proper looking at) and Classifieds scams. DerekSmythe (talk) 12:34, 14 December 2015 (UTC)

Source of top three nations[edit]

Would anyone kindly provide a source? My source, the scamtracker at, consistently put more 419-scams in Lagos alone than in any other place in the world. In the moment of writing, more scams actually come from one part of Lagos than USA. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:14, 23 December 2012 (UTC)

I have already mentioned the problem here. The problem - most sources on internet fraud put all kinds of internet fraud into one bag with the obvious result. Does 419eater publish some yearly statistics? Richiez (talk) 11:15, 23 December 2012 (UTC)
I removed it, but someone addded it back. They rightly pointed out I did not put the reason. So now I have added a reason. The material is unsource, with no reference to back up what is a very dubious claim. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:14, 12 April 2013 (UTC)

Support Call Scam[edit]

Unsuspecting computer owners and users are being targeted by people claiming to be from Windows i.e. Microsoft or from their internet provider and then telling them that their computer/machine is creating errors and they need to correct the faults on their computers, they even get people to go to one site or another to show them so called errors, they are then required to give their credit card details so that they can purchase some form of support then they are asked to allow remote connection so that they can fix the problems. The victim's computer is then infected with Mal-ware or Spyware or Remote connection software such as Virtualpcsecure. Microsoft have released this response however it seems the scams still continue. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Gpaul1 (talkcontribs) 12:27, 11 July 2013 (UTC)

I got one of those calls (didn't fall for it). It's not a Nigerian scam so it doesn't belong in this article. The end of Telemarketing fraud is about it. Voice phishing also has a brief mention: "Another variation encourages a victim to install Scareware on an unrelated computer system at the same address as the Phone connection." PrimeHunter (talk) 12:59, 11 July 2013 (UTC)

Award-winning "American Hustle" is about a $2million scam[edit]

"In 1978, con artists Irving Rosenfeld and Sydney Prosser have met, started a relationship, and are working together. Sydney has improved Irving’s scams, posing as British aristocrat "Lady Edith Greensley". They are a well-matched couple, but Irving is reluctant to leave his adoptive son with wife Rosalyn, who will not divorce him. FBI agent Richard "Richie" DiMaso catches Irving and Sydney in a loan scam but offers to release them if Irving can line up four additional arrests. Sydney opposes the agreement. Richie believes Sydney is British but has proof that her claim of aristocracy is fraudulent. Sydney tells Irving she will manipulate Richie, distancing herself from Irving. Irving has a friend pretending to be a wealthy Arab Sheikh looking for potential investments in America. An associate of Irving's suggests that the Sheikh do business with Mayor Carmine Polito of Camden, New Jersey. The popular mayor is campaigning to revitalize gambling in Atlantic City but has struggled to raise the necessary funds. Richie devises a plan to entrap Carmine despite the objections of his boss Stoddard Thorsen and Irving. Sydney helps Richie manipulate an FBI secretary into making an unauthorized wire transfer of $2,000,000. When Stoddard's boss, Anthony Amado, hears of the operation, he praises Richie's initiative, pressuring Stoddard to continue the operation." From American_Hustle#Plot ... (Wikipedia article).

This can go into the 'Pop Culture' section. — Charles Edwin Shipp (talk) 00:46, 30 January 2014 (UTC)

Internet Infobox?[edit]

Why does this have an Internet Infobox? This is really unrelated and doesn't make much sense. Centerone (talk) 22:11, 21 October 2014 (UTC)

Requested move 11 November 2015[edit]

The following is a closed discussion of a requested move. Please do not modify it. Subsequent comments should be made in a new section on the talk page. Editors desiring to contest the closing decision should consider a move review. No further edits should be made to this section.

The result of the move request was: moved as proposed. There is a clear consensus that "Advance" is a superior title to the current "Advanced". There was reasonable proposal made that "Advance-fee fraud" would be an even better title – unfortunately the discussion was relatively sparse and there was no clear consensus about which would be better. So I'm closing this by defaulting to the status quo of "scam", but would suggest that a new RM be started to solely discuss the issue of "scam" vs "fraud". Jenks24 (talk) 09:08, 29 November 2015 (UTC)

Advanced-fee scamAdvance-fee scam – Correct spelling, grammar or idiomatic usage, whichever you prefer! "Advanced" is a common misspelling or misunderstanding of "advance". This article refers to fees paid in advance, not to advanced (sophisticated?) fees.

It has had this title before, in early 2014. This move would be uncontroversial and automatic, except there has been substantial discussion about the title, and it has had this name before. However, neither the opposition to nor the support of this name was based on its being ungrammatical. As far as I could see, discussions centered on semantic factors like referring to Nigeria or not.
Leif Arne Storset 21:16, 11 November 2015 (UTC) Relisted. Jenks24 (talk) 12:11, 19 November 2015 (UTC)

  • I'm reasonably sure that Advance-fee fraud is more common than either. I'd support that title over the ones discussed above, unless there's a good reason for it not to be there. However, I would also support the proposed move as an improvement over the current title. (talk) 06:45, 12 November 2015 (UTC)
    • I'm personally disturbed that the initial move (419 -> advanced fee scam) happened without a discussion. That being said, I support the idea that Advance-fee fraud is a better term and probably more common phrase. Centerone (talk) 15:39, 12 November 2015 (UTC)
  • Move back to 419 scam. Refocus & trim article if need be. There's an infinite number of forms of fraud involving deception to get someone to send money to you; such an article would be rambling and draw connections that don't exist. *Most* of the article is on the 419 scam, and the parts that aren't may well be WP:OR awkwardly grafted on. SnowFire (talk) 05:05, 16 November 2015 (UTC)
  • Relisting comment. Several valid alternatives have been presented, more input needed. Jenks24 (talk) 12:11, 19 November 2015 (UTC)

In support of my preference expresses above, I note that "advance-fee fraud" (with or without the hyphen) is the term preferred by the US Department of the Treasury [2] and SEC[3] (and seemingly by the US government generally), by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police [4], by London's Metropolitan Police [5], by the Australian Institute of Criminology [6], by the South African Reserve Bank [7], and by Interpol (which, like many of these considers "419" to be one form of advance-fee fraud) [8]. Unsurprisingly, it also seems to be preferred by the government of Nigeria [9]. (talk) 19:18, 19 November 2015 (UTC)

  • Support: per Jenks24, The article should be "Advance-fee scam". I'm not averse to "Advance-fee fraud" either. I don't support "419 Scam" though.--Jamie Tubers (talk) 01:18, 21 November 2015 (UTC)
    • Clarification request: @Jame Tubers: Support per whom again? Jenks24 did not support or oppose, just relisted and added some back-history about prior naming discussions.  — SMcCandlish ¢ ≽ʌⱷ҅ʌ≼  03:32, 28 November 2015 (UTC)
  • I wanted to refer to the nominator. Sorry for the confusion.--Jamie Tubers (talk) 19:44, 28 November 2015 (UTC)
  • Support weakly per nom, and strongly per WP:CONCISE. It's not technically wrong to refer to it as an advanced-fee scam, just a linguistically different approach (referring to a fee that is advanced by the victim rather than the advance of a fee by the victim; conceptually they're the same thing, of course); it's simply not necessary to use the longer version. It's also easily confused with the idea that there's something "advanced" (complex, new-fangled, etc.) about the fee or the scam. I'd also be okay with "fraud" over "scam", which ever is more WP:CONSISTENT with the category. If there is no consistency, then consistency should be imposed with more RMs, but mindful of WP:NOR if the move is toward "fraud" (not all scams are technically fraud; plenty of them are legal loophole exploitations, so it might be better to normalize to "scam").  — SMcCandlish ¢ ≽ʌⱷ҅ʌ≼  03:30, 28 November 2015 (UTC)

The above discussion is preserved as an archive of a requested move. Please do not modify it. Subsequent comments should be made in a new section on this talk page or in a move review. No further edits should be made to this section.
OMG! How many moves is this page going to have without decent discussion?? Geez! Advance vs Advanced? NOBODY uses the term advance fee SCAM.. First it was moved without any discussion and now this..! Centerone (talk) 00:36, 30 November 2015 (UTC)

See also the earlier discussion on this topic on this very page under the heading #Renaming per WP:Neutral point of view. The term "419" links this type of scam with Nigeria and promotes stereotypes regardless of its applicability (many advance-fee fraud scams do indeed originate from Nigeria ⟮original research: 17% of non-free-mail AFF scams come from or directly refer to Nigeria, which is the plurality but not the majority. Free mail providers represent 43% of AFF scams overall, and only 6% of those have bodies that reference Nigeria and/or a neighboring country⟯). Still, the "419" moniker is significantly more concise than "Advance fee fraud" and I've never seen it listed as "AFF" (I'm in the anti-spam industry). I find the new name "Advance-fee scam" to be acceptable, though I preferred the previous "Advance-fee fraud" name and would secondarily prefer "Advance-fee fraud scam" (which I do not consider redundant) over "Advance-fee scam" (which is obviously still better than anything referencing 419 or Nigeria). Adam KatzΔ 03:08, 30 January 2016 (UTC)

Not sure who you're responding to, but as far as the term goes "advance fee fraud" is used as mentioned in the above discussion: "I note that "advance-fee fraud" (with or without the hyphen) is the term preferred by the US Department of the Treasury [2] and SEC[3] (and seemingly by the US government generally), by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police [4], by London's Metropolitan Police [5], by the Australian Institute of Criminology [6], by the South African Reserve Bank [7], and by Interpol (which, like many of these considers "419" to be one form of advance-fee fraud) [8]. Unsurprisingly, it also seems to be preferred by the government of Nigeria" Centerone (talk) 06:12, 30 January 2016 (UTC)
I have to agree - the name Advance Fee Scam is not appropriate and does not meet common definitions. Even where the US government uses 419 with these activities, it uses 419 fraud, not scam.[1] The scam would be the con the scammer uses, whereas the act would be fraud. Further the common misuse of the word scam detracts from the seriousness of this type of fraud. If we wished, we could call it a Red Event, but it would not serve as a common point tying up with legal and law enforcement definitions and just causes confusion. The bottom line is that the term Advance Fee Scam is not used internationally. I hope this explanation clarifies this confusion. DerekSmythe (talk) 00:19, 9 February 2016 (UTC)


Advance-fee scam classification[edit]

There is much work to be done to properly classify the various forms of advance-fee scams. But a discussion and decision as to what purpose this article will serve has to be had first. As it is, this article attempts to define some scams, orphaning others. Of note here is the progression of a scam. Certain scams are distinctly different from other scams linked to other groups.

In the West Africa sense, we can discern among Nigerian, Sakawa and Cameroonian Scams as the main groups. Added to this are a subset of scams in wide usage across Africa. While some of the scam tools like the websites may appear to be the same across the groups (for reasons of fraudulent impersonation?), the usage and progression of the scam is distinctly different across groups and an indicator to investigators as to who the culprits may be.

We need to note that there is a danger in trying to see a specific type of scam as definitive. Many readers discount the possibility of being scammed if the attempt does not exactly match what he has encountered. If a scammer realizes he can't continue using the current scam for whichever reason, he may easily take another approach and switch scams. It's not uncommon for a victim to one of the diverse primary scams to attempt to recover his money by becoming a mule (unwittingly?). Similarly end up being involved in a reshipping scam or cheque scam. Typically defrauding a victim could be considered a group of interlinked scams.

Other current attempts includes breaking scams down to their base scams, then reassembling them into a tree-like structure linked to the previously mentions groups with read flag indicators for attribution as to the likely group. DerekSmythe (talk) 13:00, 14 December 2015 (UTC)

Useful article[edit]

Even without references, here and there, it is a useful article: some scams I have not been aware of. Thanks to all its authors. Zezen (talk) 12:41, 30 December 2015 (UTC)

Cameroonian scams[edit]

The website has added a section "Export scams". For the bulk these are "Cameroonian export scams", a large threat to the the international community in itself. While unsubstantiated apart from my own victim assistance incidents and the amount of online scams found, losses to these scams are towering over losses to other types of advance-fee fraud. The phrase "These guys are making their neighbours look like boy scouts" has been made.

The perpetrators are invariably Cameroonian citizens. In the scam, items such as chicken feet/paws/claws and other agricultural products, paper, scrap metal, used types etc are used as bait and public on international trading websites. The buyer is expected to pay a deposit, take out insurance etc. In the process high quality documents are used. In a further disturbing development, real companies are registered at the authorities, only to be found an instrument of fraud upon later investigations. A good reference is the website Typically these scams are backed by fraudulent websites; the scamming seller, the insurance company and associated courier company.

It's not uncommon upon researching these frauds to find that the same contact details are being abused in "Cameroonian pet scams" in the local classifieds. Typically the scam advert may be backed by a fraudulent website. Upon the victim attempting to adopt/purchase the pet, a fictitious courier is used. Many a time this will be the same courier website also used in the export scams above.

The pet scam has also evolved. The pets have now been substituted with electronics goods (mobile phones, televisions, laptops, Xboxes etc), farm livestock (goats, cattle, sheep), wild game (lions, tigers, monkeys, exotic birds, snakes etc), generators, trailers, shipping containers, hotdog stands, cars, trucks and even heavy industrial equipment. It's also noteworthy that during a period in South Africa when there were brown-outs, adverts and websites linked to fraudulent generator sales flared up, showing these scammers monitor local events and are quick to exploit them (the scams in this instance were linked to Cameroonian citizens resident in South Africa). These scams may be once again backed by scam websites.

Of late drug sales scams have also become extremely popular. Once again classified ads is used. We further find Facebook being popular to propagate these scams. In the online scams linked to one party, we see non-existent companies claiming a US presence etc. In another group of scam linked to another party we find the scam Cannabis websites, "Medical Marijuana" websites. Steroids are also a popular bait. Of note in these scam websites is that the victim may "purchase" by entering his credit card details (typically via an unsecured page) leading to credit card related fraud. These websites may be referenced in the social media marketing such as Facebook. Typically we once again find much marketing in places such as the online classifieds.

While this subgroup is also involved in other scams such as black money scams and magic spell scams (thus far extremely sensitive and virtually unknown, yet flourishing), these scams are not as limited to this group but is in wider usage in the "African type" of scams.

This group and their related scams needs to be documented as it falls squarely in the realm of advance-fee fraud. Not much material may be available publicly as reference though, due to it having slipped under the radar for so long. DerekSmythe (talk) 13:30, 14 December 2015 (UTC)

Jette Jacobs[edit]

This paragraph should probably be reworked into a separate section into the dangers of traveling in scams along with other victim details. Victims are regularly mugged, raped and murdered. As such the term travel in a scam perspective is normally seen as a red flag in law enforcement and victim assistance/warning circles.

DerekSmythe (talk) 23:49, 8 February 2016 (UTC)

Mobile Tower Frauds in India[edit]

In India the Mobile Tower Frauds are popular. they are one of the Advance fee scam. The fraudster publishes the tempting advertisement for installation of mobile towers in leading news paper. The print media i.e. dailies are used as first medium to inform the prospective victims about scheme. The victims contact the fraudster on given mobile number/ toll free number in the advertisement. The fraudster ask the victim to deposit small registration amount and later increases his demands on account of government tax, service charge , clearance certificate fee etc. The victim deposits the money to fraudsters bank account through bank wire-transfer. later fraudster switches off their mobile and victims face huge financial loss. I am of the opinion that Mobile Tower Fraud in India shall be added to the 'Advance fee Scam'. Similarly the 'Print media Daily news paper Classifieds' shall also be added under 'Anonymous communication' in present article.

I have created one article on wiki and waiting for further improvement.

Harishk.its (talk) 04:43, 17 February 2016 (UTC) Harish Kumar

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Check or cheque?[edit]

There are almost an equal number of uses (around twenty or so each) of the words "check" and "cheque". To be consistent within the article, we should use only one spelling. But which one? Being an American, I prefer "check", but I am agnostic on the issue for this particular article, since it is not clear whether it deals with something that affects more Americans than Brits, or vice versa. — Loadmaster (talk) 15:49, 26 August 2016 (UTC)