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Good article Rhenium has been listed as one of the Natural sciences good articles under the good article criteria. If you can improve it further, please do so. If it no longer meets these criteria, you can reassess it.
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Article changed over to new Wikipedia:WikiProject Elements format by maveric149. Elementbox converted 11:21, 14 July 2005 by Femto (previous revision was that of 17:33, 24 June 2005).

Information Sources[edit]

Some of the text in this entry was rewritten from Los Alamos National Laboratory - Rhenium. Additional text was taken directly from USGS Rhenium Statistics and Information, from the Elements database 20001107 (via and WordNet (r) 1.7 (via Data for the table was obtained from the sources listed on the subject page and Wikipedia:WikiProject Elements but was reformatted and converted into SI units.


I think data of rhenium in english and in spanish don´t mach (see melting heat in both pages)


Pablo —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 10:00, 7 April 2008 (UTC)

I'm concerned regarding two conflicting pieced of information. 1) The page states Rhenium is not naturally found on Earth, 2) followed by a statement regarding it's 'most natural state'.

How can it have a most common state, when it is NOT naturally found on Earth? Ferbutt (talk) 21:34, 27 May 2008 (UTC)ferbutt

It doesn't say it's not found on Earth. It says "Rhenium is not found free in nature". The key word is free. That means that it is found only as part of a compound. The same is true for most elements, including sodium and chlorine, for example. --Itub (talk) 12:07, 30 May 2008 (UTC)


"Rhenium (Latin Rhenus meaning "Rhine") was the last naturally occurring element to be discovered."

Even if it is in only small quantities, samples from technetium have been extracted from pitchblende from Belgian Congo. The discovery of technetium was confirmed in 1937.

It says that rhenium was the last naturally occuring element to be discovered -- and then later that it was the next-to-last naturally occuring element to be discovered. Which is true? (I am leaning towards next-to-last; I believe francium was the last element to be discovered in nature). Bbi5291 00:49, 26 August 2007 (UTC)

I changed it to "next to last", so it is consistent within the article. Francium was discovered later, and the article about francium claims that it was the last naturally ocurring element to be discovered. The difference seems to stem from "naturally" meaning "can be found in nature" vs. "naturally" as in "has a stable isotope". Francium has no stable isotope and all its isotopes are rather short lived with the most stable having a half life of 21.8 minutes (information from the article about francium). 11:17, 15 November 2007 (UTC)

It now reads "last naturally occurring stable element to be discovered", which is fine as far as factual accuracy goes. Bbi5291 (talk) 01:08, 11 September 2008 (UTC)


beta decay[edit]

Thanks to the WTF note by I've looked at the statement that Re has the lowest beta-decay energy (26 keV). According to the "TABLE OF THE ISOTOPES" in the CRC handbook, 90mY has ~20 keV. To a specialist reading this, please check. Thank you. NIMSoffice (talk) 23:45, 6 May 2009 (UTC)

GA Review[edit]

This review is transcluded from Talk:Rhenium/GA1. The edit link for this section can be used to add comments to the review.

This article deserves GA status. It is well written, neutral, stable and well referenced (thus verifiable). The topic is of top importance. There were minor problems with style, references and a few statements, revealed by two referees. Those problems were fixed in the review process. The comments are listed below.Materialscientist (talk) 09:21, 25 May 2009 (UTC)

1) The lead should be more specific (accentuated) on rarity and wide oxidation range of Re. "Low availability" and "polyvalent" are too unspecific.

Added two sentences to the lead.--stone

2) "The metal form is prepared by reducing ammonium perrhenate with hydrogen at high temperatures" - please add approx. temperature in brackets.

I found no temperature in the text books I have, will search in the science literature, but for now unknown is the best what I can provide. --stone

3) "Other uses" the last item needs a reference.

Added ref on technetium and rhenium chemistry article.--stone

4) Many "general" web sources claim rhenium is used for jewellery plating. I was wondering, is it an unsubstantiated rumour or real application ?

....(rhenium).... ,but has not so far attracted the jewelry trade's interest, presumably it is likely to remain an interesting oddity to the world at large, and no more.doi:10.1016/S0026-0576(03)80439-7 Rhenium plating. For me this sounds like a copy paste error from the CRC book or similar source.--stone

5) Extra info on toxicity would be nice (difficult to find though; if not then not).

Some ref said that it is so rare that influence on biology is unknown and that even contamination by mine traylig is unknown. So I look for some rat date which should be somewhere.--stone
Will try this: doi:10.1002/jps.2600570218 Pharmacology and toxicology of potassium perrhenate and rhenium trichloride
added sentence and ref.--Stone (talk) 14:26, 22 May 2009 (UTC)

6) I added a fact on self-cleaning contacts, but don't have a reference at hand (perhaps it is already in the article). Would be fine if you could fix this.

The Naumov paper speaks about this application! Added the ref to that para.--Stone (talk) 13:51, 22 May 2009 (UTC)

NIMSoffice (talk) 06:58, 22 May 2009 (UTC)

7) The article contains less information than most other element GAs. I understand rhenium is a very rare metal, but some other reviewers might not. If possible, please add extra (referenced and useful) information, during or after this review. Materialscientist (talk) 23:31, 24 May 2009 (UTC) (NIMSoffice)

Reywas92's review
  • "Rhenium has the widest range of oxidation states of any known element: -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 and +7. The oxidation states +7, +6, +4, +2 and -1 are the most common." needs a source.
    Note. reference is needed in "characteristics", not in the lead (ref. [15] ?). A few clear examples of negative oxidation states would be nice to mention in a proper place.Materialscientist (talk) 23:31, 24 May 2009 (UTC)
    Added a example (Na[Re(CO)5).--Stone (talk) 09:05, 25 May 2009 (UTC)
    Have found nothing about the -3 and -2, but the -1 is known and I gave a reference for it.--Stone (talk) 08:34, 25 May 2009 (UTC)
  • "but occurs in amounts up to 0.2% in the mineral molybdenite, the major commercial source." needs a source
    The Woolf and the Rouschias paper are the reference one is quoting 0.2 the other 0.1.--Stone (talk) 08:34, 25 May 2009 (UTC)
  • So does "Some molybdenum ores contain 0.002% to 0.2% rhenium."
    Note on both. If the references of the follow-up sentences cover these facts then refs are not needed.Materialscientist (talk) 23:31, 24 May 2009 (UTC)
    Coming from the same reference Woolf and Rouschias.--Stone (talk) 08:34, 25 May 2009 (UTC)

Beyond that, I see no majot problems. When referenced, with concurrence of original reviewer, I think this article is ready for GA. Reywas92Talk 19:32, 24 May 2009 (UTC)

I concur and thank you for help and copyedit. BTW, how is it possible that your copyedit resulted in (-1,618) bytes difference? I don't see major cuts in the text diff.Materialscientist (talk) 23:31, 24 May 2009 (UTC)

I had WP:wikEd help do an automated clean up. It shortened all the reference templates from | last = name | first = name | to |last=name|first=name|. Congrats on the GA and I hope to see you at WP:FAC! Reywas92Talk 13:15, 25 May 2009 (UTC)
Thanks for the help!--Stone (talk) 08:34, 25 May 2009 (UTC)
It is not likely to be possible to determine empirically what isotope has the lowest beta-decay energy. Low-energy betas will be extremely difficult to detect, because they will not tend to escape the source, and their signals will be hard to distinguish from noise in a detector.-- (talk) 04:00, 18 May 2012 (UTC)

Oxidation state -3[edit]

List of oxidation states of the elements has -3 state, but during GA review, Stone couldn't find proper references for that. Thus for now I have removed -3 and -2 oxidation states from the article to avoid confusion. Materialscientist (talk) 23:26, 23 June 2009 (UTC)

I removed the reference to Re having the most known oxidation states of any element, as currently only 9 are listed here, while Osmium has eleven according to its article. The Os article even lists the most commonly known compound for Os in each oxidation state; something like that probably should be done here as well, especially for the rarer oxidation states. Stonemason89 (talk) 19:12, 15 September 2009 (UTC)
FYI: Greenwood and Earnshaw list [Re(CO)
as an example of oxidation state -3. (2nd edition page 1046). Christian75 09:47, 10 June 2011 (UTC)


what is the solubility of rhenium? please answer me back (talk) 09:48, 22 July 2010 (UTC)

In water it is insoluble. --Stone (talk) 15:11, 22 July 2010 (UTC)

File:Rhenium single crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg to appear as POTD soon[edit]

Hello! This is a note to let the editors of this article know that File:Rhenium single crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg will be appearing as picture of the day on May 18, 2012. You can view and edit the POTD blurb at Template:POTD/2012-05-18. If this article needs any attention or maintenance, it would be preferable if that could be done before its appearance on the Main Page so Wikipedia doesn't look bad. :) Thanks! howcheng {chat} 16:53, 17 May 2012 (UTC)

Picture of the day

A single crystal of rhenium made by the floating zone process (left), an ebeam remelted rhenium bar (center), as well as a 1 cm3 cube. Rhenium is a silvery-white, heavy transition metal that is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust. It was the last stable element to be discovered and is named after the river Rhine in Europe.

Photo: Alchemist-hp
ArchiveMore featured pictures...

Superconducting transition temperature[edit]

The article gives the Tc of rhenium as 2.4 K, with a 1952 measurement of rhenium powder (Physical Review 88 (2): 309–311) that supports this value. However, later papers measuring bulk rhenium metal all (at least all I've read) show Tc close to 1.7 K. A later article (Physical Review 94 (5): 1390-1391) gives the value as 1.699 K and ascribes the discrepancy to the previous paper's use of powdered rhenium. The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics gives the Tc as (1.697 ± 0.006) K. In light of the fact that most readers will expect the reported Tc as that of the bulk material, should this reported value (and the corresponding reference) be changed? Lambda(T) (talk) 21:20, 15 October 2012 (UTC)

Agree and changed. Physics aside, we should follow secondary sources (CRC) in such disagreements. Materialscientist (talk) 07:37, 16 October 2012 (UTC)


The prose sometimes gets somewhat choppy and disjointed (e.g. Compounds section). I want links between the various things being discussed! Double sharp (talk) 15:07, 9 July 2013 (UTC)

Did Ogawa discover Re?[edit]

Eric Scerri seems sceptical in A tale of seven elements. Double sharp (talk) 14:35, 13 September 2014 (UTC)

Re stability in an oxygen-containing atmosphere[edit]

text currently reads: "Rhenium has a high melting point and a low vapor pressure similar to tantalum and tungsten. Therefore, rhenium filaments exhibit a higher stability if the filament is operated not in vacuum, but in oxygen-containing atmosphere.[51]"

However, reference 51 says no such thing: in its intro ref 51 says that the vapor pressure of Re oxides is higher than that of tungsten oxides and that therefore Re is superior to W in the presence of refractory oxides. In the current text it also says that one of the reasons that W and Re make good electrical switches is the ready sublimation of their oxides - meaning their surfaces do not end up with thick insulating oxide coatings. So, it seems that Re would exhibit higher stability under vacuum than in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.

Marcelsluiter (talk) 12:28, 4 March 2015 (UTC)

External links modified[edit]

Hello fellow Wikipedians,

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Question? Archived sources still need to be checked

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