Talk:Reproductive system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Former good article nominee Reproductive system was a Natural sciences good articles nominee, but did not meet the good article criteria at the time. There are suggestions below for improving the article. Once these issues have been addressed, the article can be renominated. Editors may also seek a reassessment of the decision if they believe there was a mistake.
December 14, 2008 Good article nominee Not listed


There should be a history section, such as how people previously thought it worked —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 01:13, 25 July 2008 (UTC)



Giant paste[edit]

Someone just pasted in a bunch of info from the following link: [1]. It may be useful, but right now it's a copyright violation so I'm moving it to the talk page until it can be integrated without being a big pile of plagiarism. WLU 19:20, 26 February 2007 (UTC)


The ability to reproduce is one of the unifying characteristics of all living things. Sexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically different from their parents. Asexual reproduction produces offspring genetically identical to their parent.

Asexual Reproduction

Fission, budding, fragmentation, and the formation of rhizomes and stolons are some of the mechanisms that allow organisms to reproduce asexually. The hydra produces buds; starfish can regenerate an entire body from a fragment of the original body. Asexual reproduction allows an organism to rapidly produce many offspring without the time and resources committed to courtship, finding a mate, and mating. The lack of genetic variability in asexually reproducing populations can be detrimental when environmental conditions (for which all the clones are so well adapted) change quickly.

Sexual Reproduction

In sexual reproduction new individuals are produced by the fusion of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote. Sperm are male gametes; ova (ovum singular) are female gametes. Meiosis produces cells that are genetically distinct from each other; fertilization is the fusion of two such distinctive cells that produces a unique new combination of alleles, thus increasing variation on which natural selection can operate.

Rotifers will reproduce asexually when conditions are favorable by having females produce eggs by mitosis. When conditions deteriorate, rotifers will reproduce sexually and encase their zygotes inside a resistant shell. Once conditions improve, these eggs hatch into diploid individuals. Rotifers thus use sexual reproduction as way to survive a deteriorating environment.

Sexual reproduction offers the benefit of generating genetic variation among offspring, which enhances the chances of the population's survival. Costs of this process include the need for two individuals to mate, courtship rituals, as well as a number of basic mechanisms described later.

Human Reproduction and Development

Human reproduction employs internal fertilization, and depends on the integrated action of hormones, the nervous system, and the reproductive system. Gonads are sex organs that produce gametes. Male gonads are the testes, which produce sperm and male sex hormones. Female gonads are the ovaries, which produce eggs (ova) and female sex hormones.

The Male Reproductive System

Testes are suspended outside the abdominal cavity by the scrotum, a pouch of skin that keeps the testes close or far from the body at an optimal temperature for sperm development. Seminiferous tubules are inside each testis, and are where sperm are produced by meiosis. About 250 meters (850 feet) of tubules are packed into each testis. Spermatocytes inside the tubules divide by meiosis to produce spermatids that in turn develop into mature sperm.


Sperm production begins at puberty at continues throughout life, with several hundred million sperm being produced each day. Once sperm form they move into the epididymis, where they mature and are stored.

Male Sex Hormones

The anterior pituitary produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Action of LH is controlled by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). LH stimulates cells in the seminiferous tubules to secrete testosterone, which has a role in sperm production and developing male secondary sex characteristics. FSH acts on cells to help in sperm maturation. Negative feedback by testosterone controls the actions of GnRH.

Sexual Structures

Sperm pass through the vas deferens and connect to a short ejaculatory duct that connects to the urethra. The urethra passes through the penis and opens to the outside. Secretions from the seminal vesicles add fructose and prostaglandins to sperm as they pass. The prostate gland secretes a milky alkaline fluid. The bulbourethral gland secretes a mucus-like fluid that provides lubrication for intercourse. Sperm and secretions make up semen.

The Female Reproductive System

The female gonads, ovaries, are located within the lower abdominal cavity.

The ovary contains many follicles composed of a developing egg surrounded by an outer layer of follicle cells. Each egg begins oogenesis as a primary oocyte. At birth each female carries a lifetime supply of developing oocytes, each of which is in Prophase I. A developing egg (secondary oocyte) is released each month from puberty until menopause, a total of 400-500 eggs.

Ovarian Cycles

After puberty the ovary cycles between a follicular phase (maturing follicles) and a luteal phase (presence of the corpus luteum). These cyclic phases are interrupted only by pregnancy and continue until menopause, when reproductive capability ends. The ovarian cycle lasts usually 28 days. During the first phase, the oocyte matures within a follicle. At midpoint of the cycle, the oocyte is released from the ovary in a process known as ovulation. Following ovulation the follicle forms a corpus luteum which synthesizes and prepares hormones to prepare the uterus for pregnancy.

The secondary oocyte passes into the oviduct (fallopian tube or uterine tube). The oviduct is connected to the uterus.

The uterus has an inner layer, the endometrium, in which a fertilized egg implants. At the lower end of the uterus the cervix connects the uterus to the vagina. The vagina receives the penis during intercourse and serves as the birth canal.

External Genitals

The female external genitals are collectively known as the vulva. The labia minora is a thin membrane of folded skin just outside the vaginal opening. The labia majora cover and protect the genital area. A clitoris, important in arousal, is a short shaft with a sensitive tip covered by a fold of skin.

Hormones and Female Cycles

The ovarian cycle is hormonally regulated in two phases. The follicle secretes estrogen before ovulation; the corpus luteum secretes both estrogen and progesterone after ovulation. Hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary control the ovarian cycle. The ovarian cycle covers events in the ovary; the menstrual cycle occurs in the uterus.

Menstrual cycles vary from between 15 and 31 days. The first day of the cycle is the first day of blood flow (day 0) known as menstruation. During menstruation the uterine lining is broken down and shed as menstrual flow. FSH and LH are secreted on day 0, beginning both the menstrual cycle and the ovarian cycle. Both FSH and LH stimulate the maturation of a single follicle in one of the ovaries and the secretion of estrogen. Rising levels of estrogen in the blood trigger secretion of LH, which stimulates follicle maturation and ovulation (day 14, or midcycle). LH stimulates the remaining follicle cells to form the corpus luteum, which produces both estrogen and progesterone.

Estrogen and progesterone stimulate the development of the endometrium and preparation of the uterine inner lining for implantation of a zygote. If pregnancy does not occur, the drop in FSH and LH cause the corpus luteum to disintegrate. The drop in hormones also causes the sloughing off of the inner lining of the uterus by a series of muscle contractions of the uterus.

Sexual Responses

Humans do not have a mating season , females are sexually receptive to the male at all times of the year. There are four stages in mating: arousal, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

During male arousal, blood flows into the three shafts of spongy erectile tissue inside the penis, causing it to become elongated and erect. The female arousal has the swelling of the areas around the vagina, erection of the clitoris and nipples, and secretion of lubricating fluids in the vagina.

After insertion of the penis into the vagina, pelvic thrusts by both partners stimulate sensory receptors in the penis, vaginal walls, and clitoris. The sperm leave the epididymis and secretions of glands form the semen. Orgasm involves contractions of muscles of the penis (male) or vagina (female) and waves of pleasurable sensations.

Resolution reverses the previous phases: muscles relax, breathing slows, the penis returns to its normal size.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) cause over $7 billion to be expended for treatment. STDs can affect the sex partners, fetus, and newborn infants. STDs are grouped into three categories.

Category One

STDs that produce inflammation of the urethra, epididymis, cervix, or oviducts. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common STDs in this category. Both diseases can be treated and cured with antibiotics, once diagnosed.

Category Two

STDs that produce sores on the external genitals. Genital herpes is the most common disease in this class, affecting more than 25 million individuals in the US. Symptoms of herpes can be treated by antiviral drugs, but the infection cannot be cured. Syphilis is a bacterially caused infection, and can, if left untreated, cause serious symptoms and death. However, the disease is curable with antibiotics.

Category Three

This class of STDs includes viral diseases that affect organ systems other than those of the reproductive system. AIDS and hepatitis B are in this category. Both can be spread by sexual contact or blood. Infectious individuals may appear symptom-free for years after infection.

Reproduction: New and Improved?

New techniques have been developed to enhance or reduce the chances of conception. Social conventions and governing laws have developed far slower than this new technology, leading to controversy about moral, ethical, and legal grounds for the uses of such technologies.

The separation of intercourse from pregnancy uses methods blocking one of the three stages of reproduction:

1. Release and transport of gametes 2. Fertilization 3. Implantation


Various contraceptive methods have been developed; none of which is 100% successful at preventing pregnancy or the transmission of STDs. Abstinence is the only completely effective method.


Physical prevention (most effective) include vasectomy and tubal ligation. Vasectomy: the vas deferens connecting the testes with the urethra is cut and sealed to prevent the transport of sperm. Tubal ligation: the oviduct is cut and ends tied off to prevent eggs from reaching the uterus.

Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) usually contain a combination of hormones that prevent release of FSH and LH, inhibiting development of the follicle so that no oocytes are released. Time-release capsules (Norplant) can be implanted under the skin and offer long-term suppression of ovulation. RU-486, the so-called morning after pill, interferes with implantation of the blastula into the uterine wall. Its use as a contraceptive is very controversial.

Barrier methods employ physical (condom, diaphragm) or chemical (spermacides) means to separate the sperm from the egg. Male condoms are fitted over the erect penis; female condoms are placed inside the vagina. Only latex condoms prevent the spread of STDs. Diaphragms cap the cervix and block passage of the sperm into the uterus. Spermicidal jellies or foams kill sperm on contact and must be placed in the vagina prior to intercourse.

Reproductive Technologies Can Enhance Fertility

About 1 in 6 couples is infertile due to physical or physiological conditions preventing gamete production, implantation, or fertilization. Blocked oviducts (often from untreated STDs) are the leading cause of infertility in females. Low sperm count, low motility, or blocked ducts are common causes of male infertility.

Hormone therapy can cause increased egg production. Surgery can open blocked ducts. About 40 of the cases are due to male problems, 40 due to female problems and the remaining 20% are caused by some unknown agent(s). In vitro fertilization (test-tube babies) is a widely used technique to aid infertile couples.

Fertilization and Cleavage

Fertilization has three functions:

• Transmission of genes from both parents to offspring • Restoration of the diploid number of chromosomes reduced during meiosis • Initiation of development in offspring

Steps in Fertilization:

1. Contact between sperm and egg 2. Entry of sperm into the egg 3. Fusion of egg and sperm nuclei 4. Activation of development


Cleavage is the first step in development of ALL multicelled organisms. Cleavage converts a single-celled zygote into a multicelled embryo by mitosis. Usually, the zygotic cytoplasm is divided among the newly formed cells. Frog embryos divide to produce 37,000 cells in a little over 40 hours.

The blastula is produced by mitosis of the zygote, and is a ball of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel). The decreasing size of cells increases their surface to volume ratio, allowing for more efficient oxygen exchange between cells and their environment. RNA and information carrying molecules are distributed to various parts of the blastula, and this molecular differentiation sets the stage for the layering of the body in the next phases of development.


Gastrulation involves a series of cell migrations to positions where they will form the three primary cell layers.

1. Ectoderm forms the outer layer 2. Endoderm forms the inner layer 3. Mesoderm forms the middle layer

1. Ectoderm

Ectoderm forms tissues associated with outer layers: skin, hair, sweat glands, and epithelium. The brain and nervous system also develop from the ectoderm.

2. Mesoderm

The mesoderm forms structures associated with movement and support: body muscles, cartilage, bone, blood, and all other connective tissues. Reproductive system organs and kidneys form from mesoderm.

3. Endoderm

The endoderm forms tissues and organs associated with the digestive and respiratory systems. Many endocrine structures, such as the thyroid and parathyroid glands, are formed by the endoderm. The liver, pancreas, and gall bladder arise from endoderm.


Immediately after gastrulation, the body axis of the embryo begins to appear. Chordates have the cells that will form the nervous system fold into a neural tube (which will eventually form the spinal cord). The mesoderm forms the notochord (which will eventually form the vertebrae). The mesoderm at this time forms somites, which form segmented body parts, such as the muscles of the body wall.

Pattern Formation and Induction

Blastulation and gastrulation establish the main body axis. Organ formation occurs in the next stage of the development of the embryo. During organ formation, cell division is accomplished by migration and aggregation.

Pattern formation is the result of cells "sensing" their position in the embryo relative to other cells and to form structures appropriate to that position. Gradients of informational molecules within the embryo have been suggested to provide the positional information to cells. Homeobox genes are pattern genes; they coordinate with gradients of information molecules to establish the body plan and development of organs.

Induction is the process in which one cell or tissue type affects the developmental fate of another cell or tissue. As a cell begins to form certain structures, certain genes are turned on, others are turned off. Induction affects patterns of gene expression through physical contact or chemical signals. Formation of the vertebrate eye is a well known example.

Human Development

Fertilization, the fusion of the sperm and egg, usually occurs in the upper third of the oviduct. Thirty minutes after ejaculation, sperm are present in the oviduct, having traveled from the vagina through the uterus and into the oviduct. Sperm traverse this distance by the beating of their flagellum. Of the several hundred million sperm released in the ejaculation, only a few thousand reach the egg.

Only one sperm will fertilize the egg. One sperm fuses with receptors on the surface of the secondary oocyte, triggering a series of chemical changes in the outer oocyte membrane that prevent any other sperm from entering the oocyte. The entry of the sperm initiates Meiosis II in the oocyte. Fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei forms the diploid zygote.

Travels of a Young Zygote

Cleavage of the zygote begins while it is still in the oviduct, producing a solid ball of cells (morula). The morula enters the uterus, continuing to divide and becomes a blastocyst.

Stages in the journey of a fertilized egg from fertilization in the Fallopian tube to implantation in the uterus.


The uterine lining becomes enlarged and prepared for implantation of the embryo in the trophoblast layer. Twelve days after fertilization, the trophoblast has formed a two-layered chorion. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is secreted by the chorion, and prolongs the life of the corpus luteum until the placenta begins to secrete estrogen and progesterone. Home pregnancy tests work by detecting elevated hCG levels in the woman's urine.

Your Placenta or Mine?

Maternal and embryonic structures interlock to form the placenta, the nourishing boundary between the mother's and embryo's systems. The umbilical cord extends from the placenta to the embryo, and transports food to and wastes from the embryo.


The period of time from fertilization to birth (usually 9 months) is divided into trimesters, each about three months long. During pregnancy the zygote undergoes 40 to 44 rounds of mitosis, producing an infant containing trillions of specialized cells organized into tissues and organs.

The First Trimester

The three embryonic tissue layers form. Cellular differentiation begins to form organs during the third week. After one month the embryo is 5 mm long and composed mostly of paired somite segments. During the second month most of the major organ systems form, limb buds develop. The embryo becomes a fetus by the seventh week. Beginning the eighth week, the sexually neutral fetus activates gene pathways for sex determination, forming testes in XY fetuses and ovaries in XX fetuses. External genitalia develop.

The Second Trimester

The fetus increases in size during this trimester, and bony parts of the skeleton begin to form. Fetal movements can be felt by the mother.

The Last Trimester

During this trimester the fetus increases in size. Circulatory and respiratory systems mature in preparation for air breathing. Fetal growth during this time uses large parts of its mother's protein and calcium intake. Maternal antibodies pass to the fetus during the last month, conferring temporary immunity.


Birth is a positive feedback hormonal mechanism. During birth the cervix dilates to allow passage of the fetus. Uterine contractions propel the fetus through the birth canal, usually head first. Hormonal control of the birth process involves the release of oxytocin and prostaglandins, which are stimulated by uterine contractions, which stimulate more hormones that cause more contractions....etc.

First Stage

The first stage of birth lasts from beginning of contractions to the full (10 cm) dilation of the cervix. Membranes of the amniotic fluid rupture, lubricating the vagina.

Second Stage

Strong uterine contractions of a minute in duration separated by two to three minute intervals propel the fetus down the birth canal. Abdominal muscles relax in synchrony with the uterine contractions.

Third Stage

After delivery of the baby, the umbilical cord is clipped and cut. The placenta (or afterbirth) in expelled through the vagina.

Milk Production

Nursing mothers have their hormone levels and uterine size return to normal much faster than non-nursing mothers. Breasts develop the capability for milk secretion about the mid point of pregnancy. Secretion of milk does not occur until delivery, and the action of prolactin. Suckling by the infant causes production of oxytocin to promote release of milk into the ducts emptying into the nipple.


I am interested in taking photographs for this article. However, as i am not a doctor, and have no x-ray equipment i am only caipable of photographing the exterior of the reproductive system. Is this acceptable? I would be interested in making the photographs clinical, and neutral. Please let me know on my talk page. Mgarten 17:17, 15 October 2007 (UTC)

If you note the actual text, the reproductive system invoves so many parts of the body you'd basically have to take a picture of a whole person. Currently the page could tolerate one small image at the most, and would be better expanded with text than images. Also, Wikipedia is not censored, but in practise there is limited tolerance for explicit-for-the-sake-of-explicit pictures. Have you read WP:IMAGE and looked into the Wikimedia Commons? WLU 18:53, 15 October 2007 (UTC)
Yes, i have read them. I was looking for articles to contribute to and i noticed that reproductive system "requested that a photograph or photographs be included in this article to improve its quality" So, if you like i can in fact provide a picture of a whole male and female front and back. Mgarten 22:23, 15 October 2007 (UTC)
My thought is that the article is so short, a picture or pictures are unnecessary. Expanding the articles would be better. WLU 20:36, 19 October 2007 (UTC)

Human reproduction redirect[edit]

"Human reproduction" currently redirects here, to "reproductive system." But human reproduction is about more than reproductive organs. Human reproduction includes topics like sex, pregnancy and childbirth. Should "human reproduction" really redirect here? Should it redirect anywhere? No other page seems to adequately address the topic. The general reproduction page certainly doesn't. Should human reproduction have its own page, with brief entries on topics like reproductive organs, sex, pregnancy and childbirth, with links to the full articles? Otherwise, where would you suggest I send people with a hyperlink of the term "human reproduction" (or "procreation")? 16:51, 30 November 2007 (UTC)

  • I'd say pregnancy - it's not the best solution, but a single page would duplicate huge amounts of information in other pages, or consist of a series of {{main}}s. Pregnancy is where the actual second person is created (i.e. reproduced), and would link to sex and childbirth. Both are related to reproduction, but the actual biological part is during pregnancy. Done. WLU 17:40, 30 November 2007 (UTC)
  • I tend to disagree and say keep "human reproduction" redirecting here. Any proper understanding of an organ system must include the parts/anatomy as well as the function/physiology which is of course to reproduce. It is certainly difficult to not be repetitive of other articles and a list of {{main}}s as we have so many other articles, but that is really the idea of a core topic, people start here for a general encyclopedic overview and then proceed to more specific articles for the details, there are many articles like this. If we do choose to redirect I think pregnancy may be poor choice because here is a lot more to reproduction than pregnancy, such as gamete production, birth, sex, and child rearing. Sexual reproduction may be an option but doesn't focus on humans. Earthdirt 18:38, 30 November 2007 (UTC)
  • Comment I really think, human reproduction could easily be it's own page but considering that from 2001 until about a week ago this page was a one paragraph stub, I would say to not create it until someone wants to write something. For now it will be more than adequetly covered in this article. Earthdirt 18:43, 30 November 2007 (UTC)


I think your image is medically sound but it could be less graphic in its content. You might just use a standard black and white photograph. —Preceding unsigned comment added by John121206 (talkcontribs) 05:00, 21 February 2008 (UTC)

I rather like it. Think it's a question of personal taste. (talk) 08:55, 24 June 2009 (UTC)

There are a lot of cases where you won't be able to use this due to the graphic images, which I'm not convinced are really required. Eraserhead1 (talk) 11:22, 2 September 2009 (UTC)

To be honest, I was a bit shocked by the graphic nature of the images used to demonstrate the genitalia in this article. In my view, these are not appropriate for children and for the following reasons border on pornography: 1) both genital areas have been shaved clean. This is not a neutral, objective, realistic portrayal of adult genitalia; 2) the penis is erect; 3) the female is holding her labia spread. I honestly was not expecting such graphic photographs on wikipedia. Is there any possibility to post a warning at the top of the page in red to warn parents? (talk) 17:36, 25 January 2010 (UTC)well meaning mom97.114.73.132 (talk) 17:36, 25 January 2010 (UTC)

i agree with John121206's first comment, that he images are too graphic. children use this site and can see the images that are on this site and the pages that they go onto!!an image that graphic should be on an adult reproductive site not an all ages site. and i agree that a warning should be posted in bright red on the top of the page!! —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:03, 8 April 2010 (UTC)

I think that children have all seen pictures of human genitals somewhere or other. What are we protecting them from? What I do object to is the comment under the picture of the female genitals that says "(shaved, best)" Personally I don't think that shaved is best, but even if I did, that comment wouldn't have a place in an article that is supposed to be a teaching tool.5/11/2010 Ruthlym (talk) 02:36, 12 May 2010 (UTC)

Merge Sex organ to this article[edit]

Sex organ is in a current form a duplicate to this one. (It could be a different, if also organs for non-sex reproduction were considered.) Miraceti (talk) 12:38, 19 September 2008 (UTC)

  • Oppose per WP:HEY. Just because the article is currently pretty much a duplicate of reproductive system doesn't mean it has to be it could be expanded in a number of ways. Also this is also the article on genitalia, which should hardly redirect to a broad topic like reproductive system. If anything the name of the article should be changed from "sex organ" to genitalia. Also, the embedded list is a useful navigation tool which should probably not be included in reproductive system, but is appropriate where it is at. In my mind reproductive system should have the basics on the topic and the narrower topic articles expand from there. Peace, Earthdirt (talk) 15:48, 22 September 2008 (UTC)
    Could you explain, what should be in reproductive system and should not be in sex organ, and what should be in sex organ and should not be in reproductive_system?

Miraceti (talk) 10:36, 24 September 2008 (UTC)

I think diseases, system wide functions and processes, and discussions of hormones should probably not be in sex organ; and detailed discussions of each organ or lists of slang words for genitals should not be in reproductive system. The way I see Wiki articles like this is that: Reproductive system is a very broad summary/navigation article which may lead one to sex organ or genital which would in turn provide more detail about various aspects of the organs which make up the system (it feels like this should really be a categorized list of organs with a discussion of the functions, origins, locations, anatomy, common terms, etc. listed. This article would then lead to specific organs (like testicle) and detail their role, function, disorders, and anatomy which would provided even more specific detail, these individual organ pages would then lead to articles on parts of the organ (like Seminiferous tubules) which would then lead to articles about the cells making that tissue up (like Sertoli cells). In a way having all these "nested" article makes wikipedia bulky and a bit repetitive by nature, but it also makes it the best and most complete encyclopedia out there. Earthdirt (talk) 18:41, 24 September 2008 (UTC)
  • Migration to genitalia would be ok because "genitalia" (in sense of primary genitalia) are a subset of sex organs. Therefore it would not be a duplicate anymore. Miraceti (talk) 10:36, 24 September 2008 (UTC)
Agreed. Earthdirt (talk) 18:41, 24 September 2008 (UTC)
Do you mean that sex organ has the list? Because Reproductive system does not have a straight out list of sex organs that I see. Also, I guess I misspoke, that list could go in either, the Anatomical terms related to sex from sex organ is one that probably should not go in Reproductive system, but is a good list for that article. Earthdirt (talk) 18:41, 24 September 2008 (UTC)
I agree with Earthdirt's first two comments addressing this merge topic. I also went ahead removed the merge tag, since this discussion has remained inactive for a year now. Flyer22 (talk) 05:00, 6 October 2009 (UTC)

Tally-whacker definition and article-[edit]

Is no one herein aware of the origin(s) of the TERM tally-whacker? It was not a "sex organ". That was merely used as a euphemism for after the true meaning was more-or-less lost in social and business practice changes. It was not one word but as it was bowdlerized, it was first hyphenated, and then was finally used without the hyphen as if it were one word. Tally whackers were originally sticks several inches (8"-16" or so, as I remember) used in commerce to aid in keeping tallys as items were enumerated or sold. Sometimes the "Tally Whacker" was just "whacked" on a table, rostrum, dais, or whatever piece of substantial metal fixture or wood object was available. At other points it was notched, either by a sharp instrument, or by having one of it's corner edges "whacked" against the dais, rostrum, etc. The stick, being always four-sided, would readily take indentations that were visible and non-erasable. Tally whackers were used well into this century in parts of the U.S., as I remember them being used at informal auctions and mountain sales gatherings in Kentucky and Tennessee in the late 1940's and early 1950's in or near Jamestown, Deer Lodge, Rugby, and Chanute, TN as well as in Albany, Jamestown, Byrdstown, and other locations in Kentucky. There were also notable, but less pleasant uses for tally whackers, but those should probably be left unaired for now. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 23:00, 8 October 2008 (UTC)

Tally-whacker definition and article-[edit]

Is no one herein aware of the origin(s) of the TERM tally-whacker? It was not a "sex organ". That was merely used as a euphemism for a man's sex organ that came into use as the true meaning was more-or-less lost in social and business practice changes, and as a way of swaggering and bragging among males. It was not one word, but as it was bowdlerized, it was first hyphenated, and then was finally used without the hyphen as if it were one word. Tally whackers were originally sticks several inches (8"-16" or so, as I remember) used in commerce to aid in keeping tallys as items were enumerated or sold. Sometimes the "Tally Whacker" was just "whacked" on a table, rostrum, dais, or whatever piece of substantial metal fixture or wood object was available. At other points it was notched, either by a sharp instrument, or by having one of it's corner edges "whacked" against the dais, rostrum, etc. The stick, being always four-sided, would readily take indentations that were visible and non-erasable. Tally whackers were used well into this century in parts of the U.S., as I remember them being used at informal auctions and mountain sales gatherings in Kentucky and Tennessee in the late 1940's and early 1950's in or near Jamestown, Deer Lodge, Rugby, and Chanute, TN as well as in Albany, Jamestown, Byrdstown, and other locations in Kentucky. There were also notable, but less pleasant uses for tally whackers, but those should probably be left unaired for now. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 23:03, 8 October 2008 (UTC)

GA Review[edit]

This review is transcluded from Talk:Reproductive system/GA1. The edit link for this section can be used to add comments to the review.

I am going to give this article a Fail, and would like to explain why. The big problem is a lack of structure -- there are lots of useful facts here, but they are not arranged in a useful way. The article constantly switches abruptly from one type of information to a different type of information, with no transitions or other elements that would clue a reader as to what will come next. The lack of organization brings with it other problems, such as using words before defining them: "gamete" is an example.

If I were writing this article, I would probably start by explaining the problem of reproduction at an abstract level -- the problem being to bring together an egg and sperm and then nourish and protect the resulting embryo until it is capable of surviving on its own. I would then describe the various possible ways of solving this problem, first conceptually and then in terms of implementation. Finally I would describe the specific features of the human system and the ways it can go wrong -- although there is an argument that such information might better be placed in an article of its own.

There are no doubt other frameworks that could be used for organization -- the point is that some stronger framework needs to be implemented. Looie496 (talk) 21:58, 14 December 2008 (UTC)


How many years it will growth on — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 12:55, 21 August 2012 (UTC)

No mention of plants or fungi?[edit]

The following discussion is closed. Please do not modify it. Subsequent comments should be made on the appropriate discussion page. No further edits should be made to this discussion.

This article doesn't discuss the reproductive systems of plants or fungi. Will this information be added eventually? Jarble (talk) 16:32, 15 February 2013 (UTC)

 Done --Tom (LT) (talk) 22:10, 30 January 2016 (UTC)

The discussion above is closed. Please do not modify it. Subsequent comments should be made on the appropriate discussion page. No further edits should be made to this discussion.

External links modified[edit]

Hello fellow Wikipedians,

I have just added archive links to one external link on Reproductive system. Please take a moment to review my edit. If necessary, add {{cbignore}} after the link to keep me from modifying it. Alternatively, you can add {{nobots|deny=InternetArchiveBot}} to keep me off the page altogether. I made the following changes:

When you have finished reviewing my changes, please set the checked parameter below to true to let others know.

You may set the |checked=, on this template, to true or failed to let other editors know you reviewed the change. If you find any errors, please use the tools below to fix them or call an editor by setting |needhelp= to your help request.

  • If you have discovered URLs which were erroneously considered dead by the bot, you can report them with this tool.
  • If you found an error with any archives or the URLs themselves, you can fix them with this tool.

If you are unable to use these tools, you may set |needhelp=<your help request> on this template to request help from an experienced user. Please include details about your problem, to help other editors.

Cheers.—cyberbot IITalk to my owner:Online 05:52, 26 January 2016 (UTC)

Orphaned references in Reproductive system[edit]

I check pages listed in Category:Pages with incorrect ref formatting to try to fix reference errors. One of the things I do is look for content for orphaned references in wikilinked articles. I have found content for some of Reproductive system's orphans, the problem is that I found more than one version. I can't determine which (if any) is correct for this article, so I am asking for a sentient editor to look it over and copy the correct ref content into this article.

Reference named "IZ":

  • From Spawn (biology): Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 961–981. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. 
  • From Cephalopod: Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 450–460. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. 

I apologize if any of the above are effectively identical; I am just a simple computer program, so I can't determine whether minor differences are significant or not. AnomieBOT 16:12, 30 January 2016 (UTC)