Talk:Post-traumatic stress disorder

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Post-traumatic stress disorder[edit]

Add section 'Anthropology' below 'Epidemiology' section. Add the following to 'Anthropology' section.

The experience of trauma (and resulting PTSD) is often expressed through the outermost limits of suffering, pain and fear. Expression of the images and experiences relived through PTSD often defy easy description through language. Therefore, the translation of these experiences from one language into another is problematic, when applied within the context of primarily Euro-American research on trauma [1]. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that people perceive the world differently according to the language they speak: language and the world it exists within reflect back on the perceptions of the speaker [2]. For example, ethnopsychology studies in Nepal have found that cultural idioms and concepts often don’t translate to western terminologies: piDaa is a term that may align to trauma/suffering, but also people who suffer from this are considered paagal (mad) and are subject to negative social stigma, indicating the need for culturally appropriate and carefully tailored support interventions [3]. In summary, different cultures remember past experiences within different linguistic and cultural paradigms. As such, cultural and medical anthropologists have questioned the validity of applying the diagnostic criteria of PTSD cross-culturally, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), and constructed through the Euro-American paradigm of psychology [4].

There remains a dearth of studies into the conceptual frameworks that surround trauma in non-Western cultures. There is little evidence to suggest therapeutic benefit in synthesizing local idioms of distress into a culturally constructed disorder of the post-Vietnam era, a practice anthropologist believe contributes to category fallacy [5]. For many cultures there is no single linguistic corollary to PTSD, psychological trauma being a multi-faceted concept with corresponding variances of expression [6]. Designating the effects of trauma as an affliction of the spirit is common in many non-Western cultures where idioms such as “soul loss” and “weak heart” indicate a preference to confer suffering to a spirit-body or heart-body diametric. These idioms reflect the emphasis that collectivist cultures place on healing trauma through familial, cultural and religious activities while avoiding the stigma that accompanies a mind-body approach [7]. Prescribing PTSD diagnostics within these communities is ineffective and often detrimental. For trauma that extends beyond the individual such as the effects of war, anthropologists believe applying the term “social suffering” or “cultural bereavement” to be more beneficial.

Every facet of society is affected by conflict; the prolonged exposure to mass violence can lead to a ‘continuous suffering’ among civilians, soldiers, and bordering countries [8]. Entered into the DSM in 1980, clinicians and psychiatrists based the diagnostic criteria for PTSD around American veterans of the Vietnam war [9]. Though the DSM (in its fifth edition at the time of writing) gets reviewed and updated regularly, it is unable to fully encompass the disorder due to its Americanization (or Westernization). That is, what may be considered characteristics of PTSD in western society, may not directly translate across to other cultures around the world. Displaced people of the African country Burundi experienced symptoms of depression and anxiety, though little symptoms of PTSD were noted [10]. In a similar review, Sudanese refugees relocated in Uganda were ‘concerned with material [effects]’ (lack of food, shelter, and healthcare), rather than psychological distress (ibid.). In this case, many refugees didn’t present symptoms at all, with a minor few developing anxiety and depression. War-related stresses and traumas will be ingrained in the individual [11], however they will be affected differently from culture to culture. It’s clear that the “clear-cut” rubric for diagnosing PTSD doesn’t allow for culturally contextual reactions to take place. 1.145.145.184 (talk) 08:05, 27 August 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]

 Done Thanks for putting this together. Of the universe (talk) 15:22, 4 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]

I've left some citation neededs on sentences that you left unsourced. Even when one sentence obviously follows from the others, every claim should be backed up by reliable sources, especially in medical articles (see WP:OR and WP:MEDRS). I'll work on touching up this section, but it would be great if you could fill in some of the gaps, since you're far more familiar with the literature and the subject than I am. Of the universe (talk) 15:40, 4 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]

References

  1. ^ Pillen A., 2016, Language, Translation, Trauma., Annual Review of Anthropology, 45, 95-111, doi:10.1146/annurev-anthro-102215-100232
  2. ^ Skerrett D.M., 2010, Can the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis save the planet? lessons from cross-cultural psychology for critical language policy, Current Issues in Language Planning, 11(4), 331-340,doi:10.1080/14664208.2010.534236
  3. ^ Kohrt B.A. and Hrushka D.J., 2010, Nepali concepts of psychological trauma: the role of idioms of distress, ethnopsychology and ethnophysiology in alleviating suffering and preventing stigma, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 34(2), 322-352, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bas&AN=BAS889542&site=eds-live&scope=site
  4. ^ Moghimi Y., 2012, Anthropological discourses on the globalization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in post-conflict societies, Journal of Psychiatric Practice®, 18(1), 29-37
  5. ^ Moghimi Y., 2012, Anthropological discourses on the globalization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in post-conflict societies, Journal of Psychiatric Practice®, 18(1), 29-37
  6. ^ Kohrt B.A. and Hrushka D.J., 2010, Nepali concepts of psychological trauma: the role of idioms of distress, ethnopsychology and ethnophysiology in alleviating suffering and preventing stigma, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 34(2), 322-352, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bas&AN=BAS889542&site=eds-live&scope=site
  7. ^ Moghimi Y., 2012, Anthropological discourses on the globalization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in post-conflict societies, Journal of Psychiatric Practice®, 18(1), 29-37
  8. ^ Maedel A., Schauer E., Odenwald M., and Elbert T., 2010, Psychological Rehabilitation of Ex-combatants in Non-Western, Post-conflict Settings, Trauma Rehabilitation After War and Conflict, Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-1-4419-5722-1_9
  9. ^ Crocq M,. & L., 2000, From shell shock and war neurosis to posttraumatic stress disorder: a history of psychotraumatology, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 2(1), 53, https:// doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2000.2.1/macrocq
  10. ^ Herbert J.D., and Forman E.M., 2010, Cross-cultural perspectives on posttraumatic stress, Clinician’s Guide to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118269961.ch10
  11. ^ Maedel A., Schauer E., Odenwald M., and Elbert T., 2010, Psychological Rehabilitation of Ex-combatants in Non-Western, Post-conflict Settings, Trauma Rehabilitation After War and Conflict, Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-1-4419-5722-1_9

Section entitled: Intimate partner violence[edit]

This section contains the following sentence "However, being exposed to a traumatic experience does not automatically indicate that an individual will develop PTSD". I would appreciate feedback as to whether this sentence is relevant in it's current place. My opinion's are that firstly, this sentence has been covered in the opening section of this article and that, being a broad statement, it's not really suitable to have a place in a subsection, unless that section/subsection explores the whole subject of likelihood of developing PTSD after the event in question.

This is one of my first inputs regarding the possible amendment of an article. If I haven't lived up to the expectations of others, give me a shout. Remember! Please do not bite the newcomers! I need help, not punishment!!! BenBrownBoy (talk) 19:47, 13 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]

@BenBrownBoy Be bold! Go ahead and make changes like this one, briefly explain your reasoning in your edit summary, and if people disagree, then it can be discussed (hopefully respectfully) on the talk page. Of the universe (talk) 09:40, 16 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Thank you for the words of encouragement, Of the universe! I shall indeed be bold and make the edit. Thanks again! BenBrownBoy (Aye?) 10:35, 16 September 2022 (UTC)Reply[reply]